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Full text of "Pacific Rural Press (July-Dec. 1895)"

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100327 




AND CALIFORNIA FRUIT BULLETIN. 



INT. 1898. 



Vol. L. No. 1. 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 6, 1895. 



T WENTT-FIFTH YEAR. 

Office, 220 Market Street. 



The Wayside in Mid-Summer. 



We give herewith a few photographic shots at 
wayside scenes in mid-summer. They are not in- 
tended as agricultural exemplars, nor as especially 
representative of California, though they were 
caught by the camera in one of our coast counties, 
no doubt. The amateur photographer is actuated by 
the artistic sense rather than by industrial insight. 
A trim new fence, a well-bred animal, a neatly-built 
bridge, are all shunned by artists as lacking natural 
grace and picturesqueness. That which betokens 
thrift and prosperity is inartistic. We do not quar- 
rel with this view, but we in- 
sist upon recognition of the 
double standard in this mat- 
ter, lest some reader might 
think that we choose these 
pictures as representative of 
California rural scenes, and as 




Co-OPERATiON among producers in defense and pro- 
motion of their own interests is still advancing. A 
berry growers' union has been formed in the Salinas 
valley. Hereafter berries will be shipped to about 
five San Francisco commission houses. By this 
means it is expected to increase the market price of 
the berries. The English walnut growers of Ven- 
tura and Santa Barbara counties are considering a 
proposition to combine and form a union, with the 
object of getting better prices in future for their 
walnuts. This matter was led by Judge J. C. Daly, 
J. S. Collins of Ventura and Judge Heath of Santa 
Barbara. At a recent meeting in Ventura there 

were three di- 
rectors of the 
Los Nietos 
Association of 
Los Angeles 
county pres- 
ent, who re- 
ported the 
benefits of; 
their organ- ■ 
ization. The 
Los Nietos 
Association is | 
several years [ 
old and has I 



Beet sugar production in California this year 
promises to be larger than usual in spite of adver- 
sity in the form of governmental frowns. It is an- 
nounced that the Chino company have 90,000 tons of 
beets under contract, which is nearly double the 
amount worked up in any year under the old bounty 
system. The factory has just received 35,000 sugar 
sacks from the East to be used in the shipment of the 
product of the sugar factory this year. The Cham- 
pion says that probably ten times that number will 
be required for the shipment of the entire product. 
The factory counts on going ahead without the bounty 
by paying growers less for the beets and by paying 
workmen less wages. Those who can see in protec- 
tive or promotive governmental measures only ad- 
vantage to capitalists can take a look at this prop- 
osition. The farmer and the laborer are the parties 
who have to take the force of the blow. If the man- 
ufacturing capitalist cannot push olT the concussion 
on to these bumpers he simply pulls himself out of 
the vicinity. 

By a recent steamer Professor Koebele sent the 
State Board of Horliculture a small number of lady- 
birds of two varieties peculiar to Japan, which, he 
believes, will multiply rapidly in this climate and do 
great good in the citrus and deciduous orchards, 
where the black and white scale and the mealy bug 



exponents of our agriculture, which they are not. 

Passing this point, we are willing to grant that the 
pictures are pretty and expressive of the season 
which is now upon us. Such pictures can be found 
almost anywhere that highways run, and cameras 
are carried over them, and they have artistic ele- 
ments in them which would make fame for any artist 
who could fitly portray them with brush or pencil. 
The smaller scenes will serve as models for our 
younger readers who may like to try their skill with 
crayon or colors. The larger one, with its desolate 
environment and its gleam of dust in the center, will 
try the talent of the greatest artist. It would take 
a master to handle such simple elements so as to 
produce anything like the effect that nature does 
with them, and this effect, if once beheld, would en- 
rapture the appreciative viewer. 

The lesson from these simple scenes, if one is en- 
titled to attempt a lesson in mid-summer, would be 
that those who are now taking outings should not 
be content to be drawn from place to place, from 
breakfast to bedtime, with merely a careless look at 
Nature which surrounds their pathway. Look 
everywhere for beauties, beauties of form, of color, 
of that which suggests sentiment and leads to adora- 
tion. It seems to us that mankind is advancing 
somewhat in this direction. 

Recent fads minister to such advance. The cam- 
era has led people to look at natural scenes with an 
analytical eye which common roamers hardly knew 
before. The bicycle brings thousands away from 
pavements to the charms of the highway borders 
and the distant landscape. It would not be hard to 
make an argument that these modern fads are min- 
isters to human development. 




advanced the 

interests of its 
members very 
materially in 
many ways. 
The producers 
of Santa Bar- 
bara and Ven- 
tura will here- 
after co-oper- 
ate with those 
farther south. 

We expect to have the details of the new organiza- 
tion in a later issue. 



WAYSIDE SCENES IN THE OUTING SEASON. 



Almost any one can get a forcible lesson in the re- 
sult of thinning fruit this year. For great part 
Nature did the thinning with her little frost hatchet, 
and did it not wisely but too well. The lesson is, 
however, very clear. The fruit is growing to enor- 
mous size. We see Royal apricots nearly up to the 
ordinary Moorpark size and Moorparks as large as 
peaches. Other naturally scant fruits are gaining 
size proportionally. Then to see how the trees are 
growing this year. Freed from overbearing, the 
vigor of the tree is extending its wood system won- 
derfully. Of course it is all overdone this year, but 
the fruit grower can easily see how less fruit means 
more tree vigor, and take a hint as to how he can 
secure for himself a good yield of large fruit and for 
his trees a wonderful revival of strength which 
will lay the foundation for longevity. If this lesson 
were learned by every one this year it would be 
worth more than all the fruit which passed in the 
night. 



have been making their depredations. Some of 
these parasites will be ready for distribution in two 
weeks and some of them cannot be given out before 
spring. 

Fruit prices are advancing and buyers for the 
canners are still active. Their operations are re- 
stricting Eastern shipments and will make it easier 
perhaps for the California Growers' and Shippers' 
Association to get the Eastern business into better 
shape. When fruit is scarce and in demand buyers 
and dealers are in better mood, and it will be well 
now to get everything into as good a shape as pos- 
sible for next year's greater shipping business. 

Mr. a. D. Pryal, of North Temescal, brings us a 
sample of a white raspberry which he has originated 
by hybridization. Mr. Pryal has for many years 
given much attention to this art of advanced horti- 
culture, and has originated many varieties which he 
considers of notable value. 



The grasshoppers seem to be doing most harm in 
the upper part of the Santa Rosa valley this week. 



2 



The Pacific Rural Press, 



July 6, 1895. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 

Office, No.m Market St.; Elevator, No. 12 FrorU St., San Francisco, Val 

All aubscrlberB paying 13 In advance will receive 15 months' (one 
year and i:i weeks) credit. For B In advance, 10 momlm. For II in 
advance, five months. 

AAwrti»ing rates made known on appHeation. 

Any subscriber sending an Inquiry on any subject to, 'h^„5,V'ii'' 
PRK»8, with a postage stamp, will receive a reply, either « >™»B'> '"^ 
columns of the paper or by personal letter. The answer will be given 
as promptly as practicable. 

Our latest forms go to press Wednesday eoening. 



Registered at S. F. Postofflce as second-class mall matter. 



ALFRED HOLMAN Editor. 

K. J. WICKSON Special Contributor. 



San Francisco, July 6, 1895. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



ILLUSTRATIONS.— Wayside Scenes iu the Outing Season, 1. 

EDITORIALS.— The Wayside in Midsummer; Co operation Among 
Producers; Thinning Fruil ; Forcible Lesson iu New Ladybirds 
Sent by Prof. Koebele; Fruil Prices Advancing ; Beet Sugar Pro- 
duction 1 The Week; From an Indepeuiienl Standpoint, 2. 

SHEEP AND WOOL.— A V^neran s Idea of Sheep, 4. 

HORTICULTURE.— Disease of the English Walnut, 4. 

FRUIT MARKETING —Out looU for Dried Fruit iu 181)5, 5. 

THE FIELD —Danger in Sorghum; California Tobacco Growing, 5. 
Steady Farming; Why Prison Grain Hags Are High, 6. 

THE DAIRY.— A Rational Review of Tuberculosis, 6. Keeping 
Milk by Pasteurization; How lo Make a Concrete Floor, 7. 

THE STOCK YARD— The Future of the San Joaquin on an Alfalfa 
Basis, 7. Home Cured Meats, 8. , . _ 

THE IRRIGATOR.— How Much Water Is Needed ? Irrigation Con- 

S TQ S S a 

PATRONS OP HUSBANDRY.— Observations by Mr. Ohleyer; 

The Programme, 1). 
THE HOME CIRCLE.— Orient Bound; A Model Child; Dolph's 

Prize; Repose of Manner; Fashion Notes, 10. Gems of Thought; 

Popular Science; The Terrible Mouse; The Kind of a Woman to 

Know; What Keeps Women Young; Tribute to a Mother; Humor- 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY — Hints to Housekeepers; Kitchen Lore, 11. 
MARKETS.— 13. , ^ 

MISCELLANEOUS —Sorghum Syrup; Gleanings, 3. Weather and 
Crops; Sowing Sorghum. 4. Some Vestigial Structures in Man; 
A New "Natural " Method of Wood-Preserving; The Railroad 
Kidney, 12. Coast Industrial Notes; Au Automatic Typesetter, 14. 



BUSINESS AHHOUHCEMENTS. 

(.Vf «' this issue.) 

Schuttler Wagons— Ueere Implement Co 

Cabled Fence— DeKalb Fence Co., DeKalb, 111. . . . 



Faoe. 
. 16 
13 



The Week. 



Mr. Rice, a fruit grower near Pan- 

l.ulzette I o ^ 

ama, Kern county, says he is 
Apricot. ^^^^ pleased with the Luizette 
apricot, which is larger and handsomer than the 
Royal and its equal in all other respects. The 
Luizette is a French variety, not widely known in 
this State, though it was introduced a number of 
years ago. We would like the experience of other 
growers with it. 



Carbonic Acid 
Again. 



As we have frequent inquiries as 
to what has become of the car- 
bonic acid process of fruit keeping 
during shipment we state that President Wooster, 
of the San Jose Board of Trade, recently said to an 
interviewer that the carbonic acid system of trans- 
porting fresh fruit is covered by a patent held by Mr. 
Hayford of San Jose, to keep a car of fruit during 
transit. Mr. Wooster sent one experimental car 
last year to Chicago. He says the car was out 
eleven days and was for three days in the Chicago 
freight yards without ice or a renewed supply of gas. 
During this time it jolted around in switching, and 
yet when the fruit went to the block at the fruit auc- 
tions with carloads of fruit shipped in ice at six times 
the cost it brought the highest price. In shipping 
fruit under this patent cylinders full of gas are 
placed at either end of the car, and a jet of gas is 
constantly playing over the fruit. It is intended to 
test the process on a large scale this season. 

Fruit for Flve carloads of peaches and pears 
will start for London by land this 
week, in the hands of the Cali- 
fornia Fruit Transportation Company. It will be 
the first export shipment of the season, and will be 
followed by other shipments in the near future. At 
New York the fruit will be transferred from the 
refrigerator cars to the American line steamer 
Paris. The efforts of the California Fruit Trans- 
portation Company during the last two years to 
establish a market for California fresh fruits in Lon- 
don proved a failure, but the company claims the 
advantage of a better organized service this year, 
and expects a good demand for all the California 
fruit which is shipped abroad. 



Orange 
Crop. 



Reports from the south speak of 
the close of the orange harvest for 
1895. By the middle of July the 
shipment will have practically ceased. Half of the 
orange exchanges closed with the end of last week. 
One dispatch says that since February 1st over 5400 
carloads of fruit have been marketed by the ex- 
changes; of these 90 per cent have been oranges. 
For the first time there has been practically no call 
at any price for seedling and Mediterranean Sweet 



oranges and of these varieties over 1000 carloads re- 
main unpicked. The demand for navel oranges has 
been greater than the supply and at very profitable 
prices. A year ago the Orange Growers' Exchanges 
in southern California marketed about 3000 carloads 
of fruit and there was then a particularly good de- 
mand for seedling and Mediterranean Sweet or- 
anges. It has been estimated that the orange crop 
for this year has brought about $l,cS.")0,000 to grow- 
ers. Another account says that the railway com- 
panies will receive about $1,700,000 for transporta- 
tion. Perhaps we ought not to complain if the 
freight is not half of the gross returns. Sometimes 
it is lots more. We shall probably soon have the 
full statistical report of the year's work in oranges, 
which will be widely interesting. 

, There has been much done during 

Union •= 

the last week in ascertaining the 
uc ons. ^.jj growers and shippers 

with reference to the sale of California fruit in East- 
ern cities in the open auction rooms. In our last 
issue we gave the strong voice of the Sacramento 
river growers in favor of one auction room free to all 
who can pay for what they buy. Since then good 
meetings have been held in San Jose, Suisun, Vaca- 
ville, Penryn and other points, in all of which 
harmony of spmpathy and unanimity of declaration 
prevailed. Strong statements of fact and belief were 
adopted at all the meetings to this effect : 

Whekeas, We learn that the National Pruit Asstxiiation, 
Sgobel & Day, New York agents, and the California Green 
and Dried Fruit Company, P. Kuhlman & Co., New York 
agents, have established a rival auction salesroom in New 
York against the expressed wishes and the earnest protest 
of the growers; and. 

Whereas, The continuance of sut-h rival auction salesrooms 
defeats the object of the growers of bringing all the bidders 
under one roof, so that the growers may enjoy the fullest 
benefit of free and full competition among Eastern buyers and 
largely forces the fruit into competition with itself, thereby 
perpetuating past evils ; be it therefore 

Hesolvetl, That we, the growers of San Jose, Santa Clara 
and vicinity, assembled in mass meeting, do hereby pledge 
ourselves to withhold our support and refuse to consign our 
fruits to any shipper, receiver or auctioneer unless he agrees 
to sell our fruits in the union auction salesrooms approved by 
Fruit Growers and Shippers' Association. 

Rettiilvcit, That we call ufwn all fruit growers elsewhere to 
stand by the pledge taken at the November Slate Conven- 
tion, and to lend their fullest support to the California Fruit 
Growers' and Shippers' Association, and to support the union 
salesrooms only. 

The point for which the growers and shippers 
associated with them are striving for is that the 
fruit should not be made to compete with itself for 
the benefit of the buyers, but that the buyers should 
compete for the benefit of the fruit. This can only 
be done by open auction at one point, and if the 
growers stand together the buyers will come to it 
all right if they want the fruit. It is no effort to 
corner supply or fix price. The growers simply want 
no interference with the fruit bringing what it is 
worth. 

There may be a sign of better 
times in the zeal with which people 
are taking hold of July Fourth 
celebrations this year. There is evidently more in- 
terest in public demonstration and more money put 
forth for it than for several years back. Last year 
you couldn't wake up the patriotic glow with a whole 
battery; this year it Hashes at the sound of a fire- 
cracker. Evidently people feel better, and it is time 
they did so. All the projihets agree that before 
another Fourth of July dawns we sliall be up to the 
ears in the joyful reaction from the recent financial 
unpleasantness. It is quite proper, then, that we 
should celebrate. It is sometimes justifiable to 
whistle before you get out of the woods, if you can 
clearly see your way out. We hail, then, in the spirit 
which actuates them, all the celebrations which our 
thriving towns have planned. The American eagle 
will have a full feeling under its wishbone this year, 
sure. A full line of orators and poets is preparing 
patriotic pellets for the regalement of this noble 
bird next Thursday. The Rural proposes to do its 
full duty in the observance of the glorious day, and 
to that end this week's paper will reach you a day 
earlier than usual. 



.Inly 



The Koad 



KxpertH. 



Marsden Mansen, J. L. Maude and 
R. C. Irvine, members of the State 
Bureau of Highways, are still on 
their travels. On Tuesday they were in Sonoma 
county, and this week they also are due in San 
Mateo county. They are consulting with supervisors 
and other county officials about the highways. On 
their visits the commissioners undertake to ascer- 
tain the number of miles of road maintained in the 
county and the cost of the same, what the roads of 
the county have cost during the past ten years, and 
to obtain such suggestions and to give such as may 
result in good for the cause of good roads in the 
State of California. No doubt many will be sur- 
prised when the report of the commission shows ere 
long what a vast sum our bad roads have cost and 
how little they are worth. We shall also be told how 
to get good roads for less money, it is a grand 
enterprise. 



From an Independent Standpoint. 

The latest information respecting the Nicaraguan 
canal is to the effect that some time during the com- 
ing winter an international convention will be held 
at Washington to " fix the status " of the projected 
work. It is now a well settled belief at Washington 
that the canal will be constructed under the auspices 
of the United States Government; but Messrs. Cleve- 
land and Olney, so it is said, hold that the " diplo- 
matic questions surrounding the enterprise " should 
be cleared up before there shall be any declaration of 
national policy. Their idea is that the other maritime 
powers of the world will not consent that the work 
shall be wholly American but will want assurance 
of the absolute and permanent neutrality of the 
canal when it shall be built. Messrs. Cleveland and 
Olney have, therefore, determined to call the nations 
of the earth together and to humbly ask their per-, 
mission to construct the canal; and will consent to 
such conditions as their pleasure or interest may 
suggest. This proposition does not accord well with 
the Fourth-of-July sentiments. The popular notion 
has been that the Nicaraguan canal should be built 
by the United States for the United States; and that 
the only sanctions needed in the case were those of 
our own judgment and the consent and approval of 
the republic of Nicaragua. It has remained for Mr. 
Cleveland and his Secretary-of-State to discover that 
this is not purely an affair of our own; and that we 
must seek the permission of other nations before 
undertaking a great national work, and that we must 
consent, in advance even of the asking, that they 
shall be full sharers in the commercial and military 
advantages of such work. 



The popular or national conception of the Nicara- 
guan canal is that of a great work to be executed, 
owned and administered by the people of the United 
States in their sovereign character — a facility of 
legitimate advantage to American commerce, and an 
engine of supreme value in its military adaptations. 
In the hopes of the multitude it has appeared a proj- 
ect calculated to emphasize the authority and to 
proclaim the power of the sovereign people — at 
home a bulwark of defense against corporate 
tyranny; abroad a very tower of military and naval 
strength. In this large view it has stirred the 
national imagination, and the thought of it has set 
to beating the drums of patriotic sentiment in tens 
of thousands of American hearts. Upon this state 
of popular feeling the proposition of the Adminis- 
tration to submit the canal project to foreign dicta- 
tion comes like a dash of cold water. The sentiment 
of the country — and its judgment as well — will re- 
ject it as unnecessary and unpatriotic. Having 
obtained the sanction of Nicaragua, we have no 
more need to ask the views of the miscellaneous na- 
tions of the earth, or to submit to their interests, 
than we should have with reference to a proposition 
to dredge the Sacramento river. It is our business 
and none of theirs; and we shall go far out of our 
way in asking their advice or in submitting to their 
demands. 

Not even in this matter do we lose sight of 
Mr. Cleveland's manifest good purpose, but it is 
very clear that he is being used by the interests 
naturally opposed to the canal project. The capital 
invested in railroads is opposed to the canal — 
first, because it will be a powerful competitor in 
the carrying business; second, because its execution 
and administration as a national work would go far 
toward establishing the principle of public owner- 
ship of public utilities. The first effort of the large 
capitalistic interests which center at New York and 
Boston was to defeat the project absolutely. That 
failing, they undertook to so complicate its ownership 
and management as to make it essentially a private 
rather than a public enterprise, subject to condi- 
tions and liable to the confusions common to other 
factors in transportation. Since it is now clearly 
evident that the people will not have it so, this new 
scare of "diplomatic liabilities " has been trumped 
up; and Mr. Cleveland, going, as is his habit, to the 
centers of capitalistic interest for his inspirations, 
has fallen into the trap. Nevertheless we do not 
believe the projected convention will be called, for 



July 6, 1895. 



The Pacific Rural Press 



s 



the country will not allow a proceeding so unneces- 
sary and so humiliating to the national spirit. 

The effort to make the Stanford estate liable for 
a share of the debt of the Central Pacific Railroad to 
the United States has practically failed. On Saturday 
last, U. S. Judge Ross sustained Mrs. Stanford's de- 
murrer to the Government's plea; and while this does 
not formally end the case, it is understood that nothing 
more will be done about it. The suit grew out of 
facts so familiar that it is only necessary to refer to 
them in the broadest outline. Stanford, Huntington, 
Hopkins and Crocker organized the Central Pacific 
Co., and got the Government to give its endorsement 
to a large issue of bonds from the proceeds of which 
they built the road. It directly became a large 
earner of money; but instead of putting aside some 
of it to pay the debt when it came due, Messrs. 
Stanford, Huntington, Hopkins and Crocker 
applied all they could lay hands on to 
their personal uses. In course of time, the 
Central Pacific became bankrupt, but its builders 
and managers had contrived to amass among them 
prii-atc property close upon two hundred millions of 
dollars. Of the four, Huntington alone is living and 
is reputed to be worth fifty millions. The other 
three died prodigiously rich. The estates of Hop- 
kins and Crocker were long ago divided among 
heirs and the estate of Stanford is now in the courts 
for settlement. The bonds for which the Govern- 
ment stands pledged as security are about to come 
due and since there has been no provision made for 
their payment and since the Central Pacific Co. is 
bankrupt, the Government will soon be called upon 
to pay. In this situation the agents of the Govern- 
ment undertook to prevent the dissipation of the 
Stanford estate on the plea that in equity Mr. Stan- 
ford was liable for his share of the debt. Mrs. 
Stanford, as executor of the estate, demurred to the 
Government's plea and the Court has just decided in 
her favor. There has been little doubt that this 
would be the outcome of the matter. The "big 
four " were as crafty as they were dishonest, and so 
complicated every movement in their career of 
plunder that it is practically impossible to 
fix a legal responsibility upon them. But, 
while the case has come to nothing, it has had the 
effect to expose widely the methods by which the 
Stanford millions were acquired. The public has 
been made to comprehend the truth that there never 
was a more infamous conspiracy than that by which 
the railroad millionaires acquired their fortunes. 
An interesting fact in connection with the case just 
decided is its effect upon the Stanford University at 
Palo Alto. The " tying up " of the estate left the 
University almost without funds. By hook and by 
crook, at immense personal sacrifice, Mrs. Stanford 
has kept it going; but it was recently announced ; 
that her resources were about exhausted. Under ] 
Judge Ross' decision, it is believed that the ample 
funds of the estate will soon be released and made 
available for University purposes under the direc- 
tions of Mr. Stanford's will. There is a measure of 
satisfaction in the reflection that so much wealth — 
even though it were acquired in illegitimate ways — 
is to be used for so good a purpose. 



There has just been put on its feet at Los Gatos a 
movement which should have its counterpart in 
every village and closely-settled district in Califor- 
nia. It is called "The Local Improvement Club " 
and its purpose is to promote the beautification and 
sanitation of the village. It looks to the creation of 
one or more parks, to the abolition of fences, to the 
improvement of styles in domestic architecture, to 
the planting of trees, to the cleanliness of the 
streets, and to a score or more projects similar in 
kind. It is rightly believed that in such matters a 
little attention in the co-operative spirit will accom- 
plish much at very small cost in money. There is not 
a neighborhood in any of the more thickly populated 
parts of California which would not be benefited by 
such an organization. Every country road might 
be made beautiful and attractive, and every dwelling 
might be beautifully surrounded and shaded if a little 
intelligence and care were given to the matter. It 
is very largely through such efforts that the counties 
of Los Angeles and Riverside have gained their 
world-wide fame as beauty spots. 



Gleanings. 



At Colusa Mr. George Hall has recently moved a number of 
17-year-old orange threes with entire success. 

It is impossible to keep track of the new creameries. They 
are being established all over the State and are driving old- 
fashioned " dairy " butter out of the markets. 

Sacramento Bee : The menace to white labor by the Chinese 
was never any greater than is the danger now from the 
Japanese. As reducers of wages the Chinese are not to be 
mentioned in the same breath with their island conquerors. 

Dixon Tribune: Some of our farmers are of the opinion that 
the joint worm has done more damage to the wheat crop than 
the north wind. It is certain that there would not have been 
even an average crop if there had been no north wind, as a 
large number of the heads in every field of summer-fallowed 
grain were entirely empty. It is possible that this was the 
work of the worm. 

Tremont (Solano Co. ) letter: The general opinion among 
our farmers is that the short crop was caused by something 
else besides the north wind. It is thought that the early 
rains of last fall had considerable to do with it, as it started 
the early-sown grain to growing and the drouth following had 
the effect of killing off a portion of it. Even while grain was 
sowed after the rain we note the same trouble, but this is 
attributed to the fact that the ground was in such a moist 
condition that it sprouted the grain, and no rain following 
within a reasonable time, the tender sprouts died out. We 
do not like to be too hard on the north wind, as it does not do 
so much damage as people imagine. 

EscoNDiDO Adxmrate : The honey crop in this locality is re- 
ported this season as much below that of ordinary years. 
This is owing to the fact that many of the bees died last year 
from lack of food and to the long continued cold spell. In some 
instances, however, individual bee men have done well, as is 
the case with Mr. Stauffer, who lives two and a half miles 
south of Escondido. His crop this season will amount to about 
ten tons, while his neighbor's crop will fall far short of pre- 
vious yields. Mr. Stauffer attributes his success to the fact 
that he fed those of his colonies that were short of feed dur- 
ing the winter, and that every colony was strong and healthy 
and went to work early in the season. 

A VERY timely and interesting contribution to the literature 
of the California fruit industry has just been made by Mr. 
W. C. Anderson of San Jose, a well known fruit grower and 
manufacturer of horticultural supplies. It is in the form of a 
pamphlet, entitled the " Whi/s and Whereforex nf Prune 
ruruio,'' and di.scusses the matter very fully and clearly. 
Mr. Anderson is the manufacturer of the prune dipper which 
bears his name, and he frankly admits that one of his objects 
in discussing curing methods is the advertisement of his busi- 
ness. The pamphlet, which is full of interest to every prune 
grower, will be sent free to all who will write for it to W. C. 
Anderson, 44.1 West Santa Clara street, San Jose. 

Willows Journal: As for the boys and girls in the fruit- 
growing neighborhoods, their trouble is that they are not 
taught to work. Few Western-born people have ever been 
taught to work persistently and steadily all day long, year in 
and year out. They can work by fits and spurts, work killing 
hard for a week or two and lay up for repairs for a month, but 
to work reasonably and faithfully ten hours a day and all the 
days in the season — no one can do that who has not been 
trained to do it, and, for the most part, .voung people outside 
of factory districts are not trained in the habits of persistent 
industry. But employers should be patient with these young 
people. They are the stuff our nation is to be made of, and 
whoever loves his country and honors his flag will do his utter- 
most to help our boys and girls to be useful men and women. 

Gonzales Tci/^Hiir : Ben Gould of Hollister has completed 
negotiations for the purchase of the Old Mission ranch near 
Soledad. The deal was consummated this week by Mr. 
Gould, who represents a syndicate interested in Monterey 
county lands. The syndicate intends to go into the land 
business on a large scale, and it is more than probable that 
before many more months have elapsed it vrill revolutionize 
the land business in this valle.y. First of all the syndicate 
will tap the Salinas river about a mile above Soledad and 
ditch the water into the natural lake at the Mission, put in a 
$10,000 pump with a capacity of .5.5,000 gallons per minute, di- 
vide the land into small tracts, which will be placed upon the 
market, and then irrigate the entire amount at $1..50 per acre. 
The work will be commenced as soon as the present crop is 
harvested, and by next year the ideas of the syndicate will 
probably be in force. The amount of water kept on hand will 
be sufficient to supply the consumer with almost any quantity 
and at any time. 

The San Jose Mercurtj of Sunday last quotes Col. Philo Ker- 
sey as follows : "In regard to sales of green fruit informa- 
tion comes to me that there are quite a number of buyers in 
the valley who are looking for apricots, peaches and pears. 
The cherries are about all gone. From $30 to $35 is being paid 
for apricots for canning purposes, the price varying with the 
size and quality. I have heard that from $35 to $30 per ton 
has been paid for a good quality of Bartlett pears. This crop 
is light, and in some localities there is complaint of some kind 
of smut or mould on the fruit. There have been some sales 
of pears at the prices I have quoted. There has been some 
call for peaches, but as yet no price has been fixed upon them. 
Buyers, however, I understand, have offered $20 a ton for 
them, but no important sales, if any at all, have yet been 
made in the valley. The yield of peaches will be excellent in 
quality, but not as large as the growers had reason to expect 
from indications earlier in the season. In the past month 
there has been an extensive dropping of both early and late 
varieties of peaches. The clingstones, and especially the 
lemon clings, a valuable variety for canning purposes, have 
dropped seriously, the fruit falling being large in size, in some 
instances nearly full size. There is no way of accounting for 
this condition of affairs both as regards peaches and pears. 
Some believe that it is on account of the excessive moisture 
during the past season. Neither growers nor buyers as yet 
speak with confidence as to what prices may be asked or 
or offered on different grades of peaches. For green prunes 
from $25 to $30 has been offered, but only two sales at these 
prices have been reported, and the lots that have been sold 
are very small. The legitimate buyer does not as yet know 
what he can afford to pay for the product, and the grower is 
still in the dark as to what he can afford to take. The market 



price for apricots for 1895 has also not yet been fixed. It is 
thought from the general outlook, and from the very great 
shortage in most if not all localities, that the prices will be 
fair and the market reasonably active. For the new crop of 
dried apricots 8 cents per pound is being offered for choice 
goods. The prices that are now being paid for canning pur- 
poses, however, will not warrant a sale for 8 cents if they can 
be disposed of for canning purposes, as in order to meet the 
canners' price of $30 to $35 per ton from 10 to 11 cents should 
be secured for the dried product. It is now generally con- 
ceded that the dried product will not vary much from one- 
fourth of what it was last season. Those who are it a situa- 
tion to know best place the output at 300 carloads, as compared 
with 1200 for last year. The prices quoted upon green fruit 
always means for the fruit in boxes delivered at the nearest 
railway shipping point." 

The Winters E.rpress thus contrasts fruit and grain farm- 
ing: Last week we mentioned the fact of a combined har- 
vester at work on the "West Side" in San Joaquin county 
that harvested and put in the sack 100 acres of wheat each 
day, with a crew of six men. This is rapid work and would 
enable a man to operate a great many acres in one farm. But 
is this what the country needs* Is it of more benefit for one 
man to own and operate a large tract, or for more men to own 
and work small farms? We will not discuss the merits or de- 
merits of the question just now, but, rather, will draw a com- 
parison and leave our readers to judge the case. Last Mon- 
day we drove out to the Sackett Brothers fruit farm on Putah 
creek, five miles west of Winters. These gentlemen own 
two hundred acres of land between them, 125 to 1.50 of which 
is bearing. They have a great variety of fruit, and this sea- 
son, up to Wednesday morning, have shipped east exclusively. 
On Monday they had 102 hands employed, (mostly women and 
girls), in picking, packing and hauling the fruit to the station 
here. They put up 1.300 packages of fruit a day, and paid out 
to their employees for their services alone $1T5 a day. Their 
total outlay each day for wages, box lumber, freight, commis- 
sions, etc., footed up close to $700. 

The strawberry growers of the Pajaro valley have gone into 
a combine for the protection of mutual interests. The pur- 
poses of this movement have been well set forth by Mr. Bar- 
bieri, who, addressing his fellow growers at their meeting 
last week, declared that at the present time the Pajaro valley 
supplied three-fourths of the berries shipped into San Fran- 
cisco, and in a week or two the amount would reach four- 
fifths. A few yoars ago this time the daily strawberry re- 
ceipts amounted to 1.300 chests and they sold at an average of 
$6 per chest. Now the daily receipts are about 700 chests and 
the price realized was about $2.50 per chest. Therefore, in 
his opinion, the low price realized was not a result of over- 
supply, but was simply caused by a lack of unity on the part of 
the growers and commi-ssion men in placing themselves at the 
mercy of the street peddlers and canners. He strongly ad- 
vocated the union of the berry growers and the selection of a 
limited number of commission men to handle the fruit. This 
proposition carried, and hereafter Pajaro berries will onl.v be 
handled by seven houses in the city. By this means, it is 
hoped to fix the price from day to day. 

San Jose 3/erc»/|/ : A memorial will be presented to the 
coming Congress setting forth the evil consequences of un- 
restricted Japanese immigration to the United States and 
urging the enactment of an exclusion law that will make it 
impossible for orchardists, vineyardists and other employers 
of labor to import Japanese coolies for the purpose of working 
under contract, to the exclusion of white labor. The inquiry 
recently made by Labor Commissioner Fitzgerald covered only 
a small part of the State— the sections contiguous to Pleasan- 
ton and Vacaville. But it was ample to bring out the un- 
pleasant fact that there are many horticulturists, grape 
growers and farmers in California who uniformly employ 
Japanese and Chinese in their orchards, vineyards and fields 
in preference to white men; that there are bureaus in Japan 
which are engaged in supplying labor for this State ; that 
there are Japanese contractors here whose business it is to 
import coolies, from whose labor they make a big profit; and, 
in short, that the system of contracting for and importing 
coolie labor is in perfect running order, there being a secret 
understanding between the fruit grower, the contractor and 
the bureau in Japan. This is a bad state of affairs. It is the 
Chinese question over again. 



Sorghum Syrup. 



To THE Editor: — Where and to what extent has sorghum 
for syrup been raised in the State ? With what success ? Is 
the syrup as good in quality as that raised in the East ? 
What market price will good syrup bring '. 

Fresno, June 26th. C. Jorgensen. 

[Sorghum syrup has been made successfully in this 
State. There is no trouble whatever about making 
a sea full of it; and if it is well evaporated and defe- 
cated, it is just as fine as sorghum syrup can be. 
This has been shown by experience. The trouble 
with the business is that there is no market for the 
syrup except such as the maker can himself develop 
in the country or in interior towns. San Francisco 
does not want a barrel of it. Diligent effort two 
years ago failed to find any market for the syrup 
here. There is too much cane-sugar syrup, grape 
syrup and glucose syrup which consumers prefer be- 
cause of its blander flavor. The only money made 
out of sorghum syrup so far has been done in a small 
way, where the makers have peddled the syrup on 
farms or camps out of their wagons or sold through 
country storekeepers. There is no quotable price. 
We have heard of sales in the country from 50 to 75 
cents per gallon. 

From present indications the sorghum-syrup busi- 
ness seems to be worth attention on a small scale for 
home sweetening and for sale at interior points 
where the demand is assured, but beyond this there 
does not seem to be anything in it at present.] 



4 



The Pacific Rural Press 



July 6, 1895. 



Weather and Crops. 



Report for the Week by the Director of the State Weather 
Service. 

Director Barwick of the Weekly Weather and Crop 
Service summarizes as follows; 

Harvesting is being carried on all over the State, 
and the reports are very variable, some ranchers re- 
porting good crops, others fair, while again some 
report their crops as the poorest in years. 

The cool weather has had a tendency to keep fruit 
from ripening very fast. The percentage going East 
is the smallest since this State began growing fruit 
for export. 

Sacramento Valley. 

Tehama (Red Bluff)— The weather fine for harvesting and 
fruit drying. Early peaches and prunes are coming in. 

Bi TTE'iChico)— The fruit crop is pretty good. There is a full 
crop of peaches ; the nut trees are well filled and the prune 
crop is heavier than many thought it would be. (Palermo)— 
Prunes and oranges are dropping badly and a small crop is ex- 
pected. (Honcut)— Fruits are not up to the standard. 

Gi.ENN— Wheat light and lots of it shrunken badly; fruit 
ripening slowly and is not of good quality. 

SuTTEK ( Yuba City)— The fig crop promises to be a large 
crop and is now ripening. 

YriiA— The apricot crop has been marketed, the result 
showing not one-lifth of an ordinary crop. The peach crop 
seems to grow less as estimators give their opinions. Grapes 
and plums show well and promise a fair crop. Wheat is not 
turning out even as much as was expected and considerable of 
that is shrunken. 

Sacramento (Folsom)— The hot spell has cau.sed fruit to 
ripen rapidl.v. (Sacramento)— Shipments of fruit East are not 
heavy at the present time, as the fruit is coming along 
slowly on account of the cool weather which has prevailed for 
the week past. Fruits of all kinds need warmer weather. 
(Clay) — Summer-fallowed vrheat sown in October is very 
badly sunburned, while that shown in November shows no 
shrinkage at all. The yield is very poor to the acreage sown. 
(Union House)— Grain is not turning out as well as expected ; 
the barle.v has considerable smut. 

Yoi,o (VVinters) — Crop roports are more discouraging every 
day. Wheat and barley are falling short fully one-half in 
some localities, while entire fields will .scarcely pay the ex- 
pense of harvesting. On the adobe lands, however, the 
loss from shattering is trifling. 

Solano— The wheat crop is turning out only about half a 
crop in Rio Vista district, and the grain is very poor at that. 
% Sonoma ^'alley. 

Sonoma (Forestville)— The early peaches are rii)ening and 
the crop is light. (Petaluma)— The grasshoppers are very 
destructive in this vicinity just at the present time. 

Santa Clara Valley. 

Santa Clara (Cupertino)— The fruit driers in this district 
are somewhat bothered with the (Jia'jnir/ica lUimtrcrm putictaln. 
Both fruit and vegetables are being destroyed by this worm. 
(Campbell)— The fearful dropping of apricots has brought that 
variet.v of fruit well up in price, and peaches are now dropping 
quite badly. The crop of prunes will not if at all exceed that 
of last year. In fact many of the orchards the crop will be 
lighter, and the young trees which did not bear last .vear are 
not bearing any this year. Apricot picking will begin next 
week. 

San Joaquin Valley. 

San Joaqcin (Lodi)— Barley harvest about ended ; crop light 
and quality fair; wheat harvest begun but the grain shows a 
shrunken condition; all crops doing well. 

Merced (IjOS Banos)— The wheat crop west of the Fresno 
slough is the best known in the history of this county. The 
damage done by smut or rust or both is confined to certain 
districts or localities. Eveninthe.se the volunteer crop and 
the early sown grain has done well, while the late sown 
was absolutely destroyed by rust. In -some localities the rust 
did not effect the late sown grain. 

Fresno— An early grape crop is now certain, and the crop 
will be heavy. Highest and lowest temperatures, 10!t and .56. 

TiTLARE (Tulare)— The grain yield is good beyond expecta- 
tions. 

Kern (Bakersfield)— All crops except fruits are abundant, 
and the raisin grape promises to be large and fine. 

.Southern California. 

Los Angeles (Los Angeles) — Damp, cloudy nights and clear 
days, with the daily average temperatures below the normal, 
have greatly benefitted the root crop; warmer weather is 
needed to ripen fruit more rapidly. (Pomona) — Apricot dry- 
ing is progressing under difficulties, owing to the damp atid 
foggy nights. Bees are not making much honey, as the 
weather seems to be unfavorable for flowers. 

San Dieoo (Pall brook)— Apricot picking and drying will be- 
gin in a few days. (San PasquaD— Apricot drying begun and 
the crop is a good one. (Valley Center)— The"prune crop will 
be extra good this season. (San Marcos)— The oat crop is not 
turning out so well as was expected. The bee owners report 
a heavy crop of honey. 

CoaHt Counties. 

San Benito— The grain crop promises a heavy yield. 

MoNTERET (San Lucas)— The grain in the Oa.sis' district was 
never better than now ; heading has commenced. 

San Li is Onispo (Cambria) -Grasshoppers are doing con- 
siderable damage in different lo<5alities. In Green V^alley 
they have entirely destroyed the late grain. The bean rais- 
ers are very much alarmed lest the grasshoppers eat up the 
beans. 

Foothill and Mountain CountieR. 

MoDoc (Adin)— Grasshoppers arc numerous on Butte creek; 
they are very small yet but large enough to damage grain. 

Placer (Kocklin)— Plums and pears will be a light crop. 
Among the vineyards there are fewer gnats or vine hoppers 
than have been seen for years, and therefore the outlook for 
the grape crop is very good. Highest and lowest tempera- 
tures, 100° and 82°. 



Sowing Sorghum. 



As it is still early enough to get a good crop of 
sorghum on moist or irrigated land, we give an ac- ! 
count of sowing methods employed by an Eastern 
grower which may be interesting to compare with 
methods used here: 

There is really no need of a wheat drill to sow 
sorghum seed for a forage crop, as broadcasting 
will answer just as well. The best crop I have 
grown was drilled in at the rate bf one bushel of 
seed to the acre, using all the hoes. This was very 
satisfactory, as growing closely all over the land it 
shaded it so that no weeds grew. 

Last year I tried using half the quantity of seed 



and stopped every other drill hoe, making the rows 
sixteen inches apart, and it was not nearly so satis- 
factory, as weeds grew between the rows and the 
stalks were large and coarse, so as to be hard to 
handle. When sown thickly the canes were from 
the size of a pencil to that of my finger, and when 
cut and partly cured it could be handled with a four- 
tined fork quite easily. I shall either broadcast or 
drill thickly all I put in this year, and shall try a 
small plot with seed at the rate of two bushels to 
the acrt^, and try curing it for winter feeding. 

The crop I grew in 1893 was sown .June 17th, and 
two months later stood five feet high, and was head- 
ing, and we began feeding from it the 1st of August. 
I see in looking over my former article that I say 
the 1st of September, which is a mistake. I shall 
feed enough of it to hogs this fall to test its value 
for that purpose. I intend also to try both early 
and late sowing, as well as medium, this year; shall 
put in some this week (I write May 9th), and some 
as late as .July, after digging potatoes, as I believe 
that it will mature in my locality when sown the 
middle of July, as we rarely have killing frost until 
well in October. 



SHEEP AND WOOL. 



A Veteran's Idea of Sheep. 

R. M. Bell, the veteran wool grower of Illinois, 
gives a note on recent revolutions in sheep hus- 
bandry in that State, which is interesting and sug- 
gestive: 

The mutton flocks prior to and during the war 
shared in the general wreck. There was not much 
demand for mutton and the millions of valueless 
Merinos supplied, yes, oversupplied all the demand 
for mutton. There came a demand for long, lustrous 
fleeces, and the Cotswold and Leicester sheep 
seemed to be in luck, but this was only temporary. 
The using of these grand breeds for wool growing 
was not sufficient to make them profitable. 

While the Merinos had their ups and downs from 
1870 to 1885, sometimes away up and again away 
down, a suspicion existed that there would never be 
any permanence to wool growing st; in Illinois. 
Men went into the business as a speculation, ready 
to let go at any time if the bottom threatened to 
drop out of the wool market. Nobody had better 
sheep; nobody had better feed; nobody knew better 
how to raise wool; but the cost of producing a 
pound of wool was too great to compete with the 
cheapness of the West. Lands were too high- 
priced; the cost of living was too great; they could 
make money faster in raising corn, and that settled 
the sheep question, for all was for wool. 

The mutton industry in the meantime continued to 
gain in interest, and when the wool no longer gave 
a living to farmers and the National Government 
seemed no longer to afford protection from foreign 
competition, the demand for mutton was equal to 
the supplies and saved the sheep industry from 
utter despondency and ruin. The flocks of British 
herds that had long been established were found to 
be as good as there were in the world, and Illinois 
was as famous for mutton sheep as it had formerly 
been for Merino sheep. 

Merino flocks had years ago cut loose from the 
little, wrinkly, greasy Vermont type, and were 
found to be larger with desirable meat qualities, and 
took up the claim of a mutton and wool sheep. 
Here, then, were English mutton breeds opposed by 
Merino mutton types. And in 1894 and 1895, the 
pivotal period, American sheep husbandry is be- 
lieved to be entering upon what wc may call the 
mutton era. This will prove to be a com))ieted, well- 
rounded, well-balanced sheep husbandry, exactly 
suited to the conditions of a declining fertility, 
which threatens to reduce the rich prairies of our 
State to an equality with the hills of New England 
and the valleys of Virginia. 

If you doubt the correctness of this statement 
compare the yields of grain now obtained with what 
the siunr land produced twenty-five years ago and 
you will be convinced. Along this line are conflict- 
ing views and various plans for preventing the de- 
pletion of soil are hinted at. When Illinois farmers 
shall awake to the dangers of impoverished farms 
and to the importance of sheep in maintaining and 
reclaiming the richness of their soils there will be 
reached an interest in sheep akin to what now exists 
in the older nations of Europe: and that time has 
nearly come. Sheep, as we think, belong to agri- 
culture, and agriculture must have the help of sheep 
or decline. 

Ill inois farmers are giving more and more atten- 
tion each year to feeding sheep for the market. It 
is possible that the great corn bolt, with its center 
where we stand to-day, shall become the great feed- 
ing region where Western sheep, as well as Western 
cattle, shall be furnished for the markets. Some 
farmers with the requisite skill and facilities are 
experimenting with raising early mutton lambs. To 
some this promises large and quick profits. With 



some such incidental sheep enterprises the Illinois 
farmer can convert his crops of grain and forage 
into mutton, market his corn at home, secure valu- 
able manure and not be required to lay down his 
land to pasturage and give his time to breeding the 
sheep he feeds. 



HORTICULTURE. 



Disease of the English Walnut. 

There is a disease of the English walnut which is 
now occasioning growers loss and anxiety. The 
chief outward manifestation is a black spot, gener- 
ally at the apex of the nut, of irregular outline, and 
various in size. Cutting into the substance of the 
immature nut the discoloration is seen to entend in- 
wards generally to the center of the nut, but some- 
times obliquely toward the outside of the hull. The 
nut is destroyed by the disease, and in some cases it 
occurs in such quantity that the crop is materially 
reduced. This trouble was first reported to us from 
Yolo county last year. It also occurs in the walnut 
regions of southern California, and has there re- 
ceived the attention of Newton B. Pierce, the special 
agent of the Department of Agriculture, who has 
been studying plant diseases for several years in 
this State. In a letter which Mr. Pierce writes to 
John Scott, Horticultural Commissioner of Los An- 
geles county, we find the following: 

The disease to which you call attention has not, to 
my knowledge, been thoroughly worked out. It has 
been more or less common in the Santa Ana valley 
for several years. There appears to be two causes 
for the loss of nuts from this trouble, if not three. 

First — There appears to be some organism — fun- 
gus or insect — which is capable of piercing and de- 
stroying the tissues of the nut hull, and perhaps the 
tender twig as well. The mycelium of some fungus 
has been observed by me in the black tissue, but 
thus far not in sufficient quantity to remove all 
doubt about its being the cause of the trouble. No 
spores appear to be present, and, of course, without 
them no determination of the fungus could be made. 
It is still possible, however, that a fungus is the 
prime cause of the local black spots, but that the 
form fruits on some other host. It resembles the 
work of some shot-hole fungus. Still we must not 
lose sight of the fact that an insect or mite piercing 
the rind of the nut might start such a spot — as all 
spots upon the young growth of the walnut will 
turn black owing to the oxidation of the large 
amount of tannic acid in the walnut, e&pecially in 
its 3'oung growth. 

Second — After the rind of the nut husk is pene- 
trated it admits of the entrance of a species of ba- 
cillus common in this country. If the nuts are soft 
and green when it obtains entrance it rapidly multi- 
plies and disorganizes the tissue of the husk or 
shuck, especially next to the forming shell of the nut 
proper. In this way we often see a small exterior 
spot which enlarges as we cut inward, and often 
spreads over a considerable surface of the nut shell, 
turning all black next to the nut. In cases where 
this takes place so early in the season that there are 
still soft spots in the shell of the nut the bacillus de- 
composes the tissue and enters into the meat proper 
of the nut while it is still soft. Here it multiplies to 
immense numbers and decomposes the meat or pulp 
of the nut. Afterwards what remains dries down 
to a black skin within the shell. Pure cultures of 
the bacillus doing this work have been obtained by 
me a year or two since, and inoculations made for 
the purpo.se of reproducing the disease so far as its 
secondary effects are concerned, but probably owing 
to the lateness of the season when the work was 
done, and the consequent hardness of the hull and 
nut, I obtained no conclusive results. It is my hope 
to continue this investigation when the time and op- 
portunity will permit. 

Third — There are soil conditions and those of 
moisture which appear to directly influence the seri- 
ous development of this walnut trouble. It appears 
more common at roadsides and on streaks of light 
or dry soil than where moisture and soil conditions 
are combined for the best growth of foliage and 
wood, and on trees on dry and sandy streaks of light 
or dry soil than where moisture and soil conditions 
are combined for the best growth of foliage and 
wood. Trees on dry, sandy streaks of soil often 
have a large percentage of affected nuts. If the 
first cause — the entering wedge, so to speak — of the 
disease is a fungus, then I would recommend the 
winter spraying of the affected trees with a Bor- 
deaux mixture made of six pounds copper sulphate, 
four pounds quicklime and forty-five gallons of 
water. This spray may be applied three weeks or 
so before the buds open in the sprinir. I would sug- 
gest that one or two of the three affected trees you 
mention be sprayed this coming winter, leaving the 
other for comparison next summer. This line of 
treatment is suggested only as an experiment, for 
thus far I have not treated the matter personally. 



July 6. 1896. 



The Pacific Rural Press. 



FRUIT riARKETINQ. 



Outlook for Dried Fruit in 1895. 



By A. W. Porter at June meeting of the State Horticultural 
Society. 

Growers and dealers can look back to the fruit 
season of 1894 as dragging, unsatisfactory, and, in 
the main, unprofitable. Though prices opened com- 
paratively low, the wage earners of the United 
States had no money to spend for anything but the 
actual necessities of life, among which dried fruits 
can hardly be classed as yet, though, with the low 
prices prevailing and their general introduction, 
they are rapidly becoming such. 

With the enormous yield of most varieties and the 
absolute failure of none, high prices were not ex- 
pected by the growers of this State last year, but 
they had a right to expect that better prices would 
rule than prevailed during a greater part of the 
year. The railway strike at the beginning of the 
season prevented a large quantity from finding a 
market East in a fresh state, and as a consequence 
nothing remained for the producer but to dry his 
fruit, and it seems to most dealers that, commencing 
from last June, they have been drying continuously 
ever since, judging from the amount of the dried 
product placed upon the market. 

This season has opened more auspiciously for all; 
transportation facilities are good, the whole country 
is in a more prosperous condition, wages East are 
being advanced and there is a prospect that the 
laborers of that section, who are our great consum- 
ers of dried fruit, will eat something besides " hog 
and hominy " this year. 

We must not forget, however, that only at reas- 
onable prices can the immense quantity annually pro- 
duced in this State find a market, and if any par- 
ticular line opens at a high figure but a limited 
quantity of that article will be consumed. Prices on 
many varieties that a few years ago were considered 
low would be high to-day, and we must not delude 
ourselves with the thought that because a few years 
since we produced but 300 carloads of apricots and 
they brought a certain price we can market a like 
quantity this year at equal prices. 

Not only is the condition of the buyers entirely 
different fi-om three to four years ago, but we are 
confronted with a carry-over stock of last year's 
goods of an amount which of itself would be consid- 
ered a large quantity to market a comparatively 
few years ago. I speak particularly of apricots, as 
they are known to be an extremely short crop, and I 
believe that every pound produced this year will be 
wanted at fair prices — prices that will show a profit 
to the producer and will also be within reach of the 
average consumer; better prices than prevailed last 
year, but not such extreme prices as it was the good 
fortune of growers to receive in years gone by. 

From best information received, with the excep- 
tion of peaches, the crop of fruit is not large 
throughout the Eastern States, still a small crop at 
the present time will yield an enormous amount as 
compared with the crop of ten or fifteen years ago. 
Fruit planting has been carried on in many of the 
Eastern States to nearly as great an extent as it 
has in California, so that it is not as easy to figure 
what the output will be as it was ten years ago when 
we consider that but a few States were then produc- 
ing the bulk of the fruit for that section. 

We can all remember when the apple crop of the 
country was gauged by the amount produced in New 
York and New England, but to-day Michigan, Mis- 
souri and Arkansas are factors recognized through- 
out the world, and the short crop in New York 
means but a little with the prospects of good crops 
elsewhere. 

I mention these facts because I believe it for the 
best interests of our State that fair prices rule from 
year to year rather than that figures be named at 
the beginning of the season which will prevent the 
goods going into consumption, as the stock that is 
carried over always has to be sold at extremely low 
prices. This is evidenced from the fact that old 
apricots from the same localities from which new 
goods are now being shipped can be bought from two 
to three cents per pound less than the price at 
which new goods are selling, and the same is equally 
true of other fruits. 

I believe the low price of last year will not prove 
an unmixed evil, for our fruit has been introduced 
to nearly every city in the United States, and a 
demand has been created which will, in the future, 
pay the grower for his losses of last year. Already 
inquiries are being received for fruit in car-lots from 
cities which, a few years ago, used practically none: 
The American consumer may be patriotic about this 
time of the year when the evidences of the celebra- 
tion of the anniversary of our independence are so 
apparent, but prune growers must not forget that 
when a consumer buys prunes his patriotism will not 
prevent his buying French prunes instead of Cali- 
fornia if the French are the cheaper. 

This was so conclusively proven last year and, 
though the experience was dearly bought, it may be 
worth all it has cost the State, if it shall teach us 



that the time to market our prunes (and in fact all 
our dried fruit) is when the trade wants to buy and 
not after they have bought somewhere else, for any 
goods sold at such a time must be sold at a sacrifice. 

Present indications are that we shall have a good 
market for this article at fair prices; our own crop 
is not large, the foreign crop is reported a trifle less 
than last year, but still a good one, and if reasonable 
prices are named at the beginning of the season 
every pound produced in this State and Oregon 
should go into consumption during the next twelve 
months, and I firmly believe that prices will be 
named by the growers in this State that will put the 
goods where they belong. 

Many reports are sent to this country from 
France that are entirely misleading, some of them 
emanating from speculators, who, owning large 
blocks of stock there, are interested in disseminating 
information which will cause the California grower 
to hold for higher prices, under the delusion that 
the foreign crop is a short one, the Frenchman in 
the meantime unloading his goods on the American 
buyer at prices considerably under the quotations 
named as ruling there. 

The peach crop East is conceded by all to be a 
large one, but as they are all either used in the 
fresh state or the canned we have no competition as 
far as the dried product is concerned, except that 
with cheap canned peaches, or cheap canned fruit of 
any kind; we cannot expect high prices for dried 
peaches, nor do we wish for it, for, with the enor- 
mous acreage that will soon be in full bearing, we 
cannot expect high prices to be maintained. Taken 
one year with another our peach crop is the surest 
of any fruit produced, and both in the canned and 
dried state is popular with the trade East. 

There is another fact that we should keep con- 
tinually before us and that is that an estimate of the 
stock remaining on this coast is of but little value in 
determining values that will or should rule. The 
mere fact of shipping fruit East does not necessarily 
imply that it has reached the consumer, as the hun- 
dreds of carloads of dried fruit now in cold storage 
East will testify. 

We are apt to make the remark that there are 
but so many cars of peaches and so many cars of 
apricots remaining here, overlooking the fact that 
they are simply moved from California to Chicago or 
New York and have the same effect upon the mar- 
ket there that they would have upon this did they 
remain at this end. I am not a pessimist as regards 
the dried fruit business nor do I believe that we 
have reached the era of overproduction, as so many 
claim. With due diligence in the preparation and 
marketing of our product there is no reason why the 
grower should not receive a fair remuneration for 
his labor. 

Twenty years ago I remember talking to J. Lusk, 
the pioneer canner of this State, regarding this very 
matter. He was operating his cannery in Oakland 
at the time and had just returned from this city, 
where he had purchased large quantities of fresh 
fruit. Naming the prices paid by him that day for 
canning peaches (if my memory is not at fault it was 
from 15 to 25 cents per basket), he said to me, 
" Young man, orchard planting has been carried on 
to such an extent in this State that inside of five 
years they will be cutting down their trees and 
using them for firewood, for already we have 
reached a point when fruit growing is not profit- 
able." That was twenty years ago, and there have 
been but few seasons from that time to this when 
fruit could be purchased at anything like the prices 
paid then. 

We often hear enormous yields prophesied by the 
growers at the beginning of the season, and occa 
sionally they materialize, but oftener the result is a 
disappointment. For some reason, to me unknown, 
nature steps in and evens up matters, though not 
always to the satisfaction of the grower, still in a 
manner probably for his best interest. 

I believe that the season just opening will prove a 
satisfactory one to the growers and handlers of Cali- 
fornia fruit, and, believing that the interest of the 
producer and the seller are identical, I hope that 
closer union may be established between them, as 
we are both working for the same end, namely, fair 
prices and a profit on our business. 



THE FIELD. 



Danger in 5orgiium. 

The season is approaching again when people will 
be puzzling themselves over the apparently poisonous 
effect of second-growth sorghum. F. D. Coburn, of 
the Kansas Board of Agriculture, has given the sub- 
ject attention, and in a letter to the Brerder.i' Gazefti' 
he says : According to my observation there ap- 
pears pretty good evidence to establish either side 
of the case preferred as to second-growth sorghum. 
One thing is certain : many cattle have died within 
an hour, or even a half-hour, after being given ac- 
cess to growing second-growth sorghum or Kaffir 
corn, their owners finding to their sorrow that these 
were as deadly as the " didn't-know-it-was-loaded " 



gun. On the other hand, there are apparently just 
as many owners who will testify that they have 
raised sorghum for years, and their cattle have had 
free access to it in well-nigh all its various stages 
and conditions, only to thrive and wax fat. 

Sometimes it kills and sometimes it doesn't. Why 
it kills or why it doesn't kill no fellow has yet found 
out. 

A Mississippi man, after twenty years' experience 
and losing more or less stock, says: ''I do not 
believe it poisonous in any stage of its growth, yet 
if hungry cattle are allowed to go into a sorghum 
patch and eat their fill at any stage of its growth, 
either ripe or unripe cane, early in the spring or 
late in the fall, they will be as dead as the proverbial 
door nail in from four to eight hours." 

A Nebraska man writes : " October 7th and 8th 
we had quite a frost. A neighbor turned his stock on 
the sorghum on the 8th. Ten to fifteen minutes 
later ten of his cows were dead. After a few 
mouthfuls they commenced to stager and tum.ble as 
if poisoned." 

Another man says : "We have fed sorghum to 
cattle at any and all stages of growth — first growth, 
second growth and frost-bitten — and always with 
apparent benefit except once. This exception was 
with a yearling sucking calf. When the sorghum 
was about knee high armfuls of it were given to the 
calf, beginning in the morning. At one o'clock it 
had a symptom of bloat and at four o'clock was 
dead." 

I never heard of any losses by cattle pasturing on 
first-growth sorghum, nor from eating the second 
growth after it was cured. I would have no partic- 
ular fears of the latter; but as to the green stuff, I 
have seen enough to convince me of its being " bad 
medicine " sometimes — in fact many times. I sus- 
pect that really much of the trouble arises from 
turning hurgry cattle wholly unaccustomed to it 
where they eat too much and too ravenously, espe- 
cially soon after a frost or about the season of frosts. 



California Tobacco Growing. 

We alluded recently to the action of the Manu- 
facturers' Association in urging the possible profit 
in tobacco growing in this State, and mention the 
fine display of thirty varieties of tobacco now gi-ow- 
ing on the University grounds in Berkeley. Mr. J. 
D. Culp, who has for years urged tobacco growing 
in this State, and on whose showing the Manufac- 
turers' Association relies, has given an interview to 
a Chronicle reporter in which he speaks more 
definitely of California adaptations to the crop : 

"I am quite confident," said Mr. Culp, "that 
it will not be long before California supplies 
the United States with tobacco leaf. There are 
many difficulties to overcome in the growing of 
tobacco in the East which nature has not put in our 
way out here. For instance, a heavy rain at a cer- 
tain stage of the plant's growth will destroy the 
entire harvest. A late frost will kill the plant. A 
heavy wind will break it down and ruin it. While 
rain will injure the plant, it must have sufficient moist- 
ure to make it grow properly. Now, in California, 
the long dry season, together with irrigation, gives 
us the very conditions that are needed for the suc- 
cessful cultivation of the tobacco plant. Many 
attempts have been made in California to grow 
tobacco, but few of them have been successful, be- 
cause growers here failed to attend properly to the 
plant. I think I can safely say that the cultivation 
of tobacco in California can be carried on very suc- 
cessfully. There are a great many localities suit- 
able for its growth. 

" At San Felipe the soil is alluvial, a little sandy, 
and I think a similar soil in any of the valleys will do 
as well as that at my place. I look, too, to see a 
very fine tobacco raised in the hills of the State. 
The foothills of the coast range and of the Sierra 
Nevada mountains I think highly suitable to the 
cultivation of tobacco. 

" An acre will yield about 1000 to 1500 pounds of 
cured tobacco, and I sell my product at fifty cents 
a pound. I raise all the plants from seed and set 
them out in February or March, and by the end of 
June the picking of the leaves begins and continues 
until about November. In planting, I set the plants 
about three feet apart one way and about one foot 
apart another way. The merchants here have 
agreed to take all the tobacco that can be grown 
here for twenty-five cents a pound. 

" As to the quality of the tobacco grown in Cali- 
fornia, I will say that it is superior to that produced 
in any other State in the Union. I plant the Havana 
tobacco, and I think it is quite as good as the Cuba 
article. In fact, I have sold my tobacco to people 
who required me to keep quiet about where it was 
grown, so that they could use it as Havana tobacco. 
We have the conditions here to grow the best to- 
bacco in the world, and I am satisfied that some day 
the tobacco crop of California will be more profitable 
than the wheat crop. I am told that there are 
365,000.000 pounds of tobacco used in making plugs 
in the United States every year. That is an enor- 
mous quantity. If we can produce the finest qual- 



G 



July 6, 1896. 



itv in this State and the area is practically un- 
imited for its growth, we can successfully compete 
with the Eastern States to supply this enormous 
demand. . 

" The one diffkulty in the way of growing tobacco 
is in knowing how to cultivate and cure it. It is a 
difficult plant to grow unless one is familiar with its 
needs and habits. The cultivation here is different 
from the cultivation in Kentucky or in Connecticut, 
and men from both these States who have tried to 
grow it here in the same way as they did back in 
their own States have failed. A gentleman from 
Kentucky made an attempt to grow tobacco in 
Fresno county last year, but did not succeed because 
he did not go about it right. He failed to irrigate 
at the proper time, and the ground got dry and 
baked the life out of the plants. I am sure that the 
land he cultivated can be made to yield handsomely 
if properly attended to. 

"The manufacture of tobacco in to plugs and cigars 
will be a big industry in San Francisco again. At 
one time there were 12.000 workmen employed here 
to manufacture tobacco into the forms for use; now 
there are not 1400 in the whole State. But if 
can grow the best tobacco in the United States right 
here in California, and that, too, in large quantities. 
I think San Francisco will be the center of the 
tobacco manufacturing industry of the country. It 
ought to be." 

There is a great deal of interest in the subject of 
tobacco cultivation in California among the farmers. 
Inquiries are being made daily at the State Board of 
Trade for information as to how it should be grown. 
It has already been established that the very highest 
quality of American tobacco can be produced in Cali- 
fornia'. It will not be long before the industry will 
be fully understood through hundreds of experi- 
ments. 

Steady Farming. 



While our readers seem disposed to urge diversi- 
fied farming as the lesson to be drawn from recent ex- 
perience in low prices and hard times, we add to their 
tenets the following exhortation from the German- 
town Tihtjraph to a steady course of production 
rather than too much splurging after this and that 
and the other thing which seem at the moment prom- 
ising but are frequently a disappointment. Of 
course the crops mentioned by the writer are not al- 
ways the best for California, but the idea is right. 
What crops constitute steady farming depends upon 
the adaptations of the locality. Each must deter- 
mine that for himself. 

Steady farming, with a good rotation of crops per- 
sistently followed, is the surest way to success for 
farmers. Abrupt changes in order to meet high prices 
for some farm product are dangerous practices. It is 
within the remembrance of every farmer when hay 
was so low that it hardly paid to raise it for market, 
but since then farmers have been making more 
profit off hay than almost any other crop. To suit 
the change, a great many dropped hay from their 
list of farm crops, and tried to get along without it. 
The steady farmers continued to give grass a place 
in their crop rotation, turning it under when it 
would not pay to cut and sell it as hay, and when 
prices went up again for hay they were the only ones 
who had good crops to sell. Besides enriching their 
soil with the grass, they found themselves prepared 
to reap a good harvest when prices came around 
again to their normal condition. 

Just now sheep have been at a discount, and thou- 
sands have been selling off to raise .something else 
more profitable. But sheep, both for wool and mut- 
ton, will be profitable in the future. Several times 
in the past the sheep industry has been at its lowest 
ebb, but it revived in time. Steam and electricity 
are said to be driving horses out of the market, and 
that it will no longer pay to raise fine colts. There 
never was a time, and probably never will be, when 
it did not pay to raise good horses. Underbred 
stock is too plentiful, and will be at a greater dis- 
count in the future than now; but fine driving road 
horses or heavy draft horses will never lose their 
value permanently. It is within the remembrance 
of the writer when many farmers paid $5 and $6 per 
head for ordinary sheep because a boom in that line 
was sending everything upward. 

There are too many farmers engaged in this indus- 
trj' who wait for high prices, and then they rush in- 
to that particular line of work. If sheep are high 
priced they pay exhorbitant prices for stock in order 
to raise others to sell. If corn is the leading farm 
product that pays well, they turn their farms into 
enormous corn fields, unmindful of the fact often that 
they do not understand its culture nor the expenses 
attached to it. Frequently they have to make an in- 
itial outlay to adapt themselves to the abrupt change, 
which alone will take away all prolits. 

Just now more farmers are preparing for abrupt 
changes than ever before. It has been a disastrous 
year with most of us. Many have lost money, and 
are generally dissatisfied with their conditions. 
Each one is looking around at those who seem to be 
raising something more profitable. Very often these 



profitable products are only temporarily so, and by 
the time the change is made they will no longer pay 
good prices. Good, steady farming, with a fair 
rotation of crops, is the only sure way for any 
farmer to make farming a sure thing. Grass, hay, 
oats, wheat, potatoes, corn, sheep, cows and horses 
cannot always be unprofitable. A proper system of 
diversified farming will make profits a certainty on 
some of the crops. It is at any rate good farming. 
The land is kept up, not run down. Expenses are 
normal and outlays not increased by such violent 
changes. The pigs, chickens, cows and sheep will 
] all yield some incidental profits, while the main farm 
crops may fluctuate from year to year, but not more 
so than manufactured articles. Fluctuation is char- 
acteristic of every business, and farmers have no 
more than their share. The shoe manufacturer 
does not take up pin making because shoes happen 
to be unprofitable for a season or two. 



Why Prison Grain Bags Are High. 



Perhaps no subject, next to the maarhet , price for 
the product, interests the grain growers more just 
at this time than the price of bags. The spectacle 
of the State making bags with convict labor, selling 
the product higher than the importers of East In- 
dian bags asked for it, has been a wonder to bag 
! buyers. How cheap labor in Hindoostan could 
undersell free labor at the State's prison has been 
much of a mystery. To get an answer to this ques- 
tion a reporter for the Exdmliifr has secured the 
views of the prison directors. It seems that the 
State Prison Commissioners insist they are offering 
grain bags at less than their cost, even with the 
advantage of unpaid convict labor at their com- 
mand. Last Saturday they quietly met and reduced 
the price of sacks, that they say have cost them 4.86 
cents, from 5 cents to 4A cents apiece. In doing so 
they merely met the market quotations. While the 
importers had been selling large quantities of sacks 
at 4i and 4s cents, the prison authorities had been 
able to dispose of but 205,500 sacks out of their 
;i, 000,000 stock since January 1st, while for the first 
six months of last year their sales amounted to 
2.51:5,000 sacks. A limit of 500,000 was placed on 
their sale at the reduced figures, in the hope that 
the outside stock might become reduced, and an ad- 
vance on the balance on hand might be made suf- 
ficient to recoup losses. 

Critics of the present l)oard assert that there 
have been injudicious purchases of the raw material 
and to thpm are to be tittributed the condition of 
affairs. This statement is denied by President de 
Pue. He says that since the duty of \h cents was 
removed from jute bags it is impossible to compete 
with cheap Indian labor, were it not for the disci- 
plinary effect of the work on the 1400 convicts at 
San Quentin it would be better to shut down the 
jute factory there. 

In regard to the purchases of jute he said that the 
prices had been effected by the depreciation of sil- 
ver, which could not be foreseen, and if they had 
fallen a cent a pound after a large purchase (though 
he would not admit such to be the fact) there was 
no help for it. Jute, he said, had to be bought in 
the fall or early winter in order to secure its trans- 
portation on sailing vessels which leave Calcutta 
during the months of November, December and 
January of each year, while steamers sail in the 
months of August and September. 

The jute purchases of the Prison Commission for 
the last two seasons have been as follows, and show 
the break in the market: 

CROP OF 189S. 

Dole. HdleK. I'ricf. 

September 13, 1893 500 .0315 

December -M, 1893 BOO .0840 

December a-i. 1893 1,000 .0350 

January 3-1, 1894 4,000 .Wi<^ 

CROP OP 1884. 

Date. Jialtii. Prire. 

August 10, 1894 1,000 .oaWH 

August 14, 1894 1,000 .0^93 

Septem berl 1 , 1 894 1 ,000 .0870 

November 14, 1894 3,(XI0 .(J23;i 

Since the last-named date no jute has been bought 
by the prison directors.' President de Pue stated 
that the bags offered for sale this year were mostly 
manufactured from the high-priced raw material of 
the old crop of 189^^, while the bags imported were 
probably made from the cheap jute of 1894. The 
heavy purchase of 4,000 bales of jute in January, 
1894. at a figure higher than that which has since 
prevailed, is given as the cause of the importers 
being able to undersell the product of the San Quen- 
tin factory. The apologists for the board say the 
mistake appears to have been in ordering a larger 
supply than was necessary by cheap freight sailing 
vessels rather than to await arrivals of the 1894 crop 
by the steamers seven or eight months later. 

" I do not recall the price of jute declining 1 cent 
in a month." said Mr. de Pue recently, "but there 
was a heavy fall between the two crops, as the fig- 
ures of the purchases that I handed you show. The 
cost of the prison bags has been 4.86 cents on the 
basis of jute at 3.62i cents a pound. We have always 
asked for bids from importers during the jute sea- 
son, and have invariably given the order to the 
lowest bidder. The decline of silver had much to do 



with the sudden falling off of the price of raw jute. 
The removal of the tariff of li cents on bags, how- 
ever, makes it impossible for us to compete with the 
cheap labor of India. Jute manufacture is the only 
employment which the law permits us to give the 
San Quentin prisoners, and to keep them out of idle- 
ness the plant must be kept going even at a loss. 

"It may not turn out so bad as it looks, how- 
ever. At the beginning of the season it was esti- 
mated that 41,000,000 bags would be required. The 
north wind then came along and reduced the pros- 
pective demand to 35,000,000 bags. That changed 
the situation, and to recoup the $100,000 revolving 
fund from which the purchases of next season's jute 
must come the directors reduced the price of grain 
sacks from 5 to 4< cents. I am of the opinion that 
purchases have been made by country dealers, and 
that when the supply of the importers has been ex- 
hausted there will be an ad vance. That is the rea- 
son that the offerings of sacks at the reduced price 
of 4i cents, involving a loss of .36 of a cent on each 
bag, was made." 

Meanwhile the fact remains that the prison 
directors have held the price of jute bags at a figure 
that has allowed outsiders to largely supply the de- 
mand at a profit to themselves, and which the State 
can onlv meet at a loss. 



THE DAIRY. 



A Rational Review of Tuberculosis. 



The tuberculosis sensation seems to be about over, 
as cool-headed dairymen expected. Dr. W. L. Zuill 
recently addressed the Guernsey breeders on the 
subject, and made statements which our dairymen 
will be glad to know for their own comfort and pro- 
tection. He says there is no question but that the 
danger scare which has been given to the public 
concerning the use of milk has been greatly ex- 
aggerated. Statistical experimentation has proven 
this over and over again, and it is conclusively 
shown that the milk from a cow with chronic or en- 
cysted tubercular centers is not necessarily dan- 
gerous or unfit for food, as it may contain neither 
the spore nor the germ of the disease, and that 
tuberculin is far from being the infallible diagnostic 
agent that some claim for it. He continues: The 
first investigation in the United States to determine 
the diagnostic value of this medicament in tubercular 
disease of cattle was made by a committee of the 
veterinary faculty of the University of Pennsylvania, 
of which I was chairman. The conclusions reached 
by that committee have been corroborated by every 
similar investigation since that time. They all show 
that tuberculin will not give a reaction in every case 
of the tubercular disease, and that it will give a re- 
action where there is no tuberculosis, in cases of 
chronic pneumonia, actinomycosis, sarcoma, con- 
tagious pleuro-pneumonia, etc. Therefore, it is not 
reliable in diagnosis. 

In addition to its unreliability, it is positively dan- 
gerous, inasmuch as it may change the milk of a 
dairy which was perfectly pure and harmless into a 
noxious product by changing a chronic and encysted 
tubercular center into an acute miliary tuberculosis, 
thus filling the milk with germs and spores, render- 
ing it dangerous, virulent and unfit for food. 

This form of the disease is probably never seen in 
cattle, except as a result of a tuberculin injection, 
as the natural course of the disease is always chronic, 
and it is only when it has progressed until there is 
a general infection, including a tubercular mam- 
mitis, that the milk becomes dangerous. This con- 
dition may easily be recognized by the physical con- 
dition of the udder, or by bacteriological examina- 
tion of the milk. 

We, as veterinarians, have no right to jeopardize 
a man's property by injecting his cattle with tuber- 
culin, nor to slaughter his animals in an endeavor to 
prove that they produce diseased milk, as the find- 
ing of the tubercular lesion is not proof of this fact. 
Does the law allow a building inspector to tear down 
and to destroy a man's house in order to find out 
whether or not it is properly built, and then ask him 
to rebuild it '/ Then why should the law allow a 
dairy inspector to kill a cow in order to prove that 
her milk product was unwholesome ? Would it not 
be more reasonable, more logical, more in accord 
with the dictates of common sense, to first examine 
that product microscopically and chemically, and 
thereby prove that it is unfit for food and dangerous 
to human life. Such an examination can be made 
with less loss of time, with more certainty and less 
expense; and when made, has a more definite and 
fixed value than any test to which the animal could 
be subjected. 

It is agreed that milk is not likely to contain bacilli 
unless the udder is affected with the disease, and 
the percentage of cows with tubercular mammitis is 
very small. The most recent experiments go to 
prove that milk containing tubercular bacilli, when 
diluted with other milk to the extent of one part to 
fifty, is rendered innocuous as an article of food, or 
at least reduces the danger to a minimum. 

There are hundreds of human beings who would be 



July 6, 1895. 



The Pacific Rural Press 



7 



alive to-day, so far as the disease of tuberculosis 
(which they had) is concerned, if, in the excitement 
following the announcement of Koch's cure, they had 
not submitted themselves to the treatment. The 
inoculation broke down the chronic and encysted 
centers in their lungs, and they died within a few 
months after receiving the injection. 

My position is this: I cannot, do not and will not 
endorse the indiscriminate use of tuberculin as an 
agent for diagnosing tuberculosis in dairy cattle. 
Every new report we get of the general arbitrary 
use of this substance proves it unreliable. It is not 
used by law in any country of the Old World, as far 
as I have been able to learn. 

Dilution is a safeguard. The practice of ordering 
one cow's milk for children is a mistake, and has no 
sound logical reason to support it. I would very 
much prefer for my children the mixed milk of the 
herd than the product of any one animal. 



Keeping flilk by Pasteurization. 

It has long been known that heating milk post- 
pones the time of its souring. Recent progress shows 
that heating systematically to just sufficient degree 
to destroy germs of fermentation does not injure the 
flavor of the milk, as was the case in the old style of 
boiling or " scalding," as it was called. Pasteuriza- 
tion is coming into wide use, especially in the treat- 
ment of milk for sale as food. The Wisconsin 
Experiment Station has just issued a bulletin of 48 
pages, going very thoroughly into the philosophy and 
practice of pasteurization, of which we give a gen- 
eral summary of conclusions. 

Milk is perhaps the most perfect food that is 
known. Its different elements are, however, of such 
a character that they usually undergo profound 
chemical changes under the influence of bacterial 
germs. As secreted in the healthy animal it is free 
from any forms of life capable of changing its nature. 
If it were possible to secure it in this condition, its 
nutritive value would remain unimpaired for an in- 
definite length of time, but it is inevitably contami- 
nated with numerous forms of bacteria and moulds 
during and subsequent to the process of milking. 

Its high temperature at time of withdrawal and 
its chemical composition facilitates the growth of the 
microbes that find their way into it, so that it always 
contains a very large amount of germ life by the time 
it reaches the consumer. 

By far the larger number of germs belong to the 
harmless types, and although they may render milk 
unfit for ordinary purposes by the decomposition 
changes that they induce, yet they are not especially 
detrimental in a hygienic sense. Milk is, however, 
so admirably adapted for the growth of all kinds of 
bacteria that many of the disease-producing organ- 
isms flourish in it with vigor if they once gain access 
to it. Not onl}' have diseases like consumption, 
typhoid and scarlet fevers, diphtheria, etc., been 
traced in numerous instances to a contaminated milk 
supply, but much evidence is accumulating that indi- 
cates that a large percentage of the gastric and 
enteric troubles (dysentery, fluxes, summer diarrhoea, 
etc.), that are peculiar, especially during the sum- 
mer months, to young infants whose main food is 
milk, are due to toxic (poison) producing bacteria 
that are taken into the alimentary tract with the 
food. 

We may say, then, first, from an economic stand- 
point, second, from a hygienic point of view, the 
elimination of living germs from milk is very de- 
sirable. 

Scrupulous cleanliness and strict supervision will 
undoubtedly do much to lessen the danger from any 
source, although it is not possible to prevent infec- 
tion entirely unless the milk is treated by some 
process that will certainly accomplish this result. 

In the present state of our knowledge no better 
method has been suggested than the use of heat, and 
of the different methods of applying this agent pas- 
teurization and sterilization are the most practi- 
cable. As any milk to come into general use must 
closely approximate the normal fresh product in 
certain essential particulars, and as pasteurized ma- 
terial conforms to this condition much more nearly 
than sterilized, it follows that the first method is, 
on the whole, more practical and better adapted for 
general purposes. 

The pasteurization of milk (or cream) consists in 
heating the liquid to a temperature that is fatal to 
the vegetating, growing bacteria, and still not high 
enough to materially change the physical character- 
istics (taste and smell) of the product. 

In actual practice the operation will differ some- 
what, depending upon the special purpose for which 
the milk is used. If cream is pasteurized for butter- 
making, it is not essential that the process should 
be carried out as it would be where it is intended to 
keep the milk or cream sweet for direct use. 

The pasteurizing process is extremely simple, but 
it must be thoroughly done in order to be efficient. 
Milk treated by this process can not be handled in a 
careless way and good results expected. "Short 
cuts " and rapid methods of pasteurizing are desira- 
ble, but to secure unifornj ;-esults and succeed under 
ftU pirpiaijQst^OCgs certalQ conditions must be ob> 



served. Pasteurized milk will invariably remain 
sweet for a longer period than raw milk of same age, 
but its keeping qualities are largely dependent upon 
the way it is handled after it reaches the consumer. 
It must be kept in a cold place to secure the best of 
results. 

In pasteurizing milk it is essential that every par- 
ticle of the material should be subjected to a proper 
temperature for a proper length of time. This con- 
dition precludes the use of devices that have a con- 
tinuous flow and necessarily limits the output from 
any apparatus. 

The minimum limit for pasteurizing should be a 
point at which the tubercle bacillus is killed. This 
is chosen on account of the possibility of the danger 
that may exist in milk from tuberculous animals, and 
also because it is the most resistant disease organ- 
ism in its growing condition that has yet been found. 
The maximum temperature that can be employed is 
determined by that degree of heat that is sufficient 
to give the milk a ■permanently cooked or scalded 
taste. These limits vary in connection with length 
of exposure, but in general an application of heat 
for twenty minutes at 155° F. has been chosen as a 
medium standard. 

To gain the best effect in pasteurizing it is neces-. 
sary that the heated material should be chilled as 
quickly and thoroughly as possible, so as to prevent 
the germination of those bacteria in a spore condi- 
tion that are unaffected by the heating process. 

Pasteurized milk is not subject to the same fer- 
mentation as raw milk. It usually curdles in time, 
but it rarely has as much acid as is found in ordinary 
milk. The curd is formed by the rennet that is 
excreted by those bacteria remaining in the milk 
that are not kifled by the pasteurizing process. 

So far as our present knowledge goes pasteurized 
material is adapted to any use for which normal 
milk and cream are suitable. For general domestic 
purposes it gives excellent satisfaction, and ice 
cream made from it has a smoother texture than 
when the raw material is used. It has met with 
favor as an invalids' and children's food, and is re- 
ceiving the recommendation of medical men. 



How to riake a Concrete Floor. 

No doubt some readers will be glad to put in leis- 
ure time this fall in preparing a thoroughly good 
concrete floor in some of their buildings. Professor 
Roberts of Cornell University gave recently the fol- 
lowing directions at the Wisconsin Dairyman's Con- 
vention for making cement floors: 

Make sure by drainage or otherwise that water 
cannot stand underneath where the floor is to be 
laid; excavate and make a foundation from four to 
six inches thick of durable broken material, as stone 
or brickbats; pound them down so firmly that they 
can never settle any more; mix while dry one part 
fresh cement with two parts clean, sharp sand (wash 
sand if necessary) take a small quantity of this 
mixture and add only just water enough to make it 
possible to spread and trowel down the mortar; 
moisten the surface of broken stone and apply the 
mortar, which should fill all the interstices between 
the broken material; trowel and pound the mortar, 
leaving the surface rough. Go over the entire sur- 
face in this way, mixing only so much mortar at a 
time as can be conveniently laid and finished before 
it commences to set. Let this first coat become 
hard and dry before app'iying the second and finish- 
ing course. In dry weather it will be necessary to 
sprinkle to surface occasionally, or keep it covered 
with a damp cloth, in order to preserve uniformity 
in setting. Lay the second course in the same man- 
ner, except that the pounding is omitted and more 
troweling is used, and the surface is made smooth. 

Such floors should not be used for thirty days after 
being laid. Although they may seem firm and hard, 
the mortar has not set firmly enough to resist con- 
cussion. Sprinkle or cover with damp cloth as be- 
fore. 

Professor Roberts added that most mortar made 
from cement is greatly injured and sometimes ruined 
by using two or three times as much water as is 
necessary. The less water the mortar contains, up 
to the point where it can be spread out with some 
difficulty, the better. 

Another recipe, which uses less cement, is given 
\i) UoaixVx Dairyman by a gentleman who had many 
years' experience as a civil engineer in railway 
building, where many hundreds of tons of cement 
had been used under his supervision: 

If you use concrete floor mix one part Portland 
cement, four parts sharp, clean sand and five parts 
broken stone — stone broken so as not to be over two 
inches in any measurement — or good clean gravel 
will do, but is not so good. Mix sand and cement 
first, then wet and thoroughly mix, then add broken 
stone or gravel and thoroughly incorporate and put 
in place, and thoroughly tamp with a tamper having 
a surface of at least eighty or one hundred square 
inches. Make this three or four inches thick. The 
next day top coat with Portland cement and sand, 
half and half. Trowel thoroughly, and when set, in 

twelve to tyyenty-fQur bovirg, oover jvitb gftud, ol^ 



sacks or something of that kind, and keep moist for 
a week, and keep your stock off it for a month. 

The above are for stable floors. Of course in 
dairy rooms a less thickness of concrete will be per- 
fectly serviceable. That matter must be arranged 
according to the uses to which the floor is to be put. 
As cement is now cheap, it is a very good time for 
such improvements. 



THE STOCK YARD. 

The Future of the San Joaquin on an Alfalfa 
Basis. 

We have previously alluded to the enterprise of 
finishing of range cattle on the rich alfalfa fields 
of the San Joaquin valley. Mr. W. D. Dike, whom 
the Kern county Cah'fornlan describes as an expert 
cattle raiser, gives that journal a sketch of his ex- 
perience and conclusions which will be suggestive to 
others in that region. He says that that locality is 
without an equal in the entire West for the maturing 
of range cattle, but even here great caution must be 
exercised, particularly with cattle brought from a 
distant district; shipment at the wrong time of the 
year, and a sudden change in the character or quan- 
tity of the food, may cause a very grave loss. The 
same stock placed under the charge of a man familiar 
with the cattle business and competent to handle 
them to the best advantage, will not only save all, 
but add quite a handsome increase to their value. 
There is no great secret that leads to this success — 
it requires only a practical knowledge of the effects 
of climate and feed. They must be taken into the 
country during the winter months, immediately after 
the first frosts, and must be placed on dry feed (to 
give them green alfalfa at once is most disastrous), 
pumpkins, beets, or similar vegetables that will act 
as a general laxative, and fresh water. The last 
is particularly essential, as nothing will disease un- 
acclimated cattle quicker than impure water. After 
about two months on dry feed they are in proper 
condition for any rich food that can be provided, and 
the process of fattening can begin without delay or 
fear of disease or death from any cause. 

Three-year-old steers can be bought in Arizona or 
New Mexico at $16 per head, and be transported to 
Bakersfield for $4.00; they may be fed for one year 
and will dress at 600 pounds, for which the butcher 
will pay five cents per pound net. There is certainly 
left a very profitable increase on the investment, 
even after the cost of feed and sundry expenses have 
been deducted. 

I once sold two train loads of steers to cattlemen 
in Kern county, and they fed the stock one year 
before selling; after deducting all cost of feeding and 
handling, there remained a profit of over $10,000; 
although I had done fairly well on my sale, I was 
surprised to find so large a profit still remaining. 

We are all monopolists at heart, and when a nickel 
slips by that might have been clutched, it makes one 
feel as though he lacked ordinary business shrewd- 
ness. I do not want any concern to handle my cat- 
tle, and be able to operate on as large a margin as 
in the instance which I have cited, so in the fall of 
1894 I shipped a train load of cattle to Bakers- 
field, and held them there for two months to see if 
I had solved the question of keeping them alive, and 
making the difference lost to me before. There 
were just 600 head in the herd when I counted 
them into the pasture November 16, 1894, and the 
same number was tallied out to their buyer on 
January 16, 1895. As I did, others can do. These 
cattle were handled according to the rules outlined 
above, with the exceptions that they were fed neith- 
er on pumpkins nor beets, but were held simply 
on dry feed and running water. My experience in 
the cattle business extends over twelve years of 
active life in the saddle and on the range. During 
that time I have handled cattle in nearly every 
State and Territory in the West, yet have never 
seen results equal to those produced by Kern county's 
hay and feed for the production of tallow on cattle. 
An authority on beef cattle assures me that it is far 
superior to the bottom lands along the Sacramento 
river. 

We judge people by their success, and I here in- 
stance the single case of Mr. Henry Miller; he is the 
cattle king of the West to-day, and owns more cattle 
than any other man in California; he is also the 
greatest cattle owner in Oregon and Nevada. I 
speak intelligently in this matter, as I was for years 
in Mr. Miller's employ, and am familiar with all his 
properties. He is many times a millionaire, and 
every dollar of that fortune was accumluated in 
the legitimate handling of cattle. And what has 
this most successful of our cattle men been doing 
during the past winter months ? Scouring Arizona 
for cattle and purchasing them by the train load for 
shipment to Bakersfield. To the observant, there 
is a practicial lesson from a practical man. 

Next fall, if I am still in the cattle business, I ex- 
pect to have my maturing pastures in Kern county 
ready to support all the cattle I can place upon them, 
a.n(i the itQCl?, wheo offered for sale, will be in the 



8 



Ihe Pacific Rural Press 



July 6, 1895. 



very best condition that it is possible to place it on 
the market, and for such I am certain of my reward, 
—the very best of prices, a pronounced success m 
business; and the proud consciousness of having my 
judgment sustained with many dollars. 

Home Cured Meats. 

We have frequently urged the chance for moderate 
profit by careful home slaughtering and curing of 
meats for local markets which are now supplied by 
importation from the great packing establishments 
outside of the State. Some have done well in this 
line of enterprise; others can do well if they study 
up the subject well and put out a choice article. A 
writer in the Germantown Trlrpmph reviews the sub- 
ject so forcibly that we desire to bring his points to 
the attention of our readers : 

There is no part of the hog industry that pays 
better than curing the meat at home for the market, 
and yet it is a phase of the business sadly neglected. 
Nearly every one who raises hogs for market cures 
enough hams and bacon for home use, and probabl> 
for a neighbor or two. Enough sausage meat is also 
ground for the home use, but all that thf general 
market gets is received generally from middlemen, 
who prepare the meat in their establishments 
erected for this special purpose. 

The work of curing the meats at home is compar- 
atively simple, and the extra prices received for 
them more than pays for this. In the markets there 
is a demand for home-cured meats that does not pre- 
vail for those that have been cured in the large pack- 
ing houses. A great many consumers to-day are 
afraid to eat pork, hams, bacon and sausage unless 
they know where the meat has been raised. Dis- 
eases have been too frequent among the large droves 
of hogs to tempt consumers to eat the meat unless 
forced to. 

The advantages farmers have over the packing 
houses are consequently decided ones. Fresh sausage 
properly made out of lean and fat meat, packed in 
neat, convenient sizes, and delivered to the consum- 
ers with a guarantee and name attached, will com- 
mand several cents a pound more than the sausage 
that comes direct from the large packing houses. A 
majority of the city consumers get their sausages in 
this way, and they will take no other. The trouble 
with the cheap sausage is that it is made almost 
entirely of fat meat. This is not by any means the 
highest grade, and cannot compete with sausage 
made from lean and fat hogs. 

Fat bacon and hams are likewise at a discount in 
the market. Even the packing houses discriminate 
against the excessively fat hogs for this purpose. 
The farmer who raises the old-fashioned fat hog is 
finding his market narrowed every year. For pork 
the fat hogs are not so desirable, nor for bacons, 
hams nor sausage. Such meat may do for salting 
down to ship to some of the far-off countries, but 
the prices paid for such packing stock are always a 
trifle lower than the regular quotations. 

The leading brands of bacon and hams have estab- 
lished names for themselves that tempt customers to 
buy. These names alone will sell thousands of hams 
and bacon every year at good prices. In the first 
place, the quality of the meats brought trade, and 
then many people bought them because they thought 
that the trademarks were a guarantee of quality and 
cleanliness. It is impossible, however, for large 
packing houses to prepare their meat in as neat and 
clean a way as the farmer can on his farm. The 
packer must get his hogs from all parts of the coun- 
try, and many of them brought to the packing 
establishment must have disease, and these few will 
contaminate all the others. There is no reason why 
a farmer should have any kind of disease among 
his droves, if they are properly fed and have clean, 
grassy ranges. 

There is a wide field for profit in hog growing yet, 
and when farmers learn to cure their own meats for 
market, and establish a trade of their own, they will 
gather in more profits than they do to-day. A small 
packing factory attached to the farm would cost 
little, and in the end it would pay well. Meats can 
be cured at home on a large scale almost as easily 
as on a small one, and what farmer does not make 
his sausage, bacon and hams for his own use ? 



THE IRRIGATOR. 



How riuch Water Is Needed ? 



How far can a certain amount of water be profit- 
ably extended, or how much land can a certain 1 
amount of water bring into profitable production — ! 
this is one of the most important questions in an j 
arid region. The " Duty of Water " is the engineer's ' 
term for it. Mr. T. S. Van Dyke, the writer of the i 
following article, which we find in the Bakersfield ' 
<'<ili'/iiriiiiiii, is one of the highest authorities on such 
subjects in the Slate, and speaks from long practical 
experience. 

The amount of water needed for irrigation is com- 



monly estimated by dividing the number of acres 
served by the number of cubic feet a second, or min- 
er's inches, supposed to be running in the canal. 
This debits the duty of water with all waste, and all 
errors about the amount of water flowing. Both 
these are very great, especially the waste, where 
the whole capacity of the ditch is not yet called for 
by the rate of settlement, and loss of water is imma- 
terial. 

While this is about the only available way of get- 
ting general averages, it gives a sorry conception of 
the duty of water as it will be in the future, when 
settlement is so dense that no waste can be allowed. 

This uncertainty as to the actual duty of water is 
increased by the common mode of estimating it f>y 
tlir rule at which water is used during a certain 
period, called "the irrigating season," instead of by 
the actual quantity put upon the land during the 
year. We find, for instance, on the books of a water 
company that Mr. A., whose water right is an inch to 
ten acres, has used on his ten acres, during the year, 
thirty inches, twenty-four hours' run, once a month, 
for six months. This makes 180 twenty-four-hour 
inches, whereas under his water right he was en- 
titled to 365 twenty-four-hour inches. Had he put 
on the whole of this by using during the other six 
months the other 185 twenty-four-hour inches to 
which he was entitled, but which he let run to sea. 
it would have been equal to about one and one-half 
foot of rain on his ten acres. The 180 inches actually 
used were equal to a trifle less than three-quarters 
of a foot, and the amount used for the year was only 
half a miner's inch for the ten acres, or an inch to 
twenty acres, estimated by the year. But, as dur- 
ing the six months it was applied at the rate of an 
inch to ten acres, it was called an inch to ten. 

This makes great confusion, because what is called 
the irrigating season varies so; and the indifference 
of irrigators to anything like statistics of their 
work is very general and very great. Generally in 
the southern counties of California " the season" is 
considered two-thirds of a year, though few use water 
as long as that. Thirty twenty-four-hour inches 
once a month for eight months would be 240 twenty- 
four-hour inches, which would cover ten acres one 
foot deep. They therefore call this an inch to eight 
acres. Two-acre feet would thus be an inch to four, 
and four-acre feet an inch to two; the same with 
estimates by cubic foot a second, a cubic foot being 
fifty inches under four-inch pressure. 

The water due for the rest of the year thus runs 
away. Suppose, in the absence of some place above 
ground in which to store it, it were stored in the 
ground. Three times in the last twenty years, nota- 
bly in 1884-85, what would have been a bad dry year 
was made a fairly good one by the excessive rain of 
the preceding winter, which so filled the porous sub- 
soil that it could not dry out in one season. In none 
of those seasons was the quality of any fruit injured 
by the heavy winter rains. Therefore, if the water 
running to waste in winter, because the irrigator 
expects the clouds to do their duty, were put in the 
ground, the water used in summer would serve a 
larger acreage. Until this is generally done, we are 
yet far from knowing the full duty of water. 

The quantity of water needed for any given crop 
is so dependent on the nature of the crop, the soil, 
the climate, the amount of rainfall, the time of its 
coming, the manner of its distribution, the skill of 
the irrigator, the perfection to which he wishes to 
bring the crop, and so many other points, as to make 
the deduction of any reliable rule from the vast mass 
of data quite hopeless. The conclusions of our 
department of agriculture are worthless, even 
ridiculous, because these data are all it has to reason 
from. 

Owing to loss by direct run-off, the coming of 
rain when not needed, and the loss by evaporation 
from the top soil of quantities too small to be of 
service, it will take on an average two feet of rain 
to e(iual in results one foot of water applied properly 
at the right times. 

On thousands of farms last year California proved, 
as it has several times before in seasons of short rain- 
fall, that crops equal to the average of the best 
prairie States can be raised on one-fourth the mois- 
ture inferred necessary by the authorities, reason- 
ing from the data afloat. Large crops were raised 
on a third of it, and over a vast area it was plain that, 
had the ground lain fallow the preceding summer, 
and the rain been under control, the largest crops 
ever seen could have been raised on eight inches of 
water; and this not upon fog or underground w^ter, 
but far fi'om the coast, and on dry upland. 

The amount of water used in irrigation in southern 
California is less than half that supposed necessary 
twenty years ago. The difference is mainly due to 
fine cultivation. By greater care and winter irriga- 
tion it is certain that it will go still farther in the 
future. 

Subject to the above qualifications, and some others 
too long for mention, the amounts used south of 
Tehachapi are about as follows: — 

Under an averge rainfall of twenty inches, for 
deciduous fruits, from six-acre inches to one foot (on 
this rainfall many do not irrigate at all); citrus fruits 
in full bearing, one to three-acre feet; corn and garden 
stuff, six inches to one-acre foot; alfalfa in small 
patches for home use, one to two-acre feet, In large 



fields, heavy crops for profit, three to five-acre feet. 
Where the rainfall averages but ten inches these 
amounts are increased twenty per cent in many 
places, except for alfalfa. 

Strawberries and similar stuff need water often at 
a rate in excess of this, but no one keeps any account 
of the amount used on them. The larger figures 
above given represent great waste. Except on very 
porous soil, in a very hot and dry locality, the aver- 
age of the two sets of figures is enough. On may 
soils, where the air is not too hot and dry, the 
smaller figures are enough where the water is care- 
fully used and good cultivation kept up. The whole 
subject is full of qualifications that render deductions 
from one place worthless often for the very next. 
Nineteen years' study of the subject, with unusual 
facilities for travel and investigation, and most of 
the time with a direct pecuniary interest in the 
results, satisfy me that we shall always be very far 
from anything like a rule that will be of value in all 
parts of a State, and that, even in a single township, 
it may have forty-nine exceptions to fifty-one cases 
of accuracy. 

Irrigation Congress. 



Fred L. Alles of Los Angeles, secretary of the 
National Irrigation Congress, has issued the call for 
the meeting of the Fifth Irrigation Congress to be 
held in the city of Albuquerque, New Mexico, for 
the four days beginning September 16, 1895. 

The present year is proving to be the most re- 
markable in the history of American irrigation. It 
has seen a wonderful awakening of popular interest 
in the cause throughout the East, resulting in the 
organization of most potential forces for the pur- 
pose of co-operating with the Western people; the 
enactment of well considered irrigation laws in eight 
States, and the creation of administrative systems 
in five of them; the recognition of the pressing 
nature of the problem by the Departments of In- 
terior and Agriculture, under whose direction a 
National Board of Irrigation has been formed from 
officials in various departments of the Government. 

These splendid evidences of the triumphant prog- 
ress of the irrigation cause demand a large, repre- 
sentative and effective session of the Irrigation Con- 
gress in 1895. A further reason for such a gathering 
is the fact that the presidential campaign of 1896 
will be inaugurated previous to the assembling of 
another session of this body, and it is thus 
necessary to formulate, at Albuquerque, the de- 
mands which the friends of irrigation will deeire to 
make upon the great political parties of the nation. 

In view of the nature of the opjwrtunity, a pro- 
gramme of extraordinary variety, interest and im- 
portance will be arranged, and it is anticipated that 
this session of the Congress will be more widely use- 
ful and influential than the previous conventions at 
Salt Lake in 1891, at Los Angeles in 1898 and at 
Denver in 1894. The friends of irrigation through- 
out the United States — for to-day the movement is 
national in its scope and interest — should unite in an 
effort to obtain a worthy result at Albuquerque. 

Bniih of Re.presrnliitlfni. — In accordance with a reso- 
lution of the Third National Irrigation Congress at 
Denver, Colorado, September 8, 1894, the Fourth 
National Irrigation Congress will be composed as 
follows: 

1. All members of the Natiohal Executive Com- 
mittee. 

2. All members of State and Territorial Irrigation 
Commissions. 

3. Five delegates at large, to be appointed by 
their respective Governors, for each of the following 
States and Territories: Arizona, California, Colo- 
rado. Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, 
New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma. Oregon, 
South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Washington and Wyom- 
ing. 

4. Three delegates at large for each State and 
Territory not heretofore enumerated, to be ap- 
pointed by the Governors of said States or Terri- 
tories, or. in the case of the District of Columbia, by 
the President. 

5. One delegate each from regularly organized 
irrigation, agricultural and horticultural .societies, 
and societies of engineers, irrigation companies, 
agricultural colleges and commercial bodies. 

6. Duly accredited representatives of any foreign 
nation or colony, each member of the United States 
Senate and House of Representatives, and each Gov- 
ernor of a State or Territory will be admitted as 
honorary members. 



—Macaroni is made of wheat. We have so much wheat that 
we have been feeding it to the American hog. But in spite of 
this we bought last j'ear over t;j,00(),000 worth of macaroni 
from a single district in Italy. It gave work to hundreds of 
men in that district. But why should the work not have 
been done in America from American wheat by American 
workmen for American wages ? 

—A oontract for ti,000,000 feet of hemlock, to be used in the 
manufacture of paper, has been let to parties on the Lower 
Columbia, It is claimed that hemlock makes a suix^rior quality 
of pulp, owing to the whiteness of the fibre and freedom 
from pitch. Hemlock, hithertoconsidered worthless for almost 
any purpose, will now t^lte rank with cottonwood or spruce tts 
a pulp msterial, 



July 6, 1895. 



The Pacific Rural Press 



Patrons of Husbandry. 



Observations by Mr. Ohieyer. 



Hon. T. R. Smith, Master of the 
Ohio State Grange, writes thus of the 
Order of Patrons of Husbandry, and 
no DQore appropriate sentiments were 
ever spol<en. They were written for 
the Gmiu/r BiiJliiin, an Ohio paper; 

The work done, and the results fol- 
lowing, by the Grange organization 
were never studied more closely than 
now. As a factor in higher education 
among the farmers the public is placing 
a higher estimate on our organization. 
The great city dailies and public mien 
no longer speak sneeringly of "gran- 
gers." They recognize the fact that 
we have come to stay, and that our 
possibilities of growth are unlimited 
and our power for good untold. Preju- 
dice is gone and there is now a dispo- 
sition to extend a helping hand in our 
efforts for " equity and fairness, justly 
distributed burdens and justly distrib- 
uted powers." 

Ours has been a " campaign of edu- 
cation," and evidences of our work are 
to be seen in every community, in bet- 
ter tillage, better care of tools, better 
crops, more home comforts, more agri- 
cultural papers, closer scrutiny of 
public men and the results of their 
official acts. 

The probe has been applied and the 
seat of the difficulty located, and all 
intelligent, progressive farmers are 
now appealed to to help, by coming 
into our organization and making their 
power available. 

Every reader of the Rural will have 
observed Bro. A. P. Martin's defense 
of the co-operative buying system in 
last week's Press. I am glad he came 
to its rescue, for the reason that he 
has shed more light on the subject than 
has heretofore been seen, all due to a 
friendly review of the system. 

The success, as explained by Bro. 
Martin, is solely due to the cash .system 
in vogue at Two Rock, and one is sur- 
prised at the course of the local mer- 
chants who thus allow the cream of the 
country to elude their grasp, for it ap- 
pears they were given the opportunity 
to catch the "nimble sixpence." The 
cash trader can turn over his capital a 
dozen times a year, and on the smallest 
possible margin will come out ahead of 
the credit methods. 

The merchants hei-eabouts are on the 
ajert for cash business and meet their 
customers more than half way, prob- 
ably induced by the knowledge of the 
power of co-operation as practiced here 
these twenty years. 

The local conditions are probably 
different from those at Two Rock. 
Nothing so warps the judgment of the 
counti-y dealer so much as to imagine 
he has a corner on the country buyer, 
and I judge he is being enlightened by 
the force of Two Rocks. 

Here we have navigable rivers, sev- 
eral railroads and a host of competing 
merchants who ship our produce in all 
directions, and much of it beyond the 
mountains to the " old folks at home." 
Competition makes broad-minded and 
liberal merchants. 



haps never larger nor of better quality. 
The fruit crop, while as a whole is not 
large, is pronounced satisfactory, and 
the early varieties are being gathered 
and marketed. It is proper to add 
that there are no unemployed except 
from choice, and that the man who 
earns a living and something more is 
doing quite as well as the farmer who 
owns his land and bears his share of 
the cost of civil government. 



Referring again to crop conditions 
spoken of elsewhere, and which applies 
to the entire Sacramento valley and 
can be put down at not over thirty- 
three per cent, of an average, we find 
the United States report for June 
gives the State an average of 104 per 
cent, which means four points above 
an average, 100 meaning an average. 
Now, if the figures I have named for 
the Sacramento valley are approxi- 
mately correct, the crop conditions in 
the San Joaquin valley must be enor- 
mously above the 100 mark to give the 
State a 104 credit. Recent State re- 
ports, however, do not go above 100 
anywhere, the San Joaquin valley in 
many localities far below, so that it 
would seem that somebody has greatly 
overestimated conditions. 

This error, which is misleading, may 
be more apparent than real and may 
have arisen from the fact that often 
comparisons are made between the 
current year and the last. Thus, the 
San Joaquin valley having had a very 
light crop a year ago, could easily show 
200 per cent, more or less, over that, 
which per cent would swell fictitiously 
the entire wheat product of the State. 
I am inclined to the belief that this 
undoubted overestimate was made as 
above indicated and without any inten- 
tion of overstating conditions. Those 
having our crop statistics in charge 
should be more careful in future, for it 
is obvious that a 104 wheat crop in 
the State would mean from one and a 
half to two million tons of exportable 
wheat, when in reality it is barely half 
that amount. And, the amount would 
swamp our market clean out of sight. 



The grain harvest is progressing 
rapidly, and by the time these lines be- 
come public little more grain will re- 
main standing. The short harvest is 
due to reduced acreage, and this is due 
to a prolonged rainy season in Decem- 
ber and January, when the plows were 
wont to run and the grain to sprout. 
The cold, damp condition of the soil 
was discouraging to the growth of 
wheat and encouraging to the growth 
of oats and native grasses up to the 
time the heads appeared; then came 
the battle for a change, and instead of 
the customary cool and dry May, the 
delayed north winds took possession 
for a fortnight, and whose drying pro- 
pensity the soft growth of the grain 
was unable to withstand, hence it filled 
lightly which is now painfully apparent 
in the diminished yield. This condi- 
tion, however, applies to wheat chiefly, 
barley being a fair if not an average 
crop, and so of corn and vegetables of 
ftU kinds, s.nd the bay crop was per' 



entire Grange department of the Rural 
would not sufiBce to give it space. Let 
us emulate their example. 



The Programme. 



Following is the official programme | 
of the coming meeting on the Santa 
Cruz mountains: 

Saturday, July 27th, 2:30 p. m.— Formal 
opening. Address by Hon. A. P. Roaehe, | 
Worthy Master of the State Grange. Re- 
marks by invited guests. Such musical pro- 
gramme as may be arranged. 

Monday, July 29th, 9:80 a. m.— Agriculture. 
"Origin and Formation of Soils," Prof. E. W. 
Hilgard, University of California. 

2:30 p. M.— Economics. "Changes Taking 
Place in the Condition of the American 
Farmer," Prof. E. A. Ross, Stanford Univer- 
sity. 

Tuesday, July 30th, 9 :ao a. m.— Agriculture. 
"The Soil and the Plant," Prof. Hilgard. 

2 :.30 p. M.— Economics. "Present Condition 
and Complaints of the Farmer," Prof. Ross. 

Wednesday, July 31st, 9:.30 a. m.— Agri- 
culture. "Grasses and Forage Plants in 
Arid Countries," Prof. E. J. Wickson, Univer- 
sity of California. 

2:.S0 p. M.— Economics. "The Farmer as 
Buyer; the Trust Problem," Prof. Ross. 

Thursday, August 1st, 9:30 a. m.— Agri- 
culture. "What California Has Done for 
Horticulture," Prof. Wickson. 

2:30 p. M. — Economics. "The Farmer as 
Transporter; the Problemof Country Roads," 
Prof. Ross. 

Friday, August 2d, 9. -.30 a. m.— Agriculture. 
" Progress of Floral Art and Industry," Prof. 
Wickson. 

2:.30 p. M.— Economics. "The Farmer as 
Transporter; the Railroad Problem," Prof. 
Ross. 

Sadurday, August 3d.— Some entertainment 



The Worthy Master of the State 
Grange gives notice of the coming 
vState meeting, and that he will require 
written reports from his deputies cov- 
ering his jurisdiction, concerning the 
work under his (the deputy's) imme- 
diate charge. 

The writer is one of the Master's 
servants and hopes to file his report in 
due time. But his task has been 
meager and the work he performed 
has been done in company with such 
Grange veterans as Deputies Shoema- 
ker and Frisbie, who have already re- 
ported progress, and who doubtless 
will supplement what may transpire 
down to date of the stated meeting. 
However, the chief authority is ac- 
knowledged and shall not be disre- 
garded. In looking over the list of 
deputies I find great talent arrayed 
in the interest of the order, and if all 
give their views and experience during 
the current year, not verbally, but in 
writing, we shall have a most profit- 
able session. 

Grange matters are of necessity dull 
now owing to the busy harvest time, 
but as this will be short this year, 
enough time will remain wherein some 
effective work can be done. 

The State encampment will have 
taken place, and from that new light 
and vigor will be cast over the Califor- 
nia Grange field. 

The Merced convention ought to be 
the best in the histoi-y of the Order in 
this State. 

The writer is in receipt of several of 
the best and foremost farmers' and 
Grange papers published east of the 
Rocky Mountains; and, !>iuce they ap- 
pear unsolicited, the donors will please 
accept thanks for the favor. These 
journals all indicate such an awakening 
in the Grange cause as has not been 
heard of for a decade. It is marvelous 
how the rural people flock to the 
Granges to be enrolled as members, 
and how all take a hand to make the 
meetings interesting and profitable. I 
have heretofore quoted from their pro- 
grammes and discussions, and 3nd tb@ 



arranged by the Ladies' Auxiliary Com- 
mittee. 

Monday, August 5th, 9:30 a. m.— Agricult- 
ure. "Relation of Water to Plant Dis- 
eases," Prof. C. W. Woodworth, University 
of California. 

2:30 p. M.— Economics. "The Farmer as 
Seller; Speculation in Farm Products," Prof. 
Ross. 

Tuesday, August 6th, 9 :30 a. m.— Agricult- 
ure. "Parasites for Insect Control," Prof. 
Woodworth. 

2:30 p. M.— Economics. "The Farmer as 
Debtor; the Money Problem," Prof. Ross. 

Wednesday, August 7th, 9:.30 a. m.— Agri- 
culture. "Our Insect Campmates," Prof. 
Woodworth. 

2:30 p. M. — Economics. "The Farmer as 
Taxpayer; the Tariff Problem," Prof. Ross. 

Thursday, August 8th, 9 :30 a. m.— Apricult- 
ure. "The Olive and Its Products," A. P. 
Hayne, University of California. 

2:.30 p. M. — Economics. "The Farmer as 
Taxpayer; State and Local Taxation," Prof. 
Ross. 

Friday, August 9th, 9:30 a. m.— Agriculture. 
"California Forests," C. H. Shinn, Univer- 
sity of California. 

2:30 p. M. — Economics. "The Farmer as 
Co-operator; the Problem of Self Help," Prof. 
Ross. 

(An extra lecture is promised by Mr. Shinn 
on the Experiment Stations of the Univer- 
sity. ) 

Saturday, August 10th. — Some entertain- 
ment arranged by the Ladies' Auxiliary Com- 
mittee. 

Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday, August 
13th, 14th and 15th. — Grand farmers' picnic 
and camp meeting at Santa Cruz, with 
daily addresses by some of the most eminent 
men in the State. The details will be an- 
nounced later. 

The site of the projected meeting 
has been named "Camp Roache," in 
honor of Mr. A. P. Roache, Worthy 
Master of the State Grange. 



WRITE FOR CATALOGUE: 

No. 14— Agrricultural Machinery. 
No. lo— Pumps and Engines. 



Jackson's "Light Weight" Horse Forlfs, 

Made and sold under the follow- 
ing Letters Patent: 

No. 210,458 Dec. 3, 1878 

No. 306,667 Oct. 14, 1884 

No. 403,019 May 7, 1888 

Other patents pending. 

The purpose of this notice is 

to inform both farmers and mer- 
chants, who use or sell Horse 
Forks, that they must not pur- 
chase Horse Forks that infringe 
the above Patents; and to call 
their attention to the fact that 
certain horse forks, manufac- 
tured by F. E. Myers & Bro, Ash- 
land, O., and imported and sold 
by the Deere Implement Com- 
pany, of San Francisco, are 
direct infringements of the 
above patents, the manufac- 
turers of the infringing forks 
having admitted in Court that 
their forks were an infringe- 
ment of the above patents, and 
are now paying royalty for 
manufacturing and selling; and 
they have agreed not to sell 
any west of the Rocky Moun- 
tains. 

All parties selling or using 
these infringing Horse Forks 
will be promptly prosecuted. 

r^r~kl/-»r~' r^r^rAI T/^r~*r^ (S-foot, with 4 tines, each »20 00 

Extra Fork Tines, S2.50 each. 

BYRON JACKSON MACHINE WORKS, 

625 Sixth Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



P. & B. FRUIT DRYING PAPER, 

★★★★FIFTH SEASON. ★★★★ 




UNEQUALED FOR DRYING RAISINS AND PRUNES! 

If you have not used it, TRY IT ! 



SAMPLES AND CIRCULARS FURNISHED ON APPLICATION. 

PARAFFINE PAINT CO. 

116 Battery Street San Francisco. 



Olive Trees for Sale 



GEO. H. KUHZ, Sacramento. 

Mission, 3 years 5 to 6 feet. 

Mission, 2 years 3to4 feet. 

Maozanillo, 2 years. 2 to 3 feel. 

NevadlUo, 2 and 3 years, , 4to6 feet. 

pjebpjlne, a years 8t<>8 fwti 



OUvc Trees. 

ALL KINDS OF NURSERY STOCK. Send for 
our Bock on Olive Culture. 

Howla^d Bros., 

POMONA, CAL. 



10 



The Pacific Rural Press 



July 6, 1896. 



THE HOME CIRCLE. 

Orient Bound. 



We're Orient bound, my soul and I 

The straining sails are wide unfurled : 
We seek, beneath a stainless sky. 

The morning of the world. 
Blow up, ye west winds, keen or bland, 

Our bark of fancy shall not veer 
Until o'er Egypt's dunes of sand 

We see the Pharaohs rear. 

Now, amid wafts of myrrh and nard. 

We voyage the mighty stream that thrids 
Where the unsleeping sphinx keeps guard 

Beside her pyramids. 

Or listen vainly, rapture mute. 

In dreams of old afar withdrawn. 
For Memnon's accents like a fiute 

Vibrating down the dawn. 
And now our footsteps reverently 

Upon that sacred soil are set. 
Where rise o'er sad Gethsemane 

The slopes of Olivet. 
Prom old Damascus garden bowers 

We wati-'h the sunset ro.se fiush fall. 
And lounge through long, unfettered hours 

'Mid the prone shrines of Baal. 

All life .shall wear a richer dye. 
Of doubts and narrow passions shorn. 

When we have quaffed, my soul and I, 
These golden springs of morn. 

—Clinton SeoUard. 



A Model Child. 



Her temper's always sunny, her hair is evi 
neat : 

She doesn't care for candy— she says it is too 
sweet ! 

She loves to study lessons — her sums are 

always right; 
And she gladly goes to bed at eight every 

single night ! 
Her apron's never tumbled, her hands are 

alwavs clean ; 
With buttons missing from her shoe she never 

has been seen. 
She remembers to say "Thank you," and 

"Yes, ma'am, if you please; " 
And she never •ries, nor frets, nor whines; 

she's never been known to tease. 

Each night upon the closet shelf she puts 
away her toys ; 

She never slams the parlor door, nor makes 
the slightest noise ; 

But she loves to run on errands and to play 
with little brother. 

And she's never in her life been known to dis- 
obey her mother. 

" Who is this charming little maid ! 
I long to grasp her hand ! " 
She's the daughter of Mr. Nobody, 
And she lives in Nowhereland ! 

— Helen Hopkins. 



Dolph's Prize. 



The Perkinses wer« all remarkable 
excepting Dolph; he, poor fellow, was 
remarkable for nothing, unless for 
being the homeliest, most ungainly, 
stupid fellow that ever breathed. 
Dick was the best scholar in the 
Academy, and great things were ex- 
pected of him by his fellow towns- 
people. " I reckon he'll be an M. C:, to 
say the least," said Dr. Goodrich, the 
chairman of the school committee. 
Joe was a natural orator, and the vil- 
lage wit; no gathering or entertain- 
ment was considered complete without 
him, while everybody said that Harry 
was the handsomest fellow in town, 
and had such perfect manners. "A 
regular Chesterfield," said outsiders, 
and none of the family disputed them, 
whatever they thought. But the flower 
of the family was Dot, dear, sweet 
dainty, beautiful little Dot. " She is 
too beautiful to live," her mother said 
a dozen times or more every day of her 
life, '' My white dove," her father 
whispered to himself when his eyes 
rested on her. 

But strange as it may seem, Dot 
gave her warmest love, and bestowed 
her sweetest smiles and tenderest 
caresses upon uncouth, stupid Dolph, — 
Dolph, who no one else seemed to love 
or care for, who was the butt of ridicule 
at home and school. "My nice booful 
Dolph," she called him lovingly as she 
followed kim wherever he went, or sat 
contentedly by his side out in the old 
carriage house, which place the family 
christened Dolph's Sanctum," No one 
dreamed how the poor fellow worshiped 
his dainty little sist»r, nor how her 
love was the one bright spot in his life. 

It was the last day of the term in 
AUenford Academy, and a great day in 

tow^, AW tb§ fon^ mothers, prou^ 



fathers and admiring sisters, attired 
in their best, gathered at the Academy 
hall to listen to the closing exercises, 
and witness the distribution of prizes. 
Dick, as usual, would take the first 
prize for scholarship, Joe the first for 
declamation. Harry did not stand so 
high in his lessons, but then he made 
such a good impression that people 
forgot whether he was wise — or other- 
wise. But Dolph, Mrs. Perkins grew 
red in the face, and Mr. Perkins said 
" Confound it" quite audibly, when he 
appeared, the biggest boy in the lowest 
class, and stumbled very clumsily 
through his recitations. 

Dolph saw it all, he knew that they 
were ashamed of him, his intuitions 
were ([uick and his sensibilities keen, 
though no one suspected it; and when 
one of the smaller boys gave a little 
derisive titter at one of his blunders, 
the hot angry blood surged all over his 
face and neck. " I'll go away," he said 
to himself. ''They shall never be 
ashamed of me again like this, never, 
nor laugh at me: I've done my best, 
I've tried hard, but nobody gives me 
any credit for that and nobody cares 
for me." He heard Dick's name called, 
and knew the first prize was being 
awarded to him; he glanced at his father 
and mother, and saw how proud and 
pleased they looked. " They'll never 
look so for me," he thought bitterly; 
" they'd be glad if I was out the way." 
He heard them all applauding Joe, and 
wondered vaguely how he should feel if 
it were him. 

A sullen, defiant look crept into his 
face but no one thought of him, except 
Dot; she was watching, and her sweet 
face grew anxious and troubled. It 
was not quite clear to her mind what it 
was that the " man with the spekles 
on," as she called the professor, was 
giving the boys, but she could see that 
the recipients seemed much pleased, 
and her loyal little heart desired Dolph 
to share in the pleasure. She was sure 
that he was disappointed, and she 
wondered how he came to be forgotten 
or overlooked — that he was undeserving 
in the least never once entered her 
mind. Her mother's head was turned 
away from her for a moment and slip- 
ping down from her she made her way 
quietly to the principal's desk. Where's 
Dolph's", she queried, standing on tip- 
toe in front of his desk. " Where's 
Dolph's ? He hasn't dot anfing yet, i 
and he's a drate deal the bestest. " The 
grave absent-minded professor peered 
through his spectacles in a startled ! 
manner at the vision before him. 
"Dolph — Dolph who? he asked in 
amazement. "My Dolph — my dood ' 
Dolph; hasn't you dotanyfing for him ?" 
piped the sweet childish voice, but the 
little mouth quivered and the blue eyes 
filled with tears. 

Mrs. Perkins looked distressed, and 
Mr. Perkins rose from his seat and 
started after the child. But the Pro- 
fessor seemed suddenly' roused from a 
dream; he looked over at Dolph, and 
saw the bitterness and misery on his 
face; he understood it as the child could 
not. as the father and mother did not. 
He remembered like a flash, the days 
of long ago when he himself had been a 
dull, heartsick, discouraged boy; he 
remembered, too, how but for a few 
words of kindly encouragement and 
held, he should have given up in despair. 
A sudden inspiration told him that this 
boy stood sorely in need of having just 
such a helping hand reached out to 
j him. Like a flash, too, he remembered 
] that not a boy in the whole Academy 
worked more faithfully, persistently 
and untiringly than Dolph. " He's no 
fool, though," was the professor's next 
thought. " He has a good head on his 
shoulders and there is something in it, 
or else I am greatly mistaken. I'll 
find out what it is, too; but what am I 
going to do now ? " Dot was just turn- 
ing away sorrowful and disappointed, 
when the professor, put out hishand 
to detain her. 
I " Wait a moment, my child," he said, 
" and you shall carry Dolph's prize to 
him yourself "—and taking from his 
desk the Alienford Medal, which was to 
bo awarded to the pupil who was the 
most worthy in all respects, he handed 
it to Dot, It was a sudden change of 

pyrpps^, byti the good man felt gyre 



that it was a wise change. "Tell 
Dolph,'' he said to little Dot, " that he 
has fairly and honestly earned this me- 
dal, which is the highest prize, for he 
has striven faithfully, persistently and 
nobly. His labor has not been wasted, 
I am confident; for it, and his real 
worth of character, I award him the 
AUenford Medal." Down the aisle 
tripped Dot, her face fairly radiant. 

"It's for you, Dolph," she said, hand- 
ing him the medal. "It's for you, 
tause " — here she paused dismayed, all 
that the professor had said had vanish- 
ed from her mind — " tause you's so 
dood," she concluded triumphantly. 
Poor Dolph; prosperity was almost 
harder to bear than adversity. He 
looked up, and meeting the kindly gaze 
of his teacher, broke down. " I have 
tried, sir. I have indeed, and I'll try 
harder. I will truly, I'll be something 
worthy of this, if it is any way possible, 
sir, I will." 

Yes, the Perkinses were all remark- 
able, but it turned out that Dolph was 
the most remarkable of them all, Joe 
kept the grocery store in AUenford, 
Dick became a third or fourth-rate law- 
yer, and Harry presided at the rib- 
bon counter in a fancy goods store, but, 
Dolph became a great machinist and 
inventor. You see the wise professor 
kept his eyes open, and penetrated even 
into Dolph's "Sanctum." There he 
found what talent was stored away in 
the great head that seemed so empty 
to them all. All AUenford was proud 
of him — very proud indeed. " It's 
surprising," said Dr. Goodrich, how he 
turned out — nobody expected anything 
of him. ' But there the doctor was 
mistaken; there was one who expected 
much of him, and that one was Dot. 
" I owe all my success to Dot and the 
professor," Dolph himself was wont to 
say, and among his most precious 
treasures, carefully preserved, was 
his first prize, the highly prized Allen- 
ford Medal. He had proved himself 
abundantly worthy of it. 



Repose of flanner. 



Our great-grandmothers taught their 
daughters that "repose of manner " 
was the first requisite of true propri- 
ety. No well-bred lady would fidget in 
company, put her hands to her face, 
toss her head, or finger her buttons. If 
she talked she did it in a soft voice and 
without gesticulation, no matter how 
many rings she wore or how pretty her 
hands might be. She was taught even 
to control her features; that squinting 
and winking the eyes and twitching the 
mouth were not "nice," and that they 
could and should be intermitted in po- 
lite society. In sitting neither the 
knees nor the feet were to be crossed, 
rocking was odiously vulgar, yawning 
and stretching were unspeakable of- 
fenses, and, above aU, the hands must 
be crossed or folded in the lap and kept 
there. 

We plead for at least a partial re- 
sumption of the old forms. Let moth- 
ers once more teach their girls to sit 
still in company, to cultivate calmness. 
Let our women learn to carry on an 
earnest conversation in subdued tones 
and without gesticulation. 
! We used to be told that lying in bed 
with hands folded and eyes shut was 
half as good as sleep when sleep was 
impossible. It is quite credible that 
flouncing and tossing about largely in- 
crease the loss of strength from sleep- 
lessness, as we know that the sleep 
which is accompanied with much toss- 
' ing and turning is not as refreshing as 
! that which is taken quietly. Just so if 
i a reposeful manner is acquired early in 
life an enormous expense of nervous 
movement is spared, and a correspond- 
ing amount of power may be saved. — 
Outlook. 

A traveler coming to an inn late at 
night, roused the landlord: "Can I 
have a bed here?" "No; the beds 
are all full." " WeU, can I have a 
shakedown ? " " No; every shakedown 
in the house is used up." " Well, have 
you a pole in the house?" "Yes." 
"WeU, etiok it out o( the window, and 

I'll roost on it," 



Fashion Notes. 



Batistes wUl be worn during the 
summer; also lawns, ginghams, linens 
and Swiss and embroidered crepes. 
Satin skirts are fashionable, and when 
made are very elegant, with the fancy 
waists of crepe lisse or of velvet. 

Ribbon sashes will be worn with the 
Swiss, organdie and lighter summer 
gowns. Flowered ribbons and those in 
stripes are pretty. Those in Roman 
and plaid designs are also seen. The 
sunburst patterns, in delicate colors, 
are very handsome and effective, 

A very pretty way of making a good, 
serviceable, washable frock is to have 
the entire bodice of white gathered 
Swiss needlework, and the skirt and 
sleeves only of the gingham, a ribbon 
coUar and belt with pretty bows being 
the only trimming. Insertion of white 
embroidery looks particularly well 
with yellow cambric. 

Many of the newest goods show black 
and white in combination. This effect 
will be popular during the coming sea- 
son. Basket cloth is much used, some- 
times in two colors. Organdies with 
flowers are made over silk skirts, the 
sleeves full and unlined. The wave- 
fluted crepe lisse is used for evening 
gowns over silk foundations. 

Little French gowns for girls be- 
tween five and eight have long waists 
and very short skirts, reaching just be- 
low the knee, and little yoke dresses 
for infants are a little shorter than 
they were last year. Large collars 
are a feature of children's fashions this 
season, and they are made of lawn, 
linen or pique, according to the gown 
they adorn. 

A pretty bodice has insertion placed 
in five or six stripes diagonally at 
equal distances from neck to belt. The 
present fashion of balloon puff elbow 
sleeves adds greatly to the beauty of 
percales. These may very easily be 
kept in place and also keep their shape 
if a band is buttoned just above the 
elbow, letting the fullness of the sleeve 
fall slightly below. 

In the woolen materials a double- 
tissued stuff is a novelty; a loose 
thread covering a woolen crepe of con- 
trasting color. Some of the woolen 
crepons have a lace stripe, others are 
in Japanese design. Most of the 
woolen goods have a chine effect in 
their weave. Plain woolen materials 
are much worn, even for the more 
dressy house occasions. Tweeds, mo- 
hairs and poplins are seen — 'also 
bareges and serges. 

The new silks are in brocade effect, 
and some of them are very handsome. 
Taffetas are the sUks most used. The 
very latest designs in stuffs show an 
all-over cashmerq pattern in many 
beautiful designs. Taffetas are the 
silk used, and the chine effects are 
preferred to the moire, which are 
somewhat out of date. The chines are 
printed with flower designs and Japan- 
ese patterns; a few plaids are seen. 
Chiffons are for dressy waists, and for 
draping evening gowns. Nets, how- 
ever, are a little newer. 

There are two hundred thousand fac- 
tory girls in London — one-twenty- 
icond of the whole population. 

Awarded 
l^ighest Honors— World's Fait 
Gold Medal, Midwinter Fair. 

•DR. 




IMING 

mm 

Most Perfect Made. 
io 'Vears the Standard. 



Jtily 6, 1896. 



The Pacific Rural Press. 



Gems of Thought. 



That some men think they can still do 
what they have been able to do is natu- 
ral enough; that others think they can 
do what they have never been able to 
do is singular, but not rare. — Goethe. 

The very exercise of industry imme- 
diately in itself is delightful, and hath an 
innate satisfaction which tempereth all 
annoyances, and even ingratiateth the 
pains going with it. — Barrow. 

Good and friendly conduct may meet 
with an unworthy, with an ungrateful 
return; but the absence of gratitude on 
the part of the receiver cannot destroy 
the self approbation which recom- 
penses the giver; and we may scatter 
the seeds of courtesy and kindness 
around us at so little expense! Some 
of them will inevitably fall on good 
ground, and grow up into benevolence 
in the minds of others; and all of them 
will bear fruit of happiness in the bosom 
whence they spring. Once blest are all 
the virtues; twice blest sometimes. — 
Jeremy Bentham. 

There are cas h a man would 

be ashamed not to have been imposed 
on. There is a confidence necessary to 
human intercourse and without which 
men are often more injured by their own 
suspicions than they would be by the 
perfidy of others. But when men whom 
we know to be wicked impose on us, we 
are something worse than dupes. 
When we know them, their fair pre- 
tences become new motives for distrust. 
There is one case, indeed, in which it 
would be madness not to give the full- 
est credit to the most deceitful of men — 
that is, when they make declarations of 
hostility against us. — Burke. 



Popular Science. 



Icebergs sometimes last a great many 
years. 

The waters of North America are 
stocked with 1800 different varieties of 
fish. 

The huge guns of modern navies can 
be fired only seventy-five times, when 
they become worn out. 

The gnat is provided with a regular 
set of lancets and a cupping glass, 
from which the air may be withdrawn. 

Vinegar and yeast should never be 
kept in stone jars, for there is an acid 
in them which attacks the glazing, and 
mixing with it has a poisoning prop- 
erty. 

Sir Robert Bau says that going at 
the rate of the electric telegraph — 
that is, 186,000 miles a second — it 
would take seventy-eight years to tele- 
graph a message to the most distant 
telescopic stars, but the camera has 
revealed stars far more distant than 
these, some of which, if a message had 
been sent in the year A. D. 1 — that is 
to say 1894 years ago — the message 
would only just have reached some of 
them, and would be still on the way to 
others, going at the rate of 186,000 
miles a second. 



The Terrible Mouse. 



Those ladies who have an indescrib- 
able dread of the harmless and timid 
mouse may derive some satisfaction 
from the knowledge that their weak- 
ness is sometimes shared by the " king 
of beasts." A writer in McClures 
Magazine establishes this fact beyond a 
doubt. A mouse was, he states, one 
day introduced into the cage of a full- 
grown Nubian lion. The lion saw the 
little fellow before it was fairly through 
the bars, and was after it instantly. 
Away went the mouse, scurrying 
across the floor and squeaking in 
fright. When it had gone about ten 
feet the lion sprang, lighting a little in 
front of the mouse; it turned, and the 
lion sprang again. This was repeated 
several times, the mouse traversing a 
shorter distance after each spring of 
the lion. It was demonstrated that a 
lion is too quick for a mouse, at least 
in a large cage. Finally the mouse 
stoed still, squealing and trembling. 
The lion stood over, studying it with in- 
terest. Presently he shot out his big 
paw and brought it down directly on 



the mouse, but so gently that the 
mouse was not injured in the least, 
though held fast between the claws. 
Then the ligp played with it in the 
most extraordinary way, now lifting 
his paw and letting the mouse run a 
few inches, and then stopping it again 
as before. Suddenly the mouse 
changed its tactics, and instead of 
running when the lion lifted his paw, 
sprang into the air straight at the 
lion's head. The lion, terrified, gave a 
great leap back, striking the bars 
with all his weight, and- shaking the 
whole floor. Then he opened his great 
jaws and roared and roared again, 
while the little mouse, still squealing, 
made its escape. Of the two the lion 
was certainly the more frightened. 
The ladies need no longer feel ashamed 
of their antipathy to the modest 
rodent. 



The Kind of a Woman to Know. 



The woman with a loving heart is 
sure to look upon the bright side of 
life, and by her example induce others 
to do so. She sees a good reason for 
all the unwelcome events which others 
call bad luck. She believes in silver 
linings, and likes to point them to 
others. A week of rain or fog, an 
avalanche of unexpected guests, a dis- 
honest servant, an unbecoming bonnet, 
or any other of the thousand minor in- 
flictions of every-day life, has no power 
to disturb the deep calm of her soul. 
The lovelight is still in her eyes, 
whether the days be dark or bright. 
It is she who conquers the grim old 
uncle and the dyspeptic aunt. The 
Grossest baby reaches out its arms to 
her, and is comforted. Old people and 
strangers always ask the way of her in 
the crowded street. She has a good 
word to say for the man or woman who 
is under the world's ban of reproach. 
Gossip pains her, and she never volun- 
tarily listens to it. Her gentle heart 
helps her to see the reason for every 
poor sinner's misstep, and she condones 
every fault. She might not serve with 
acceptance on the Judge's bench, but 
she is a very agreeable person to know. 
Harper's Bazaar. 



What Keeps Women Young. 



A woman is happy just in the pro- 
portion as she is content. The sun has 
a way of changing the spots upon which 
it shines. Especially is this true of our 
land, where one is up to-day and down 
to-morrow, and vice versa. The wisest 
woman is she who trusts in a to-mor- 
row, but never looks for it. To sit 
down and wish that this might be, that 
that would be different, does a woman 
no good. It does her harm in that it 
makes her dissatisfied with herself, un- 
pleasant to her friends, and makes her 
old before her time. Happiness is not 
always increased in proportion to en- 
larged success. This may sound like 
an old saw, and it is, I think, but there 
is a world of wisdom in many an old 
proverb just the same. Contentment 
is a wonderful thing to cultivate. There 
would be fewer prematurely old women 
in the world if it were given more of a 
trial and it became a more universal 
quality in womanhood. — Farm and 
Fireside. 



Tribute to a flother. 



Children, look in those eyes, listen 
to that dear voice, notice the feeling of 
even a single touch bestowed upon you 
by that hand ! Make much of it while 
yet you have that most precious of all 
good gifts — a loving mother. Read the 
unfathomable love of those eyes, the 
kind anxiety of that tone and look, 
however slight your pain. In after 
life you may have friends, but never 
will you have again the inexpressible 
love and gentleness lavished upon you 
which none but a mother bestows. 
Often do I sigh in the struggles with 
the hard, uncaring world, for the 
sweet, deep security I felt when, of an 
evening, nestling in her bosom, I 
listened to some quiet tale suitable to 
my age, read in her untiring voice. 
Never can I forget her sweet glances 
cast upon me when I appeared asleep; 



never her kiss of peace at night. 
Years have passed away since we laid 
her beside my father in the old church 
yard; yet still her voice whispers from 
the grave, and her eye watches over 
me, as I visit spots long since hallowed 
to the memory of my mother. — Lord 
Maculay. 

Humorous.. 

"You were embarrassed when you 
proposed to me, George, were you 
not?" "Yes, I owed over $20,000."— 
Life. 

O'Toole (seeing a deer for the first 
time) — " Oi shall come back a couple of 
weeks later to have a look at that 
baste." Mrs. O'Toole — " Phwoy ? '" 
O'Toole — " Oi'd loike to see how he 
looks whin th' leaves come out on that 
tree he's wearin' on bis head." — Puck. 

Tommy — " May I have some bread 
and sugar, mamma ? " Mamma — 
" Why do you always want bread and 
sugar, and never bread and butter ? " 
Tommy — "Because, mamma, sugar's 
only worth five cents a pound, and 
butter's about forty." — Harper's 
Bazar. 

"Oh, look ! " exclaimed Mrs. Sassa- 
fras, of Hemlock Corners, as she and 
her husband gazed for the first time on 
a bearded lady at a dime museum. 
" 'Sh, Lindy ! Don't speak so loud," 
replied her husband in a whisper. 
" Mebbe that's one of the emancipated 
women we've read about." — Harper's 
Bazar. 



DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 



Hints to Housekeepers. 

To clean brass and copper, apply a 
mixture of oil and rottenstone with a 
chamois cloth and rub bright. 

Keep the stove or range free from 
soot in all its parts. A hot-air passage 
clogged up with soot will prevent the 
oven from baking well. 

To keep tortoise-shell combs bright, 
rub them after each wearing with soft 
leather. When they become dim, clean 
with rottenstone and oil applied with 
chamois. 

Wall papers that are soiled or that 
one feels are dirty, though the grime 
is not visible, should be brushed or 
wiped with a dry cloth and rubbed with 
bread crumbs. 

If one wishes to cool a hot dish in a 
hurry it will be found that, if the dish 
be placed in a vessel full of cold, salty 
water, it will cool far more rapidly 
than if it stood in water free from salt. 

Delicately colored goods of any kind 
should never be washed without a salt- 
water bath first, but care should be ex- 
ercised in reference to materials which 
are likely to shrink when immersed in 
water. 

A boiling-hot liquid may be safely 
poured into a glass jar or tumbler by 
first putting a silver spoon in the 
vessel. Be careful, however, that a 
draught of cold air does not strike the 
vessel while hot. 

It is said that cut flowers will keep 
very fresh if a small pinch of nitrate of 
potash, or common saltpetre, is put in 
the water in which they stand. The 
ends of the stems should be cut off a 
little every day to keep open the ab- 
sorbing pores. 

Rubber can rings which have become 
hardened can be made pliable and 
elastic by soaking them fifteen to thirty 
minutes in two parts of water and one 
of ammonia. Sometimes there are 
ridges in the glass which prevent cans 
being hermetically sealed with rubber 
rings. Apply over the place a little 



putty or a cold paste of flour and 

water. 

Some of the old-fashioned methods of 
cooking and preparing food are not to 
be despised, even in these days of 
much-advanced kitchen chemistry. 
Ham, that good or bad relish, as the 
cook elects, according to her manipu- 
lation before serving of the slices of 
smoked pig, can be made deliciously 
nutty by soaking over night in butter- 
milk. Almost any dairy will supply 
that rarity of the city kitchen if the 
request is wide, but in its absence 
sweet milk does it as well. The slices 
should be washed before being placed 
in the milk batb and be washed again 
afterward and dried before cooking. 
This treatment takes away the smoky 
as well as the salty taste of ham and 
gives it almost a new flavor. 



Kitchen Lore. 

Whips. — A poimd of sugar, half a 
pint of wine, the juice of four lemons, 
mix all together, add a quart of rich 
cream, whip it to a strong froth and 
serve in glasses. 

Saute of Oyster Crabs. — Put two 
tablespoonfuls of butter in a small 
saucepan; when melted, add four table- 
spoonfuls of thick cream. Season with 
salt and cayenne; and when very hot, 
add a pint of oyster crabs. Cook one 
minute and serve. 

Radishes.— A little while before us- 
ing lay them upon ice or put them in 
ice water. To prepare them for the 
table, cut off the leaves, cut the red 
part into petals, in order to have them 
look like a rose, put them into a small, 
fancy cut-glass dish with pieces of 
cracked ice and serve. 

Beets. — When they are washed the 
little fibers and ragged excrescences 
should not be broken off, as the juices 
of the root will thus be lost. Young 
beets boil in an hour, but in the winter 
they require from two to three hours. 
When tender, put them for a minute or 
two into cold water, take them in your 
hands and slip off the skins. This is a 
much better and easier way than to re- 
move the skin with a knife. Cut them 
in slices, lay them into a kot dish, 
sprinkle them with salt and pepper, 
and a little butter, and, if you choose, 
vinegar also. It is a very good way to 
cut up all that remain after dinner. 
Put on salt and vinegar and set them 
aside to be used cold another day. 

Strawberry Shortcake. — One pint 
of milk, one quart of flour, one tea- 
spoonful of salt, two teaspoonfuls of 
baking powder, two heaping table- 
spoonfuls of butter, one quart of 
strawberries. Put the flour, baking 
powder and salt together and sift. 
Rub the butter into the flour with the 
hands or a spoon, and when well mixed 
add the inilk. The dough should be 
i only thick enough to roll out; and if it 
is too stiff, add a little more milk. 
Flour varies so much in its properties 
I that the amount of milk named will 
sometimes be found insufficient. Roll 
the dough out an inch and a half thick, 
and place it on an ungreased tin plate 
to bake. The cake should bake slowly 
three-quarters of an hour; and when 
done, should be twice its original size 
and deliciously light. Remove the 
cake from the pans and split it in two 
with a long and very sharp knife. Lay 
the steaming halves side by side on a 
platter with the cut sides upward, 
butter them and sift on a little sugar. 
Divide the berries between the two 
cakes, sift a little more sugar over 
them, put whipped cream over the top 
and serve with a pitcher of cream. 
This is an old-fashioned New England 
receipt and needs only to be eaten to be 
appreciated. 



Highest of all in Leavening Power. — Latest U.S. Gov't Report 




ABSOLUTELY PUBE 



i2 



The Pacific Rural Press. 



July 6, 1896. 



Some Vestigial Structures in Man. 

By W. E. RoTZEiiL, M. D., Karberth, Pa., in 
Hahvemnnnian Monthly. 

The term vestigial is used in anatomy 
as being more convenient in describing 
those parts generally known as rudi- 
mentary, aborative, atrophied, or use- 
less. There are many vestigial struc- 
tures in man, and an attempt to more 
than mention some of the most interest- 
ing of them far exceed the limits of 
this article. 

The appendix vermiformis is a vestig- 
ial structure, and, like all such struc- 
tures, has no function to perform in 
the organism. ' " Not only is it useless, ' ' 
says Darwin, "but it is sometimes the 
cause of death." 

The vermiform appendix is, doubt- 
less, the remains of the much elongated 
caecum that is found in the majority of 
the herbivorous mammals. The use- 
fulness of the tonsils is also doubtful. 
They are, as we all know, frequently 
the seat of disease, and after removal 
the individual realizes no inconvenience 
from the loss. Of what utility are the 
cervical auricles that occasionally occur 
in man. or the supernumerary legs, 
fingers, and toes, as well as all the 
other abnormalitities that frequently 
occur ? 

Among the lower animals there are 
numerous instances of useless organs, 
such as the clavicle of the cat, the teeth 
of a whale, or the sting of a bee or 
wasp, which when used, as a rule, 
causes the death of its owner. Refer- 
ring to insects. Professor Graber says: 
" There are also numerous structures 
and organs which may, with absolute 
certainty, be pointed to as perfectly 
useless. ' "But seeing that so enor- 
mous a number of specific peculiarities 
are in the same predicament, it surely 
becomes the reverse of reasonable so 
to pin our faith to natural selection as 
to conclude that all these peculiarities 
must be useful, whether or not we can 
perceive their utility. For by doing 
this we are but reasoning in a circle. 
The only evidence we have of natural 
selection is furnished by the observed 
utility of innumerable structures and 
instincts which, for the most part, 
are generic, family, or highc order of 
taxonomic value. Therefore, unless we 
reason in a circle, it is not competent 
to argue that the apparently useless 
structures and instincts of specific 
value are due to some kind of utility 
which we are unable to perceive." 

The third molars, or wisdom teeth, 
are becoming vestigial in civilized man. 
These teeth are now, as a rule, the 
last to come and the first to disappear; 
they are smaller and more variable 
than the other molars and have only 
two separate fangs. 

The body of adult man is always 
more or less covered with hair; this 
hair is the remains of the more exten- 
sive hairy covering possessed by his 
ancestors. An interesting fact in re- 
lation to this hairy covering is that the 
hair on the arm and forearm is directed 
toward the elbow — a characteristic 
which occurs only in the anthropoid 
apes and the American monkeys. The 
explanation of this has been given by 
Wallace who states that the orang, when 
resting, holds its long arms upward over 
its head, so that the rain flows down 
both the arm and forearm to the long 
hair which meets at the elbow. In oc- 
cordance with this principle, the hair is 
always longer or more dense along the 
spine, often rising into a crest of hair 
or bristle on the ridge of the back. 
In the entire series of the mammalia, 
from the monotremata to the quadru- 
mana, this character is very prominent. 

It is a well known fact in embryology, 
that at about the sixth monlh the 
human f(jetus is frequently covered with 
rather long dark hair over the entire 
body, except the soles of the feet and 
the palms of the hands. This cover- 
ing of hair is shed before birth, and so 
it isapparently useless except as being 
an evidence of evolution. 

Other vestigial structures are the 
muscles of the external ear, and the 
panniculus carnosis, subcutaneous mus- 
cles by which a large number of the 
mammalia are able to freely move their 
■^kin, thus protecting themselves from 



insects. The plica semilunaris, or 
nictitating membrane, the semitrans- 
parent eyelid, is rudimentary m man 
and other mammals, while in the other 
members of the vertebrata the function 
of this structure is to sweep over the 
external surface of the eye, apparently 
to keep the surface clear. 

The bones of man present such ves- 
tigial peculiarities as the supracondy- 
loid foramen, which occasionally oc- 
curs; it is normal in the lower qua- 
drumana. There is also the intercon- 
dyloid foramen, which occurs in man 
and the anthropoid apes, but is not con- 
stant in either. These peculiarities 
are found to be more common in the 
bones of the ancient races of mankind, 
and also in some savage races. 

The anatomy of man presents a large 
number of vestigial structures, each of 
which throws some light on the long 
line of his ancestral history, and that 
can only be accounted for as explained 
by evolution. 

A New "Natural" Method of 
Wood-Preserving. 



The Railroad Kidney. 



Hitherto, the seasoners of wood have 
relied almost entirelj' on the extraction 
of the sap, either by the natural proc- 
ess of dessication by time and ex- 
posure to the air, or by some artificial 
process, such as kiln-drying, steaming, 
washing, etc. In the curing of tim- 
ber by the extraction of the sap, 
a great proportion of the material is 
depreciated by reason of sun-shakes 
and cracks, or by warping, twisting, 
shrinking and other similar evils. To 
these objections may be added many 
others of a serious nature from a com- 
ercial point of view, such as waste of 
time in seasoning, necessity to hold 
large stocks, unproductive outlay of 
capital, loss of interest, rent, taxes and 
insurance, risk of destruction, deteriora- 
tion in quality, expense of priming and 
filling, shrinking of knots and liabiltiy to 
rot and decay. It is proposed to take a 
short cut of all this costly tangle and 
trouble by simply emulating nature, and 
retaining within wood its sapor "life- 
blood." This. Colonel Haskins, the in- 
ventor of the new "natural" wood- 
preserving process, maintains, is the 
only true principal of wood-preser- 
vation. The sap should be treated so 
that the whole of its life-preserving 
properties are retained and solidifled 
within the substance itself. The sap of 
wood contains large proportions of cer- 
tain albuminous, glutinous, resinous 
and oleaginous compounds in a state of 
solution, and it is of these compounds 
that nature, in the growth of the tree, by 
her laws of heat and pressure, gradually 
creates theha\;d, sound, fibrous portion 
of the wood. Trie new process is to take 
the wood in its green state and so treat 
it withair pressure and great heat that 
the various compounds in the sap are 
distilled and retained within the wood, 
without losing their antiseptic and 
preservative properties. The various 
essential compounds become coagulated 
in the pores and impregnate the whole 
substance. The soluble sap becomes 
insoluble, binding the fibers, and form- 
ing a homogeneous mass incapable of 
absorbing moisture, impervious to at- 
mospheric change, unshrinkable, easily 
worked and practically indestructible. 
Thus the process clinches in a few hours 
what nature has taken years to eflfect. 



A new story is of a tiny girl who 
spoke very scornfully of babies. ' ' Don't 
speak that way ! " said her mother; 
"it isn't very long since you were a 
baby, yourself.' "I know it," she 
said, looking what she felt; "and I'm 
shamed enough of it!" — The Tran- 
script. 

SlOO Kewarcl. IgilOO. 

The readers of this paper wiU be pleased to 
learn that there is at least one dreaded disease 
that science has been able to cure in all its stages 
and that is Catarrh. Hall's Catarrh Cure is the 
only positive cure now known to the medical 
fraternity. Catarrh being a constitutional dis- 
ease, requires a constitutional treatment. Hall's 
Catarrh Cure is taken internally, acting directly 
upon the blood and mucous surfaces of the system, 
thereby destroying the foundation of the disease, 
and giving the patient strenjrUi by building up 
the constitution and assisting nature in doing its 
work. The proprietors have so much faith in its 
curative powers that tbi-y offer One Hundred 
Dollars for any case that it fails to cure. Send 
for list of Testimonials. 

Address F. J. CHEN EY & CO., Toledo, O. 

WSold by Druggists, 75c. 



This complaint is now recognized by 
medical men. It is caused by an arti- 
ficial stoppage of the pores of the skin, 
the dirt of the railroads being re- 
sponsible for such stoppage. If any 
person will examine his hand after 
riding for two or three hours in a 
train — and this is especially true if he 
be perspiring — he will find his hand is 
dirty. But a closer examination will 
show the existence of a fine grime, the 
particles of which, so soon as the per- 
spiration ceases, act as minute corks, 
stopping up the orifices of the pores. 
How deeply the grime works into the 
skin is shown by the fact that after a 
railroad trip one washes one's hands 
two or three times before they become 
clean. It is this grime which pro- 
duces railroad kidney. Of course it is 
not to be supposed that an ordinarily 
healthy person will contract this dis- 
ease in any trip of a day or two. But 
where a person is already a sufferer 
from chronic disease of the kidneys, it 
is possible that a week on railroad 
trains would aggravate his malady to an 
appreciable extent. — Scientific Ameri- 
can. 



Model 
Farm 1 
House I 

I is kept in model order by a 9 
C model farmer's wife — she C- 

cleans the dairy and kitchen g 
Q Utensils ; cleans the floors § 
S and -windows — cleans every- 5 
^ thing cleanable with ^ 

Cold DUST I 

Washing Powder. | 

This famous preparation S 
' quickly removes dirt of a g 
I c^reasy nature or any nature. 1 
Every farmer's wife as well i 
I as every other wife should ( 
' have a supply of GOLD ] 
DUST. Sold everywhere in \ 
large packages. Price 25c. \ 

Goi.D Dr-sT Washino Powder has 
an additional value to the fHrmer for 
de?<troyiniC insects. Send usynur name 
and address and we will mall you an 
important booklet containing recipes 
for making kerosene eniulBions, for 
spraying crops and trees and Uvv stock. 

^' THE N. K. FAIRBANK COMPANY, Z 

S Cblcago, New York, St. Louis, 

X Boston, Philadelphia. ^ 

©O OOQQOOQ Q QOtaOQQ QQ Q Q OOOC g 

CHOICE FRUIT ORCHARD^ 

Will be sold cheap; near Los Gatos; 40 acres; 
the best laid out and best cared for orchard (three 
years old) in Santa Clara Valley ; prunes, peaches, 
pears and almonds. 

New House, 8 rooms, lot 50x1124, town Palo 
Alto, $1700. Al.so some choice building lots in the 
town. 

.JOHN F. BYXBEK, 
No. 43 Market St. San FranclsPO. 

DIVIDEND NOTICE. 

The German Savings and Loan Society, 

.'>-.i6 Calirornia St. 

For the half year ending June M, IK)^, a dividend 
has been declared at the rate of four and eight- 
tenths (4 K IO) per cent per annum on Term De- 
posits, and four (4) per cent per annum on Ordinary 
Deposits, free of taxes, payable on and after 
MONDAV, ,Julv 1, 1895. 

r,EO. TOURNV, Secretary 

LEE D. CRAIG, 
Notary Public and Commissioner of Deeds, 

31« MONT(JO>lK.KV STKKET. 

r»et. California and Pine. SAN FRANCISCO. CaI. 

CD II IT EVAPORATOR 

1 11 W I I THE ZHVIMCRMAN 

■ The Standard Hartalne 

Dlffertnt slzei and prlcei. IlloBtrated CatAlogne frea. 
TU£ BLrHTBU IltON WOBK8 oo., ClaoUnaU, O. 




MONARCH CAR PRESS 

10 TONS BOXCAR $800 

MONARCH JRoKiun-ilu.o&sao 

l«TH£f)|£TS«WU. 
flM.ECAR PRESS imtS 




Monarch and 

Junior Monarch 

H/\V PRESS. 

Patented by Jacob Price. 

ALSO 

Double-End HURRICANE Press 

(T«o Sizes). 
FOR SALE BY 

L. C. nOREHOUSE, 

8AN I.EANUKl). CAI.. 
Wn. H. ORAV General Agent. 



r|j&HTNING HAY pRESSS 



FULL 

TWO rEEDS 



CIRCLE, ■ 

TO CIRCUE 




STEEL. MOST RAPID AND POWERFUL. 



\ K.C.HAY PRESS CO. 

*fSS KANSAS C1TV MO. 



Price's Traction 
Engine. 




We have one of these engines that was used 
about one month last season and was taken back 
by us by reason of Illness of purchaser. Engine is 
In perfect order, and in better working order than 
when tirst sent from the factory. A BARGAIN. 
Indicated power, ai>-horse; Cylinders, 8x8; Wheels, 
Sft. high, 28 in. wide; weight, less than 10 tons. 
Price when new, $4500. 

HOOKER & CO.. 

16 aud IK Drumm Street, San FranrlHco. 



At 7 Price 



'J rlcjrir*. «>uuiau-l Pl^toU, {'uvty 



1 




•wlnr .^.irhlD'Si A'^or-l^fiTHi, <lrr;^nt, PI»nfi<, Cider HlII*^ 

Lib llr»wrr% mils Stn***, R'ttlr^ R»nc HHIh 

■ttfr rrrvtrt> Jiii-k <t<T^<Ta, T-it-l.<, An*iN, linrf "Urn, 

■«u Ntan.t. d'nnv Da-.L.. \ 1u>.._ •■••Ml. Rnart PlaW«. 




BLAKE, MOFFITT & TOWNE, 

DKAI.KRS IN 

RARER, 

512 to 516 Sacramento St., San PrancUco, Cal. 



BLAKE, MOFFITT & TOWNK 1.08 Angeles 

RLAKK. McFAI.r, * CO Poriland, Or, 

XREE - \A//\SH. 

Oli\/e> Dip. 

"Greenbank" Powdered Caustic 
Soda and Pure Potash. * 

T . \AJ . dfc CO. 

Sole Agents. - - No. 326 Market Streit, 
SAN FRANCISOO. CAL. 



July 6, 1895. 



The Pacific Rural Press. 



13 



S. F. MARKET REPORT. 



Market Review. 



SAN Francisco, Ju1,v;2, 1895. 

FLOUR— We quote : Net cash prices for Family 
Extras, $3 50(33 60 ^ bbl; Bakers' Extras, $3 40® 
$3 50; Superfine, $2 ^50)2 60 1* bbl. 

WHEAT— No. 1 Shipping Wheat is quotable at 
93%c per ctl for new and 91Hc for old. Mill- 
ing Wheat, 97»4c@$l per ctl. 

BARLEY— Feed, fair to good, 60o; choice, 6S%c; 
Brewing, 70@75c. 

OATS — We quote: Milling, $l@t 05; Sur- 
pri.se, $10.1 12^4; fancy feed, 9.5c(ajl ; good to 
choice, 87V5(a'90c; poor to fair, 80@i82Hc; Black, 
nominal; Gray, 80@85c ctl. 

CORN— We quote : Large Yellow, »1 10(®1 17i4; 
small Yellow, $1 15@1 20 V ctl; White, $1(5. 
$1 10. 

RYE— Quotable at 85c "# ctl for New, and 9Hic 
for Old. 

BUCKWHEAT— Quotable at 85(g'95c f( ctl. 

CRACKED CORN— Quotable at $25@26 1* ton. 

OILCAKE MEAL— Quotable at $25 per ton from 
the mill. Jobbing lots, $27 50. 

COTTON SEED OILCAKE— Quotable at $24 
per ton. 

MIDDLINGS— Quotable at $18 50@19 50 * ton. 

BRAN— Quotable at $13 50@14 50 f. ton. 

GROUND BARLEY— Quotable at $14 50 ton. 

HAY— New Wild Oat selling at $B 50@8; 
Wheat, $7(3 10; Alfalfa, $6 50(n 7 50 per ton. We 
quote old: Wheat, $7@,10 .50; Wheat and Oat, $7® 
10 50; Oat, tS^lO; Alfalfa, $7(3)8 .50; Barley, $7® 
8 50; Clover, $7®8; Compressed, $7@9; Stock, $5 
@,6 ton. 

STRAW— Quotable at 40@70c V bale. 

BEANS— We quote as follows : Bayos, $1 25 
®1 50; Butter, $1 50@2 for small and $2@ 
2' 50 for large; Pink, $1 2.5®1 45; Red, $1 
(nil 25; Lima, $5® 5 25; Pea, $2 75®2 90; Small 
White, $2 7.5@2 85; Large White, J2 60@$2 95; 
Blackeye, $3@3 50; Horse, $1 15@,1 40^ ctl. 

SEEDS— We quote as follows: Mustard. Brown, 
$1 50@1 75; Yellow, $2®2 25; Trieste, $1 90®2 00; 
Canary, S'/iBSY^c; Hemp, SVic; Rape, l%(S>.2}^c\ 
Alfalfa, 7fai7'/2C fti; Flax, $2 2.i(n:2 .50® ctl. 

POTATOES— Early Rose, 40(n 60c IS* ctl in boxes 
and 40®50c i> ctl in sacks. Burbanks, 50@90c ^ 
ctl in boxes and 40(qi60c i? ctl in sacks. 

(JREEN CORN— Quotable at 40®75c per sack 
for Vacavil le ; Berkeley, small crates, 75c@$l ; large 
crates, $1.2.5®1.50. 

ONIONS— Quotable at 60®70c ctl. for Red and 
75®90c for Silver Skin. 

VARIOUS — We quote; Bay Squash, large 
box, 40(3'65c; Cucumbers, 20® 35c box for Marys- 
ville; Bay, 60@85c f. box; Asparagus, $l@$l 50 "# 
box for ordinary, and $2®2 50 ¥ box for choice and 
fancy; Rhubarb, 2.5@50c 1* box; Tomatoes, 40@65; 
Bay, large boxes. $2 50@3; Winters, 6-inch boxes, 
60@75c; String Beans, 1@2c f, lb for common; Ref- 
ugee, 3@3c ^ lb; Wax Beans, WiCtfZy^c 1? ft; Green 
Peas, $1®1 25 per sack for garden; Green Pep- 
pers, 5^i7c tb, and 50@65c ^ small box; Green 
Okra, 20c tb; Turnips, 50c Tf* ctl; Beets, .50®60c 
K sack; Carrots, 50@60c; Cabbage, 65@75c * ctl; 
Garlic, new, 2@3c ^ ft; Cauliflower, !j0®60c ^ 
dozen; Dried Peppers, 13@15c * tb. 

FRESH FRUIT— Apples— Quotable at 35@50c ^ 
large box for Green and 50(o 90c IP box for Red. 

Apricots— Quotable at 30@60c per box and 30@50c 
*t> basket for Royals. 

Berries — Strawberries, Sharpless, $2 ^ chest; 
Longworth, $.S®4i/2; Raspberries, $2@3 ^ chest; 
Blackberries, $1 75®2 * chest. 

Plums— Quotable at40@75c as to quality and va- 
riety. 

Pears— Quotable at 25®40c ^ box. 

Canteloupes— Quotable at $4@4 50 crate. 

Cherries— Quotable at 60(3)75c box for red and 
black, and 35@40c for white; Royal Anne, 60@75c. 

Currants— Quotable at $3@3 50 f. chest. 

Figs— Black, single layers, 20®;Wc * box; double 
layers 35®50c per box. White, single layers, 20® 
2.5c; double layers, 40@50c. 

Peaches— Quotable at 20@50c in boxes and 30@50c 
in baskets ; 30-ft> open boxes, 50®75c. 

CITRUS PRUIT—We quote: California Navels, 
$1 50@3; Seedlings, $75@1; Mexican Limes, 
$4 50 TP box; California Lemons, $1@2 00 for 
common and $2@3 for good to choice. 

DRIED FRUIT— Following are the prices fur- 
nished by the San Francisco Fruit Exchange. The 
figures presented represent carload lots, smaller 
parcels occasionally selling at slightly lower 

Apricots— Fancy Moorpark, 8c; choice, do, 7c ; 
fancy, 7c; choice, 6c; standard, o^c; prime, 5c. 

Apples— Evaporated, 43ii@.5Ho; sun-dried, 4(d4'/4c. 

Peaches — Fancy, 6Hc; choice, .5c; standard, 
i'Ac; prime, 4c; peeled. In boxes. 12®13c. 

Pears— Fancy, halves, 5c; quarters, 4!4c; choice, 
4c; standard, 3!4c; prime, 3c. 

Dried Grapes— lV4c T? lb. 

Plums— Pitted, 3@4c;unpitted, l@2c. 

Prunes— Four sizes, 4c. 

Nectarines— Fancy, 6c; choice, .5c; standard, 
i',ic ; prime. 4c. 
Figs— White, choice, 3@5c. 

Raisins— In sacks (.50-lb. boxes selling at i^c ^ 
lb. higher): 4-crown, loose, 3(^c; 3-crown, 2Hc; 2- 
crown, 2c; seedless Sultanas, 3c; seedless Mus- 
catels, 2c ^ fc; 3-crown London Layers, $1 40 
1? box in 20-lb. boxes; clusters. $2; Dehesa clus- 
ters, $2 .50; Imperial clusters, $3; 4-crown, loose, $1 ; 
4-crown, loose, faced, $1 15 ^ box. 

NUTS— Walnuts, 6@7c for hard shell, 7@10c for 
paper shell; California Almonds, 6@7c for soft 
shell; 3f3 4c for hard shell and 8® 10c for paper 
shell; Peanuts, 3i4®4'/sC for California and5@6'/^e 
for Eastern; Pecans, 6c for rough and 8c for 
polished: Brazil Nuts. KnlViC lb; Cocoanuts, 
U 50@5 50 ■# 100; Pino Nuts, 20c 1? lb, 

HONEY— We quote: Comb,9@10c; water-white, 
extracted, 5'/j®6c; light amber, extracted, 5@5!4c; 
dark amber, 4®.5c 'f. tb. 

BEESWAX— Quotable at 26®28c lb. 

BUTTER— Is temporarily scarce, supplies just 
barely meeting demands. Creamery- Fancy, 15%^. 
16c; seconds, 13®14c¥ lb. Dairy— Fancy, ISVt® 
I4c; fair to choice, 12@l3c; store lots, nominal. 

CHEESE— We quote: Choice to fancy, 5i4®6c; 
fair to good. 3Vi®.5c; Eastern. ll®l2Hc ft. 

EGGS— Quotable at 12@13c f. dozen for store 
and 15(o 16 for ranch; Eastern, 14® 1.5c. 

POULTRY— We quote as follows : Live Turkeys 
— Gobblers, 11® 12c; Hens, ll®12c f. ft; Roosters. 
$4(a 4 50 for old, and $5 hufax for young; Broilers. %t 
(it-i .50 for small and tM" 3 .50 lor large; Fryers, J3 .5fl 
(ai .50; Hens, $4@5; Ducks, $3(n3 .50 for old and 
$2 .50"! 4 .50 tor young; Geese, 75c(o $1 1» pair; Gos- 
lings, 7.5c(3$l 25; Pigeons, $1 25(" 1 50 dozen for 
old and $1 2.5@1 50 for young. 

WOOL— We quote spring : 

Year's fleece, San Joaquin, ^ B) 6®ftV4c 

6 to 8 months do 6®8o 

6 to 8 months Calaveras and foothill, tree 8(g*lOe 

Do, defective 6@8o 

Northern, good to choice 12@13c 

Do. defective 



We quote Nevada spring: 

Light and choice 9@llc 

Heavy 6@8c 

HOPS— Quotable at 4@6o f» ft. 

HIDES AND SKINS— Quotable as follows : 

Sound. Culls. 
Heavy Steers, 56 lbs ^ip, ^ lb. . .10 @— c 9 @— 

Medium Steers, 48 to 56 lbs 814®9 7H®8 

Light, 42 to 47 pounds 8 @— 7 @— 

Cows, over 50 lbs 8 ®8'/5 7 @— 

Light Cows, 30 to 50 lbs 8 @— 7 @— 

Stags — ®6 — @4 

Kips, 17 to 30 lbs — @7 — @6 

Veal Skins, 10 to 17 lbs — ®8 — @6 

Calf skins, 5 to 10 lbs — @9 — @7 

Dry Hides, over 16 lbs 19 @20 14 @— 

Dry Kips and Veal, 11 to 16 lbs . 14 ®15 10 ®— 

Dry Calf, under 4 lbs — @20 14 ®— 

Pelts, Shearlings, 10®20c each; do, short, 2.5@3.5c 
each; do. medium, .30(a,4.5c each; do, long wool, 40® 
60c each; Deer Skins, summer, 30c; do, good 
medium, 1.5®25c; do, winter, 10® 15c lb; Goat 
Skins, 20®3.5c apiece for prime to perfect, 10®20c 
for damaged, and .5c each for Kids. 



California Fruit Sales. 



Chicago, III., July 1 —The Earl Fruit Com- 
pany sold to-day : Simoni Prunes, $2.55; Tragedy 
Prunes, $2.25@2..35; Burbank plums, $1,7.5(3 2.25; 
Peach Plums, $1. 6.5ft 1.75; Abundant Plums, $1.60fti 
1.65; Royal Hative Plums, $1.5fl(3 1.60; Clyman 
Plums, $1.65; Royal Apricots, $1.30((/ 1.40; Alexan- 
der Peaches. $1.25; Hale's Early Peaches, $1.15(3 
1.20. 

New York, July 1. — The National Fruit Asso- 
ciation sold to-day: Alexander Peaches, 65c® 
$1.70; Hale's Early Peaches, 60cft$2.25; Royal 
Apricots, $1.1.5®1. 20; Royal Haiive Plums, $1. 25ft 
2.05; Peach Plums, .$3.05®3.40; Koenig Claude 
Plums. (i5cfti$1.25; Tragedy Prunes, $1.40ft'2.65; 
Figs, in 10-pound boxes, 40c®$2.05. 



List of U. 5. Patents for Pacific 
Coast Inventors. 



Keported by Dewey & Co., Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacifle Coast. 



FOB WEEK ENDING JUNE 18. 1895. 

541.145.— Paper Wrapping Machine— J. Arnott, 
Jr., Comptonville, Cal. 

.541,261.— Swinging Window— C. M. Berry. S. F. 

541,22,3.— Dredger— A. F. Carroll, Portland, Or. 

541,267.— Change Handler— G. E. Crump, S. F. 

541, .345.— Lifting Jack— J. W. Currier. Los An- 
geles, Cal. 

541,318.— PAPER Wrapping Machine — Davies & 

Thomas, Oswego, Or. 
541,164 — Joint Packing— J. L. Holland, Nevada 

City, Cal. 

541,328.— Tire Tightener— J. N. Jennings, Port- 
land, Or. 

541,09.3 —Harvester— A. J. Johnson, Arbuckle,Cal. 
.541,36.3.— Measuring Fadcet— L. & V. Konopinski, 
S. F., Cal. 

541,368. — Preserving Foods — Leak, Hayford, 

Pflster & Meyer, S. F. 
541,384.— Napkin Holder- B. F. Pascoe, Globe, 

A. T. 

541,193.— Excavator— C. F. Warren, S. F. 

Note.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign patents fur- 
nished by Dewe.v & Co. in the shortest time possible 
b.v mall or teleg"raphic order). American and For- 
eign patents obtained, and general patent business 
for P,aclflc Coast inventors transacted with perfect 
security, at reasonable rates, and in the shortest 
possible time. 



The Kiel ship canal opened last 
week, and is about 61 miles long, 20 
feet deep at dead low water an(3 229 
feet wide. In numerous places the 
canal widens out to 428 feet to allow 
the largest vessels to pass each other. 
Work will be continued until vessels 
of any depth can pass at low water. 
The embankment is stone lined to a 
depth of six feet below the water. The 
locks at the North Sea end of the canal 
are the largest in the world with the 
exception of that at Bremerhaven. 
While no high hills interfered with the 
work, considerable difficulty was ex- 
perienced in leading the railroad across 
the canal. Two of the bridges span 
the canal at a height of 137 feet above 
the water, besides which there are six 
opening bridges and sixteen ferries. 
The canal cost $39,000,000. 



Horse Owners! Try 

GOMBAULT'S 

Caustic 




Balsam 



A S.ifo Speedy and Positive Cnro 
The Safest, Best BLISTER ever used. Takes 
the place of all linimenta tor mild or eovere action. 
Removes all Bunches or Blemishes from Horses 
and Cattle. SUPERSEDES ALL CAUTERY 
OR FIRING. ItnpossihH to vroduoe scar or blemish. 

Every bottle sold is warranted to give satisfaction 
Price $l.50 per bottle. Sold by drugKists, or 
Bent by express, charges paid, with full directions 
for its use. Send for descriptive circulars,,'* 
THE LAWRENCE-WILLIAMS CO., Cleveland O. 




CABLED POULTRY and GARDEN FENCE. 

Also C.il.U-ci Fk-lil .iiHl HoR F. nciiif,', .'SH'i l Web Ticket 
Lawn Fence, Steel Wire Fence Board, Steel Gates. Steel 
Posts, Steel Rail, Tree, Flower and Tomato Guards. 
Cataloifue Free. 

DeKalb Fence Co.,33High St., DeKalb, III* 

JOHN WOODLOCK, General Agent, 

86 Beale Street San FrancUcQ, Cal, 



Breed ers' Directory. 

six lines or less in this directory at 60c per line per 
month. 



Horses and Cattle. 



F. H. IJUKKE, (i26 Market St., S. P. Al Prize Hol- 
steins; Grade Milch Cows. Fine Pigs. 



UUI..IjS— Devons and Shorthorns. All pure bred 
and registered. Fine individuals. At prices to 
suit the times either singl.v or in carload lots. 
Oakwood Park Stock Farm, Danville, Cal. 



P. H. MURPHY, Perkins. Sac. Co.. Cal. Breederof 
Shorthorn Cattle, Poland-China & Berkshire Hogs. 



M. D. HOPKIN.S, Petaluma. Registered Shorthorn 
Cattle. Both sexes tor sale. 



PETER .SAXE & SON, Lick House, S. F., Cal. Ira- 
porters and Breeders, for past 21 vears, of everv 
variet.v of Cattle. Horses, Sheep and Hogs. Cor- 
respondence solieiied. 



.lERSEYS— The best A. J. C. C. registered prize herd 
is owned b.v Henr.v Pierce, S. F. Animals for sale. 



Poultry. 



?f '^S^Si; ON POSTALCARD<.o 

travT^m^TtPr'i'TXnT gANCH.WESTRIVERSIDE.CAt 
R r o^.^.' Si-ol^ N D YO U SOMETHINC USEFUL 
BY DECEMBER IS': NEXT.,<""»S CW LE&HORNS!;;SCJ. 




IN THESE TIMES 

You Can Largely Increase 

Your Income by buying an Incu- 
bator and engaging in the chicken 
business. Send stamp for our 
catalogue of Incubators. Wire 
Netting, Blooded Fowls and Poul- 
try Appliances generally. Remem- 
ber the Best is the Cheapest. PACIFIC 
INCUBATOR CO., 1317 Castro St., 
Oakland, Cal. 



HERCULES 



GEARED WINDMILL. 



IMPROVED DAVIS 




WINDMILL. 

Patent Non=Shrinkable Tanks, 
Deep-Well Pumps, 
All Kinds of Pumps. 

A. Bl'SCIIKK, Tracy, Cal.. breeder of Thorough- 

sSr? Leghorns. Barred Plymouth Rocks; Qo not buy an Eastern machine when you can 

.5(K1 head young stock to select from: single birds / l ^- . j . 
from $2 up: trios from $.5 up; eggs $1.50 per setting. ~" " — — ■- 



WELLINGTON'.S IMPROVED EGG FOOD 

for poultry. Every grocer and merchant keeps it. 



CALIFORNIA POULTRY FARM, Stockton. Cal. 
Send for illustrated and descriptive catalogue, free. 



Swine. 



F. H. BURKE, B26 Market St., S. F.— BERKSHIRES. 



CHAS. A. STOWE, Stockton, Berkshire and 
Poland-China Hogs. 



M. MILLER, Elislo, Cal. Registered Berkshires. 



J. P. ASHLEY, Linden, San Joaquin Co., Cal. 
Breeds Poland-China, Essex and Yorkshire Swine. 



TYLER BEACH, San Jose. Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 



Sheep and Goats. 



J. B. HOYT. Bird's Landing, C;il. Importer and 
n Breeder of Shropshire Shi'ep; also breeds Cross- 
: bred Merino and Shropshire Sheep. Rams for sale. 
G Prices to suit the times. Correspondence solicited. 



J. H, GLIDE, Sacramento. Very large choice Span- 
ish, French and Shropshire rams. Bedrock prices. 



R. H. CRANE, Petaluma, Cal. Southdown Sheep. 



Short-Horn BULLS 



ROBERT ASHBURNER, 

Baden Station, San Mateo Co., Cal. 

The Baden Farm Herd was established in 1867, 
with cows from then recent importations of the 
best English Milking Shorthorns, since which 
time improvement in dairy qualities has been 
steadily kept in view. 




1000 SHROPSHIRES. 

Lareest Mutton Ram 
Breeding Farm in 
America. 

Range trade a specialty. 
Also fitted show stock 
in season. 
Come or write — 

A. O. FOX. Owner. 
Oregon, Dane Co., Wis. 



FARMERS, ATTENTION ! 

DO YOD WANT TO EMPLOY ANYBODY? 

If so, we furnish Farm Hands, Teamsters, Men 
and Wives, etc., promptly. No charges to 
employers. Send in your orders to 

J. F. CROSETT & CO., 

Employment Agency, 

6'!8 Sacramento Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

SAMPLE American Bee JouniaL 

(Established 1801). 
Weekly, *l ye:n-. VEditors. 
I BO -page ^•■i 
Bee-Book 

, Free! 

All about Hees and Honey 

G.W.YORK&CO. 

.56 Fifth Ave. 
CHICAGO, IIjIjINOIS. 



get a better article made at home 
for less money. 



The Board of Supervisors of San Joaquin county 
are using about twenty of my windmills for road 
sprinkling. 

Write for Prices 



R. F. WILSON— Dear Sib:— You sold me in 1892 
two windmills {the Hercules) : one at Fowler, 
Fresno Co., and one at Antelope Valley, Tulare Co. 
They have been in constant use ever since and not 
a dollar of expense thus far. When a mechanic 
builds a meritorious machine, I think it proper he 
should receive credit. Yours truly, 

JUDGE S. J. NYE, Oakland. 



R. R. WILSOIN, 

STOCKTON, CAL. 

Works Cor. W. Main and Lincoln Sts. 

Office 17 N. Commerce St. 




SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Incorporated April. 1874 




Capital Paid Up » 1.000,000 

Reserve Fund and Undivided Fronts, 130,000 
Dividends Paid to Stockholders.... 832,000 

OFFICERS 

A. D. LOGAN President. 

I. C. STEELE Vice-President. 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER.... Cashier and Manager. 
PRANK Mcmullen secretary. 

General Banking. Deposits Received, Gold and 
Silver. Bills of Exchange Bought and Sold. Loans 
on Wheat and Country Produce a Specialty. 

January 1, 1894. A. MONTPELLIER, Manager. 



FREE 




"INDURINE" COLD WATER PAINTS. 

A Most Remarkable Material is the 
OUT.SIDE IINDURIISE. 

It stands rain and exposure as well as oil paint, 
and costs only a fraction as much. 

It is just the thing for fences, outbuildings, fac- 
tories, etc., being cheap, durable and easily ap- 
plied by an.yone. 

It has no equal as a light reflector for light- 
shafts and court-yards of large buildings. It Is 
supplied in a thick paste, to be diluted with cold 
water. It is made in white and several colors. 

IINSIDE IINDURIINJE 
Is designed especially for factories, stables, and 
general inside work, as a substitute for white- 
wash, Ualsomine or oil paint. 

/t will not rub or Kciilf, soften or darken with 
age, and works well over old whitewash. A dry 
powder to be mixed with cold w.ater. 

Both Indurines arc perfectly lire-proof. 

Send for circular and prices to 

WM. BlIRI), MANUFACTURER, 
IMills Buil<ling, - - San Kraiirlsco. Cal. 



lAT • FOLKS • 




oslng "ANTI-CORPUI.KNR PILI.R'Moso 16 lt)s: 8 
noDth . Caufle no Ri''kTH'a».rtnntain no poi.on nnil never 
fall. Sold hv PruitKl.ti rvrrvwtiore or "nt hi mall. Par- 
tloal«r8( sealed) 40. WILCOX SPECIFIC CO. Phila. P*. 




SESSIONS & CO., 

Lynwood Dairy and Stock Farm 

p. O Box 680, Lob Angeles, Cal. 

We have Berkshires of the most fashionable strains. 
They are from Prize Winners and are Prize Win- 
ners themselves. We can furnish pigs three to six 
months old. Correapoodence soUclted. 



14 



The Pacific Rural Press 



July 6, 1895 



Coast Industrial Notes. 

—From Stockton southward are surveyed 
thirty-three miles of the route of the San 
Francisco and Sau Joaquin Valley Railway. 

—The S. P. Co. is building an .?.SO,000 wagon 
and railroad bridee across the Sacramento 
river at Sacramento, to be completed Novem- 
ber 1st. 

—A daily paper reports the sale of $500,000 
6 per cent bonds S. P. R. R. of Arizona at 
par. Another daily paper asserts that 83 was 
the selling price. 

— W. B. Carr has turned over to Tevis & 
Haggin all his interest in Kern county, re- 
ceiving *1,000,0()0 and 10,tXH) acres of swamp 
land in Tulare county therefor. 

-The famous Heidelberg tun, long the 
largest wine cask in the world, is now ex- 
ceeded by one at the Barton winery, at 
Fresno, which holds 2000 gallons more. 

—A report prepared by a Peruvian commis- 
sioner shows " that, by" the guano contract, 
the Government has been defrauded to the 
extent of more than ,£180,000. In twenty car- 
goes it lost :W),000 tons." 

— The money is ready in London for the pur- 
chase of the "Gila Beiid or VVolfloy, Arizona, 
canal and dam. A syndicate with a capital 
stock of i':$00,(KX) is organized, and sufficient 
subscribed to redeem every thingoutstanding. 

—Lumber freight rates are advancing. 
Puget Sound quotes : To Shanghai 52s lid ; to 
Cork 70s ; to Sydney, 3(is 3d ; to Port Pirie, 
42s 6d; to Valparaiso, 45s ; to Payta, 47s t>d. 
The average rates to this city are *3.50 and 
$3.75. 

— The sugar-beet crop in the southern part 
of Alameda county promises well. Two hun- 
dred carloads will be produced. The active 
season begins about the 15th of September. 
Fifteen cents per hour is paid instead of day's 
wages. 

— All the grain-carrying vessels in San 
Francisco are chartered. Last year the dis- 
engaged tonnage at this time was 71,511 tons. 
There are now vessels on the way from San 
Francisco totaling a tonnage of 344,070, and 
more than half of it has already been engaged. 

— L. S. J. Hunt, formerly one of the owners 
of the Seattle, Wa.sh., Pi'ist-Iutdlinencer. but 
now in the Orient, has secured from the 
Shanghai municipal council the right to con- 
struct an electric street-car system at a cost 
of *2,000,(H)0 in gold. The overhead trolley 
system is to be used. 

— In the suit of the United States Govern- 
ment against the Southern Pacific, to obtain 
possession of 700,000 acres in Ventura and Los 
Angeles counties, a decision against the rail- 
road was made last Tuesday by the United 
States Circuit Court of Appeals, aflirming the 
decision of United States .fudge Ross. 

— The total acreage of beets planted this sea- 
son on the Chino ranch is fi720 gross, or about 
»>400 net. The Anaheim crop amounts to about 
2700 acres, making in the neighborhood of 
;tUK) acres to be worked in the factory this 
year. The Chino fields will yield an average 
of 12 tons per acre this year. If the Anaheim 
fields do as well, the factory will receive at 
least 100,000 tons. 

—J. Treadwell, R. D. Fry, E. B. Pond, J. D. 
Brown and B. M. Bradford have incorporated 
here, capital stock $.500,000, of which *;W,000 
has been subscribed, to construct a railroad 
from a point at or near the coal mines of the 
San Francisco and San Joaquin Coal Company 
in Alameda county to a ix)int at or near the 
city of Stockton in San Joaquin county. The 
estimated length of the road is thirty miles. 

—Labor Commissioner Fitzgerald of Califor- 
nia has found proof that the majority of the 
Japs in the State are virtually slaves to the 
contractors. He will prepare a memorial to 
Congress asking for strict exclusion of the 
brownies. He will also open a free-labor bu- 
reau in San Francisco in July, amd is confi- 
dent of finding work for a large number of 
men. He likewise thinks that he can locate 
a good many men on wage-paying placer 
claims. 

— The pilot chart for July of the North Pa- 
cific ocean gives a table of ocean distances, in 
which is shown that the route to Yokohama 
from the western terminus of the projx)sed 
Nicaragua canal is shorter by way of San 
Francisco than by Honolulu. The shortest 
practical route from Brito, Nicaragua, to 
Yokohama is 7141 knots; by way of San Fran- 
cisco it is eighty-nine knots more, while by 
way of Honolulu the distance is :!74 knots 
more than by San Francisco. The shortest 
practical route from Brito to Hong Kong is 
8740 knots; by way of San Francisco it is 
twenty knots farther, while that by way of 
Honolulu is 368 knots more than by San Fran- 
cisco. 

—The Lick trust, organized in 18T5, is 
ended. The Society of California Pioneers 
and the Academy of Sciences, the residuary 
specified by James Lick in the original trust 
deed, will receive S>(>00,000 each. The receipts 
of the trust have been about $5,(100,000 from 
the sales of real estate, stocks and bonds and 
the collection of rents. Lick's trust deed be- 
queathed $1,!»41,000 worth of property for vari- 
ous objects. This property increased in valu- 
ation during twenty years nearly 100 per cent. 
The principal public legacies in Lick's will 
were; Lick Observatory, on Mount Hamil- 
ton, $70O,O(MI; School of Mechanical Arts, $540,- 
(XK); Old Ladies' Home of San Franci.seo, $100,- 
000; Lick Free Baths, $1.50,000; monuments at 
the Citv Hall and the Park, $ir,0,000. 



An Automatic Typesetter. 



A new typesetting machine, called 
the Plectrotype, for which wonderful 
qualities are claimed, is announced 
from Berlin. Its operations are auto- 
matic, the copy being fed into it in the 
form of a specially prepared slip of 
paper. A small electric motor drives 
each machine, which easily turns out 
20,(100 ems an hour. An ordinary com- 
positor seldom sets more than one- 
tenth of this amount. A single 
boy can attend to several of these 
machines at once, as his duties are 
merely supervisory. Not only does 
the strip operate the keys of the ma- 
chine, but the spacing is also done 
automatically, so that the lines come 
out exactly even, or justify, as a 
printer would say, without manual 
labor. The type, after being used, is 
distributed automatically. Copy for 
the plectrotype is prepared on a type- 
writer, which punches in the paper 
holes something like those required by 
the Wheatstono and other automatic 
systems of telegraphy; and corrections 
may be made in the matter by the 
editor before it goes to the machine. 
However, this punching of a tape is 
handwork, and can hardly be per- 
formed any more rapidly than the 
operation of one of Mergenthaler's 
linotypes by an expert. In both cases 
there is the same limitation — a human 
operator's skill at a keyboard. The 
Mergenthaler machine (an American 
invention) casts a line of type from 
little brass moulds, which are assem- 
bled by touching the keys; the new 
German apparatus sots old-fashioned 
type. It is claimed, however, that the 
latter machine will handle all of the 
ordinary sizes of type equally well, 
while a Mergenthaler is specially 
manufactured to mould brevier, minion, 
nonpareil or agate, and separate ma- 
chines are therefore required for the 
various styles. 

In an article in the ( 'l uinri/ Mafjazine, 
Mr. Maxim says that, before selecting 
his motive power for his Hying ma- 
chine, he went carefully into the sub- 
ject of weights of all kinds of motors. 
He found that the weights per in- 
dicated horse power were: Hot air 
engine, 200 pounds; oil engine, 75 
pounds; electric motors, fed by second- 
ary batteries, 130 pounds; Otto sys- 
tem, 50 pounds; marine engines, with 
condenser pump and everything com- 
plete, from 25 to 50 pounds per horse 
power. He uses a steam engine with 
boiler, gas generator, pump and 200 
pounds of water, which weighs only 5.6 
pounds to the indicated horse power. 



From the top of the cathedral spire 
in Mexico you can see the entire city, 
and the most striking feature of the 
view is the absence of chimneys. There 
is not a chimney in all Mexico, not a 
grate, not a stove nor a furnace. All 
the cooking is done with charcoal in 
Dutch ovens. 



Berlin is the most cosmopolitan of 
large European cities. Only thirty- 
seven per cent of its inhabitants are 
German by birth. 































m 




























i 
































1 























































































SENSATION OF DROWNING. 

Some pfopltr contf.-nd that if.s (luili- pU':is;mt. but 
.vou will notice they keep up a vltforoiiB kicking, 
and stnijrKlinjf to ffel out. :iii<l will even "frrasp at 
straws. 

It 18 the same way with those who make or sell 
wire fence without elasticity. They try to appear 
happ.v but Hop from one scheme to another. After 
beln^ swept nnder by a bie colled Hprlni.' wave, they 
come np HpUitterin^ "can swim as well ;i8 the 
Patre." End sprlntra and r.itchets are the ■straws 
that iJeeeive them. 

PAGE WOVEN WIRE FENCE CO., Adrian, Mich. 



THE "SIVIALLEY" 

FAMILY OF ^ ^ 

"FEED SAVERS" 




power, 
iwer. 
Ear 



KnailnKP Kml<ler('mter», fi.rhnnd andpo' 
Konl Cullers A. ^ en'llde SHcith, hiiiul li ixr 
Fnrm Feed .Hills, for t'l'iir or pulley ilriit. I 
f'orii (Jriiiilers, A: Shellrrs. .„_ . 

IT*.-''!!/,,.- tn n..iit jt nnmt li." (Mir 'fij* hn IKl n< 



aers, li: :sin.in-rs, . 

t^""llowto Heat a Drnut ii," our '!>5 hniKl book 
forr*tock Feoilern anil Price l.ixt mailed J'rtc. 
S.lIAI.i.EV :1IFC;. fO., .>lauitowoc, Wis. 



♦♦♦♦ CUINININGH/\yV\»S ♦♦♦♦ 

Prune Dipping Machine. 




Patented December 8tb, 1891. 

A Machine lor Scalding in Hot Lye Water and Rinsing in Cold Water, Pluma, Prunes aud Grapes o1 

all kinds. 

We also manufacture and deal in 

CUNNINGHAM PRUNE SPREADERS. GALVANIZED IRON GRADER 
ELEVATORS AND FRUIT CONVEYORS 

For both Green and Dried Fruit. 

UIPPKK CAI KDRONS, <;ALVANI7.KI> C*>M) W.ATKlt C.Ari.DKONS. FUK>ACK IKONS, 
DIPPING BA8KKTS, FLOOR TRUCKS. FIKLD CARS, TKAN8FKK CARS, 
TCRN TAIiLES. and a General Line of 

F-RUIX DRYERS' SUPPLIES, ♦♦♦♦♦-f 

L. CUNNINGHAM, 

440 Went Santa Clara St SAN .lOSE. CAL. 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue of Fruit Dryers' Supplies. 



THE BURRELL PRUNE MACHINE. 

A New Process for 
Cutting the Skins 
of Prunes. 

NO FIRE; NO HOT WATER; NO LYE. 

Cleans. Cuts and Spreads tlie 
fruit at one operation. 

SIMPLE, STRONG. DURABLE, 
CHEAPER AND BETTER. 

Letters from Persons who 
have used the Burrel l 
Prune Machine : 

Oak Bi.cfi'. Santa Cm-z Co. Cai... April l."). isin. 

Mil. Bi KHEl.l,— Dear Sir: Allow me to s.a.v that .vour pricker has elven me more than satlsfaetlon in 
itH work, being a preat improvement on the old method of dipping, both In the greater amount of work 
done in a given tinu'. and the f.acllit.v with which it Is done. And I feel assured that where there Is a 
large quantity of prnm s to be handled. It will pa.v for Itself In a ver.v short time, as well as leaving the 
prune in a far more health.v condition : it not having been treated with lye. Wishing yon every success 
with your really valuable Invention. I remain. Respectfully yours, ROBT. MOORE. 

Firm of Mattern & Moore. 25 New Montgomery St., S. P. 

Sa.v Jose. April 30. 18%. 

Mil. J. B. BtTiiRELL— We have, during the past season, received man.v lots of " pricked " prunes. They 
have in all Instances been mingled with dipped prunes and no distinction made. 

SANTA CLARA COUNTY FRUIT EXCHANGE, by Pmi.o HEiiSEY. Manager. 

POHTEKVII.LE. Feb. 1. 18%. 

Mu. J. B. BfUHELL— Dear Sir: The past year being my first experience in drying prunes, I looked for- 
ward to the work with some degree of fear as to the result. My crop weighed out 26 tons when cured, and 
was handled with perfect satisfaction. After curing my crop. I had occasion to visit at a neighboring 
ranch, where the.v were using the diiiping machine, .md I waul to sa.v right here, my pricking machine Is 
not for sale. I sold my prunes ungraded for 4^ cts. f . o. b.. sacks furnished. Yours triiiv, 

[Other letters in next week s Kf kai, Pkkss.] GEORtiE T. FROST. 

The Burrell Prune Machine Is mainif.'ictured and sold by 

J. B. BURRELL, 449 West Santa Clara St., San Jose, Cal. 




Patented 

Feb. .S. 
I8«5. 



THE "AC/VVE." 




Patented 

Feb. S, 
1895. 



> 

n 



U4 
>- 

< 
DC 
H 

w 

OQ 

■<< 
Oi, 

< 

t\ /VlrtCHlPME \ D\-e F'ERFORrt'TIING 
MIND GF*rtDlNG 

FACTORY AND SALESROOM : 

573 SOUTH FIRST STREET SAN JOSE, CAL. 

H. M. BARNGROVER, Proprietor. (Write for Circulars.) 



> 

r 
o 

7Z 

m 

> 

■c 



PRUNES. 



Inventors on the Pacific Coast will find It greatly to their advantage co consult this old experienced, 
lirst-class agency. We have able and trustworthy associates and agents in Washington and the capi- 
tal cities of the principal nations of the world. In connection with our scientific and Patent Law Li- 
brary, and record of original cases in our office, we have other advantages far beyond those which can 
be offered home inventors by other agencies. The information accumulated through long and careful 
practice before the OfBce, and the frequent examination of patents already granted, for the purpose of 
determining the patentability of inventions brought before us. enables us to give advice which will 
have inventors the expense of applying for patents upon inventions which are not new. Circulars and 
advice sent free on receipt of postage. Address DBWHV & CO., Patent AKcnts, 220 Market St.. S. F. 



July 6, 1896. 



15 



A Word About Binders »nd Mowers. 

The annual harvest season suggests the 
wealth of experience that has befallen the 
McCormick Harvesting Machine Company of 
Chicago, manufacturers of the McCormick 
line of grain and grass cutters. The encyclo- 
pedias state that the first successful i-eaper 
was invented, built and operated by Cyrus H. 
McCormick in 1«;J1. This, then, was the be- 
ginning of the history of the modern binder 
and mower, and although followers of the 
McCormick come and go, they fail to bring 
any innovations of real and lasting merit, just 
as they fail to dispense with the underlying 
principles of Mr. McCormick' s old "Virginia 
Reaper" of 64 years ago; in fact, these prin- 
ciples cannot "be dispensed with " without 
wiping every reaping machine out of exist- 
ence," is the forcible recognition accorded 
Mr. McCormick's invention by Knight's New 
Mechanical Dictionary. With all this practi- 
cal experience, reaching from 1831 down to 
the present time, there is nothing strange in 
the fact that McCormick machines hold the 
highest rank. In every country where grain 
and grass are grown the McCormick is a 
favorite, and the manufacturers assert that 
of all harvesting machines sold annually, 
more than one-third are of the McCormick 
make. It is a matter of history that at every 
World's Pair they have won the highest hon- 
ors, and at those expositions where field 
trials have been held, the value of these hon- 
ors has been especially enhanced, as it is in 
the. fleld— in actual work— that the McCormick 
experience is seen. 

Experience has taught them the practical 
requirements of the grain and grass grower. 
Their machines are therefore simple in con- 
struction, most perfect in operation, light, 
yet strong and durable, and for lightness of 
draft are unexcelled. All manufacturers are 
prone to make extravagant claims for their 
machines, but the McCormick Company's 
readiness to prove all claims at all times is a 
well-known exception to the general rule— an 
exception which was peculiarly emphasized at 
the World's Columbian Exposition in 1808, 
when the awarding committee asked all manu- 
facturers to operate their machines in the 
field ; the McCormick Company complied— the 
others did not. It is easy to make claims in 
an advertisement, and easy for agents to 
talk about the particular binders and mowers 
represented by them, but it is difficult to 
prove claims, and that the McCormick Com- 
pany should have done .so in these World's 
Fair field tests, is a striking illustration of 
their watchword, "What we say we do we 
do do." The McCormick Company are build- 
ing a corn harvester and binder, which is as 
great a success as their grain harvester. It 
is highly commended by practical farmers 
who have seen it work, and although thou- 
sands of them will be built this season, the 
demand promises to out-run the supply. Those 
interested will do well to make further in- 
quiry at once, either of the neai'est local 
agency or at the general offices in Chicago. * 



Now THAT Chicago's $25,000,000 
drainage canal approaches completion, 
a commission makes the curious state- 
ment that the shallowing of the lakes 
occasioned by the diverted flow will 
diminish the annual earnings of the 
lake fleet over $1,700,000. 



In the fiords on the Norway coast 
the clearness of the water is wonderful. 
Objects the size of a half dollar may be 
seen at a depth of twenty-five fathoms. 



— AIND — 

HOW TO GROW THEM . 

A Manual of Methods which have Tlelded 
Cireatest Success; with Lists ot Varieties 
Best Adapted to the Dltterent 
Districts of the State. 

Practical, Explicit. Comprehensive. Embodying 
the experience and methods of hundreds of success- 
ful growers, and constituting a trustworthy guide 
by which the Inexperienced ma.v successfully pro- 
duce the fruits for which California is famotis. 
Second edition, revised and enlarged. By Edward 
J. WiCKSON, A. M., Ahhoc. Prof. Horticulture and 
Entomolog,v, University of California; Horticultural 
Editor Pacific Itural Press, San Francisco; Sec'y Cali- 
fornia State Horticulttiral Society; Pres. California 
State Floral Society, etc. 

Large Octavn, 599 vagea, fully illustrated, price, 83*00. 
postpaid. 

PGR 8ALB BY 

Publishers Pacific Rural Press, 



220 Market Street. 



San Francisco, Cal 



A Practical Treatise on Raisin Grapes, 

Their History, Culture and Curing. 



BY GUSTAV EISEN. 



This is the Standard Work on the Raisin Industry 
in C:ilifornia. It has been approved by Prof. Hil- 
gard Prof. Wickson, Mr. Chas. A. Wetmore and a 
niultiiiide of Practical Raisin Growers. 

Soldi>nlyby The Dewky Piihi.ishino Co., or Its 
agents at the uniform price of #3.00, postage pre- 
paid. Orders should be addressed : 

PACIFIC RURAL PRESS, 
aao atarltet street, San FraocUco, Cal. 



W. C. ANDERSON, 

Horticultural Supplies. 



-MANUFACTURER OF- 



Anderson Prune Dipper, 

Dried Prune Processer, 
Orchard Brush Rake, 
Ready = Reckoner Time Book. 



it 



FACTORY AND SALESROOM: 



445 West Santa Clara St SAN JOSE, CAL. 



ALEXANDER & HAMMON, 

RIO BONITO NURSERIES, Biggs, Butte Co., Cal. 



DECIDUOUS RRUIX TREES 

OUR SF*EdrtU.TY. 

The most Complete Assortment ot General Nursery Stock grown on the Pacifle Coast 



1,000,000 Trees for the Season of 1894=95 in Stock. 

O" Acknowledged everywhere to be equal to the best. Guaranteed to be healthy and free from 
eale or other pests 

Send for CalaloKuc and Prices. Correspondence solicited. Address: 

Alexander Sc Hammon, 

Qtgrga, Butte Countv. Oal. 




Ta.nk:s! 

When you buy a Water Tank get one that will not 
dry out and shrink. 



Paiat Non-Shrinking Water Tank, 

The only one suitable for dry, hot climates, 
COSTS NO MORE THAN COMMON. 
.\sk your dealer, or write to 

PACIFIC TANK CO., 

(Sole Manufacturers), 
City Offices 33 liKALE STREET, 

SAN FRANCISCO. 




HHA.NCHKS AT 

Washington, 
London, ^ 
Paris, 
Berlin, 
Vienna, 
Melbourne, Etc. 



SANFIiANCIS<^0\GAL\ 



MOORE, FERGUSON & CO. I ALMOND HULLERS 



WOOL, GRAIN, FLOUR 

AND 

Ht General Commission Merchants, 4* 

310 CALIFORNIA ST., .S. V. 

Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange 

WPersonal attention given to sales and liberal 
advances made on consignments at low rates of 
interest. 



For Sale by 

A. O. RIX, Irvington, Alameda County, Cal 



1/ I681I8 DRUMMST S.F.^ 



THE 

OWEN 
ELECTRIC 
BELT 





Trade Mark— Dr. A. Owen 



FOR MEN AND WOMEN 

The latest and only scientific and practical 
Electric Belt made, for general use, producing 
a genuine current of Electricity, for the cure 
of disease, that can be readily felt and regu- 
lated both in quantity and power, and applied 
to any part of the body. It can be worn at any 
time during working hours or sleep, and 

WILL POSITIVELY CURE 

RHEUMATISM 
LUMBAGO 

GENERA K. DEBILITY 
liAME BACK 
NERVOUS DISEASES 

CHRONIC DISEASES 
AND FUNCTIONAL 
DERANGEMENTS 

WITHOUT MEDICINE 

Electricity, properly applied, is fast taking 
the place of drugs for all Nervous, Rheumatic, 
Kiduey and Urinal Troubles, and will effect 
cures in seemingly hopeless cases where every 
oUicr known means has failed. 

Any sluggish, weak or diseased organ may 
1 y this means bo roused to healthy activity 
I'cfore it is too late. 

Leadini? medical men use and recommend the 
)wen Belt in their practice. 

OUR LARGE ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE 

- ontnins fullest information regarding the cure 
')f aeuto, chronic and nervous diseases, prices, 
aiul liciw lo onlcr, in English, German, Swedish 
iMul Norwegian Languages, will be mailed, upon 
^'.pplication, to any address for 6 cents postage. 

1I18 Owen ElQotric Belt and Appliance Go. 

3IAIN OFFICE AND ONLY FACTORY, 

riie Owen Electric Celt Hldr]., 201 (0 211 State Street, 

CHICAGO, ILL. 
he Largest Electric Belt Establishment in the WorW 




The Williams Standard Typewriter 



Is a great improvement over the old " lift and 
peek" machines. You see your writing while 
writing it. No lifting of platen. No dirty ribbon. 
Perfect alignment. Weighs but 16 pounds Does 
the finest work. Easiest learned. No experiment. 
In use 3 years. Adopted by British War Depart- 
ment over all the old-fashioned 'blind " machines. 
Write for sample work and illustrated catalogue 
and testimonials. 

PACIFIC STATES TYPE FOUNDRY, 

409 Washington St San Francisco. 

Sole .\gents for California. 



HEALDS 



Business CoIle>ge«, 

24 Post Street, - - - San Francisco. 
FOR SEVENTY-FIVE DOLLARS 

This College instructs in Shorthand, Type- Writing 
Bookkeeping. Telegraphy, Penmanship, Drawing, 
all the English branches, and everything pertaining 
to business, for full six months. We have sixteen 
teachers and give individual Instruction to all our 
pupils. 

A Department of Electrical Engineering 

Has been established under a thoroughly qualified 
Instructor. The course is thoroughly practical. 
Send for Circular. C. S. HALEY, Sec. 

School of Practical, Civil, Mechanical, 
Electrical and Mining Engineering, 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing and Assaying 
-723 /Vl/\RK.ET STREET, 
San Francisco, Cal. 
Open All Year. : A. VAlf DER NAILLEM, Pres't. 

Assaying of Ores, 125; Bullion and Chlorination 
Assay, t25; Blowpipe Assay, »10. Full course of 
assaying, 150. Established 1864. Send for Circular. 



WAGON AND 
PLATFORM 



SCALES 

HOOKER & CO. 




OITK ELECTKIC BELTS CURE 
Kldnev Troubles. Kheumatisni, 
General Debility, etc. Circulars 
Free. Want Agents. Address E. 
TAYLOR & CO., Cleveland, Ohio. 



Sr[WELLMACHINERYw»rks. 

A 11 kintiB of tool». Fortune f«r the driller by usinff our 
Adaraftntine proceBfl; can take aoore. Perfected Eeononi. 
loal Artesian Pumping RlR" to work by Steam Air, etc. 
LetuBhilpTou. TIIE AMERICAN WELLWOBK8, 
Amrars, 111.) Chlcsco, lU.) DbUii*, Tex, . 



16 



The Pacific Rural Press. 



July 6, 1895. 



Walter A. Wood Tubular Steel Mower. 




Steel Drive Wheels, Steel Frame, Stei'l Sbafts, Steel Knife Head, Steel Jaws for Pitman, adjustable; 
Steel Wrist Pin, self-oiling: Brass bearings; E.ve-Winker Oilers, dust proof; Serrated Guard 
Plates; "Wobbler" Track Board; Spring, Foot Lift and Cutter Bar, acts when wanted, at other 
time resting. Adds no extra weight to right hand drive wheel. Other improvements described In 
catalogue. Send for it. 



ALL GOOD. 



Walter A, Wood Hay Rake. 

Walter A. Wood Reaper. 

Walter A. Wood Binder. 

Walter A. Wood Repairs. 



If you want the GENUINE -'3C' 
Wood Goods address 



Straight Business. 





ALLISON, NEFF & CO., San Francisco. 

B. HAYMAN, Los Angeles, Cal. 



TREES of GOLD p'K^,r,!l!!"e''T» 

HurlMiik's 20 Million "lu-w crcittions." STARK 
Trees PREPAID i vnywhrrc. SAFE ARRIVAL guar, 
anteed. The ••t;rc:iluursfri>'s"s:ive yon over HALF. 
Milliousof tile hi-st treesTO years' exjicrii'iici' <-,m 
grow; tliey "live longer anil bear belter." S><: 
ilurUm. STARK, B44, Louisiana. Mo., Rockport. III. 



California 

till. lies! IlliiHlr.-iti 
l<-iiliural W.'ckly 
lor :t iiios. Two ^ 
Piililishliit; ('(>.. 



If .you want to know 
about Calilornla and the 
Patltic .Slates, semi for 
rarili<> liiiral I'ress, 

ilaiiil Lo.adluK' Farmlnsr and Hort- 
of the Far Went. Trial. .W cents 
imijile eopies. Ule. The Deivey 
!20 Market St.. Sau Pr.uiclsoc 



The Sharples Russian Cream 
Separator is sold squarely on its 
merits. There is no baby about it, 
either in its name or its business 
methods. For ten years a so-called 
separator company, which frequently 
changes its name, has brought law 
suits for one reason and another, and 
for no reason at all, against the 
Sharpies people, and while these suits have been very numerous 
no one of them was ever successful They contain none of the 
elements of success. Now these fellows have brought trivial libel 
suits against our agents. They arc annoying in the same way 
that a little dog is annoying as he snaps at your heels. Such 
trifling methods are no argument against the superiority of the 
Russian, neither will they keep the other machines from explod- 
ing. If you want to escape disaster use a Russian. Send for 

illustrated catalogue. P. M. SHARPLES. 

West Chester, Pa., 
Elgin, 111. 
Rutland, Yt. 

Baker & Hamilton, 

Sole F*oclflc Coast Ag^ents, 

SAN FRANCISCO. SACRAMENTO. LOS ANGELES. NEW VORK. 



THE "OLD RELIABLE" SCHUHLER WAGON! 



rm 



«««« ancJ »»»» 



Header. 




irm 



«««« and »»»» 



Header. 



THE SCHUTTLER IMPROVED TUBULAR AXLE WAGON. ^ 



THIS REPRESENTS THE VERY LATEST, and, in many respects, the most important 
improvement that has ever been effected In metal axle wagons, whether with solid iron axles, 
or hollow steel tubes. 

The cut shows its application to the popular " National Ttibular Axles," in which it en- 
tirely supersedes the grooved wooden axle-stock, and in its stead Insures an even bearing, as 
well as a firm, direct and POSITIVE CONNECTION between bolster and axle. 




THE SCHUTTLER IMPROVEMENT consists patent re-enforcing sleeve driven 

onto each end of the axle, leaving flat bearings, to ivlii.^ 'he bolster on hind gear, and the 
sand board on front gear, are firmly clipped, thus doing >fit\y with the wooden axle-stock, and 
making a perfect truss, thereby insuring nearly double t^Httrength of the old-style Tubular 

Axles. 

WRITE FOR PRICES. 



Deere Implement Company, 

305 AND 307 m A RFC EX SX SAN F"R AN CISCO, CAL. 



AND CALIFORNIA FRUIT BULLETIN. 



Vol. L. No. 2. 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY. JULY 13, 1895. 



TWENTY-FIFTH YEAR. 

Office, 220 Market Street. 



On the Road." 



110^ 



In the long series of wayside views given through 
the Rural there has been nothing prettier than the 
two scenes which adorn this page. Both breathe 
the very spirit of the outing season and are strictly 
characteristic of California. The snnaller view rep- 
resents a party of Oakland cyclers halted on the road 
to Lake Tahoe, in one of the immediate 

valleys of the Sierra Nevada moun- , , 

tains. The journey from San Fran- 
cisco bay to Tahoe is a long one — as 
the roads wind, scarcely less than 
threi' fiundred miles — but it is never- 
theless a favorite trip for the riders 
of the silent steed. A "seasoned" 
rider will cover the distance easily 
in three or four days in spite of bad 
roads, dust and heavy grades; and one 
party, so we are told, in which there 
were two women, made the trip from 
Sacramento to the southern shore of 
the lake in two days. Pretty tall 
cycling, that; but these are days of 
tall cycling and we have ceased to be 
surprised at anything in the wheeling 
line. The sturdy figures in the group 
illustrate the physical advantages of 
the wheel. By its use thousands of 
young men and women of our cities 
are made daily partakers of the bless- 
ings of fresh air, sunshine and wholesome exercise — 
advantages which formerly were almost monopolized 
by dwellers in the country. 

The lower view is just an ordinary "turn in the 
road " in the Mendocino redwoods. The stage, with 
its regular load of "mixed freight" 
— passengers, U. S. mail and 
Wells-Fargo express — is swing- 
ing through one of those forest 
aisles whose beauty and majesty 
may be felt but never described. 
Here — far away from the rail- 
road — may be found Nature in 
one of its most winning aspet ts. 
Many city people seek their out- 
ing each year in these splendid 
solitudes; but we never cease to 
wonder why their number is not 
many times multiplied. For rest- 
fulness there is — to our way of 
thinking — nothing like it in all the 
wide world. 



wards securing the million acres of land within 
their borders. California has not yet acted in this 
important matter. 



A New Raisin Proposition. 



Like the bicycle the gelding produces nothing, 
while, unlike the bicycle, he eats up his work. But 
the mare, if a good one, will raise a fine colt every 
year, do the work of the gelding and be the better 





ON the: road to tahoe. 

for it as a brood mare. In the one there is profit, in 
the other very little or none as a rule. 



A dispatch from Fresno (9th inst.) reports that 
the raisin growers of Kingsburg have held a mass 
meeting and that they are going to make a deter- 
mined eflort to get control of the marketing. It is 
generally believed there that the reason for low 
prices prevailing for raisins is the competition among 
brokers, who glut the Eastern market; 
and to prevent this they propose a new 
method of marketing. The plan is that 
only one firm of brokers be allowed to 
handle the raisins shipped to any one 
city, and that such a firm be required 
to handle the consignment from any 
packing company. The Association of 
Raisin Growers is to be notified at 
short intervals of the state of the mar- 
ket in each city and advised by their 
agents when to sell. No goods except 
those sent by the association are to be 
handled by the agents, nor must mem- 
bers of the association ship to other 
than the agents of the combine. Raisins 
are to be packed under the special 
brand of the grower and are to be 
strictly graded, but the price of one 
grade is not to be equalized with an- 
other, and the returns for raisins from 
different districts are to be kept sepa- 
rate. One representative from each 
district is to have a place on the board of directors. 
The Kingsburg growers ask all raisin men in the 
county to hold meetings and unite with them. 



The Ayrshire Breeders' Association believes the | 
success of the breed in the future demands a cow 



The annual election of the San 
Francisco Fruit Exchange was 
held on Tuesday. The regular 
ticket was elected, as follows: 
President, Frank Dalton; vice- 
president, A. T. Hatch; treas- 
urer, A. E. Castle. Board of 
directors — D. E. Allison, A. E. 
Castle, P. D. Code, Frank Dalton, 
A. T. Hatch, A. W. Porter, H. A. 
Williams. Committee on appeals- 




!\t .\ meetino of fruit growers at San Jose last 
week Col. Weaver said: "Dur- 
ing an extended sojourn in the 
East last fall I made it my busi- 
ness to inquire of a great many 
people in regard to our dried 
fruits, and I can assure you that 
it was the fewest number with 
whom I came in contact that had 
ever used any of these fruits. 
This, too, was among a class of 
people who were able to have 
every day in the year anything 
they desired to eat. The retail 
grocers were also entirely unin- 
formed on this subject and knew 
nothing about what a pound of 
California dried fruit repre- 
sented." 



-E. M. Cofer, A. 



D. Cutler, C. B. Jennings, C. W. Pike, B. F. Stone. 



Millions of acres of land are to be added to the 
great areas of the West. The last Congress enact- 
ed a law providing that the general government 
shall donate to each State in which there are arid 
lands one million acres of such lands, on condition 
that the reclamation is done by the States. Already 
Idaho and Wyoming have complied with all the 
formalities of the law, and have taken steps to- 



rn THE MENDOCINO REDWOODS. 

that shall be not only a large milker and an econom- 
ical producer, but shall also have the ability to pro- 
duce a larger percentage of butter fat and total 
solids. 

It is estimated that in Oregon, Washington, Mon- 
tana, Nevada and Idaho there are at present 2,000,- 
000 of half-breed wild horses, for which no market 
can now be found. 



The farmers and 
ber over 4,000,000. 



planters of this country num- 



San Fkancisco ought to be the 
manufacturing and distributing 
point of many raw products which 
are available from the vast ex- 
panse of the Pacific. This is now 
done to some extent, but could 
probably be much extended. We 
are reminded of the fact by the 
announcement that a well-known 
fruit dealer of San Francisco — L. G. Sresovich — has 
just succeeded in inventing a new cocoanut machine. 
It is claimed to produce the best cut cocoanut in the 
world; it is just like strings, is pure white and is 
much superior to shredded or any other in the 
market. 



In shoeing a horse, Prof. Gleason says, the shoe 
should be made no thicker at the heel than at the 
toe, leaving the frog to come down even with the 
shoe, so that when the shoo strikes the ground the 
frog strikes the ground at the same time. 



18 



The Pacific Rural Press. 



July 13, 1895. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 

Office, No.220 Market St.; Kteoalor, .Vo. 12 Front iSt.,i>an Francisco. C'al 

All subscribers paying W In advance will ""ecelve 16 months' (one 
year and 13 weeks) credit. For Vi In advance, 10 months. For 11 in 

advance, five mouths. 

Advertieiny ratex made known on application. 

Any subscriber sending an inquiry on any subject to the Ry"AL 
PHKS8 with a postage stamp, will receive a reply, either through the 
columns of the paper or by personal letter. The answer will be given 
as promptly as practicable. 

Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening. 



BeriBtered at 9. F. Postofflce as aecond-clasB mall matter. 



AI.FRED HOLMAN Kdltor. 

K. J. WICKSON Special Contributor. 



San Francisco, July 13, 1895. 



TABLE OF CON TENTS. 

ILLUSTRATIONS.— On the Road to Tahoe; In the Mendocino Red- 
woods, 17. 

EUITOKIALS — "On the Road;" A New Raisin Proposition; An- 
nual Election of the S. F. Fruit Exchange; Meeting ;of Fruit 
Growers at San Jose; Ckicoanut Preparation; Arid Lands, 17. 
The Week, 18. From an Independent Standpoint, 19. 

HORTICULTURE.— What a Redlands Man Thinks of the Future; 
The Cicada in the Orchard; A Sonoma County Olive Mill, 21. 

THE POULTRY YARD.— Mid-Summer in the Poultry Yard, 21. 
Goose B^armiug, 2a. . „ , , 

THE SWINE YARD.— Wheal for Pork Making; How to Feed and 
Manage Pigs Up to Six Months Old, 22. 

THE APIARY.— Converting Old Comb for a New Hive, 22. Divid- 
ing Colonies for Increase, 23. 

SHEEP AND WOOL.— Buying Rams; Shearing in Montana; Sheep 
of the World, 23. 

THE DAIRY.— Work of the Dairy Bureau; Poisonous Cheese, 23. 

Cause for Kicking; What About Low Dairy Prices ? How to Air a 

Milk-Room; Appearances Were Deceitful, 23. 
THE FIELD.— Washing Out Alkali; Good Roads Literature; Hints 

on Small Reservoirs, 23. 
TRACK AND FARM.— The Latest Sulky; Injury to Horses' 

Eyes, 23. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— The Oregon State Grange; Grange 

Celebration, 24. Mr. Adams Writes of the Summer School, 30. 
THE HOME CIRCLE.— Forty Years After; Old Friends; How 

They Named the Baby; A Railroad Story; Manners for Boys, 26. 

Gems of Thought; Fashion Notes, 27. 
DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— Hints to Housekeepers; Domestic 

Hints, 27. 
MARKETS.— 29. 

MISCELLANEOUS.— The Marketing Problem Again, 18. Glean- 
ings, 19. Temperature and Rainfall; Weather and Crops; Fruit 
Prices in Santa Clara; Auction War Still On; Forest Waste in 
America; Preserving the Forests; The Right of a Man to Defend 
Himself; War Against the Word Scientist, 20. Dimensions of 
the Universe; Horseless Road Carriages; A Powerful Projectile, 
3». California Fruit in the East, 29. Picked Up Here and There, 31. 



BUSIItESS ANNOUNCEMENTS. 

{M'ew this issue.) Paae. 

Horticultural Supplies— W. C. Anderson, San Jose, Cal 32 

Dr. Williams' Pink Pills 3U 

Johnson- Locke Mercantile Co 31 

Windmills and Pumps— Woodin & Little 29 

Pacific Prune Perforator •. 29 



The Week. 



Horticulturists at 



Santa Kosa. 



The State Horlicullural Society 
will hold its July meeting on the 
26th at Santa Rosa. The Santa 
Rosa Horticultural Society, of which G. N. Whitaker, 
so well known to readers of the Rural for his long 
career as a progressive horticulturist, is president, 
will extend a cordial invitation to the visiting fruit 
growers. There will be a general rally of Sonoma 
county horticulturists and a full liyt of addresses, 
which will show the achievements and the needs of 
the rich regions adjacent to the county seat of 
Sonoma county. Other matters will pertain to the 
general situation and outlook of the fruit industries 
of the State. We expect to publish before the meet- 
ing an outline of the topics to be presented. We 
trust this preliminary announcement will attract 
the attention of our readers generally and that 
many of them may arrange to be in Santa Rosa on 
the last Friday in July. 



Foe for the 



Potato Bug. 



The overland wires have been 
somewhat warm during the week 
with questions from anxious East- 
ern people about the insect which Mr. Koebele is 
reported to have discovered in Japan, and which he 
believes will Vedaliaize the Colorado beetle, which 
has wrought such havoc in Eastern potato fields 
during the last quarter of a century. It seems that 
Mr. Albert S. Smith, of this city, who has been in 
Japan during the war for one of our dailies, met 
Mr. Koebele in Japan, and, becoming tired of 
human strife, he caught from Mr. K. a note of a 
possible insect war which would save the Eastern 
potato growers much anxiety and Paris green. 
Ever since the striped pest from Colorado went 
East the potato grower has had to save his crop 
e'en at the point of poison, and what a blessing it 
would be to have some bug do all this murdering. 
As soon as Mr. Smith returned to San Francisco he 
telegraphed Mr. Koebele's pointer to the Eastern 
associated press in a very brief message, and now 
the Eastern people are telegraphing frantically for 
further information to all Californians who are sup- 
posed to know anything about bugs. It has not 
been possible to give our Eastern friends much more 
information thaa this paragraph has already pre- 
sented. It is not the insect but the report about 
the insect which has come to California. Mr. 
Koebele is not likely to send them here unless it be 
for repacking, because he knows we have no Colo- 
rado potato beetles in California, consequently his 
foe of that pest would find no sanguinary business 



Experiment 
Stations. 



here. Mr. Koebele is now in the employ of the 

Hawaiians on a special hunt for insects likely to be 
beneficial to their planters, but if he really finds 
something he thinks good for the Colorado pest he 
will not be long in sending it to some of his corre- 
spondents in the Eastern States. We hope it may 
all be true. 

Prof. Hilgard expects to leave on 
July 18th for Denver to represent 
the experiment stations of the 
University of California at a general convention of 
station workers to open in that city July 1(5 th. This 
week there has been a grand educational congress 
in Denver in which the whole country has been rep- 
resented. As most of the experiment stations are 
connected with the agricultural colleges, it is nat- 
ural that their special meeting should follow the 
general convocation. There has been a freely ex- 
pressed desire throughout the States west of the 
Missouri river that Prof. Hilgard should personally 
attend this meeting, as his work at Berkeley be- 
ginning in 1875 is clearly the pioneer experiment 
station effort of the West, and his work, pertaining 
as it has to western problems and conditions, com- 
mands the special admiration of the other western 
station men. It is probable that there will be a 
large attendance at the meeting, and conference 
among these leaders in agricultural science will be 
of much value to them in the future. Prof. Hilgard 
will carry to the meeting the latest results of his 
alkali soils' investigation, and these are very strik- 
ing and will be found to add greatly to the under- 
standing of alkaline conditions and their effects on 
vegetation. The points will soon be prepared for 
publication and thus be available to our readers. 

The home-grown tea proposition 
is an old one, but it is impressive 
nevertheless. During 1892 the 
United States imported 8!), 610, 741 pounds of tea, 
valued at $14,167,411. This represents a per capita 
consumption of 1.37 pounds. The per capita con- 
sumption in 1887 was 1.49. All this money for an 
imported product, which can be grown in the United 
States perfectly so far as natural conditions go ! 
But there has always been an impossible barrier to 
the enterprise in the cost of labor. No invention has 
yet replaced hand labor. Wage rate has never 
dropped low enough to allow its engagement to pick 
tea leaves. And yet we are paying out all these 
millions and at the same time thousands are going 
about saying that they can find no work. 



Millions 
for Tea. 



Dairy 
Bureau. 



We publish on another page some 
information about the progress of 
the California State Dairy Bureau 
and its appeal to the dairymen of the State for sta- 
tistics, which it will be very important to all pro- 
ducers to have compiled in available form. We hope 
there will be a general response to the requests of 
the Bureau. During its short life the agents of the 
Bureau have been very active in pursuing the demon 
of adulteration, but experience has shown that that 
demon is hard to find just at this time. The low 
price of pure butter of course makes the trade in the 
bogus article less profitable. The experts of the 
Bureau believe that the varmint has been at least 
least scotched by the new law. The butter they 
have taken at numerous places for examination has 
been found to be pure. The reputed dealers and 
makers of the imitations seem to have none. In one 
case an imitation butter outfit near " butchertown, " 
in this city, seems to have been dismantled, and 
those who had it claim that the new law has knocked 
them out and that henceforth they will only make 
" oleo oil " to send to Germany. We imagine that 
the new law, coupled with the low price of butter, 
has brought these adulterators into a somewhatcon- 
trite mood and they are putting forth woi'ks mete 
for repentence, while the prosecutors of the law are 
on the warpath. But let the watchfulness relax a 
little and the price of butter tighten a little and we 
would not answer for the law-abiding character of 
these quondam imitators. 

No doubt some of our dairy read- 
ers will wonder whether the low 
price of butter is the cause of the 
absence of bogus butter or whether the low price is 
due to the abundance of the bogus. The latter view 
has certainly widely prevailed in dairy circles and is 
the basis upon which dairy legislation has been 
urged and secured. In view of this fact many will 
be surprised that the agents of the Bureau find no 
imitations current now. We are aware that the 
search has been diligently made, and if the bottom 
facts have been reached it must be concluded that 
we are making too much butter for local consump- 
tion. If not there should have been a far better 
average value than has ruled during the last few 
months. And if production in excess of local needs 
is conceded, then it is clear that California must 
prepare to enter larger and somewhat distant mar- 
kets. To do this our butter production must come 
fairly on a creamery basis, because creamery butter 
is now a dairy standard and nothing else will go, ex- 



Cause and 
Effect. 



cept in local markets and is at a disadvantage even 
there. Very gratifying progress has been made 
during the last few years in the introduction of ad- 
vanced dairy policies and appliances in California 
but there is much to be done yet. And this does 
not mean "creamery booming" by any means. This 
speculative dairying, or creamery organization 
where there are no eows to speak of and amid con- 
ditions naturally unfavorable, is a curse to the in- 
dustry and a snare to investors. Sound progress 
upon a sound basis is the only thing which will make 
our dairy interest prosperous and the lower prices 
are the more imperative it becomes. Work and in- 
vest wisely in this line. 

T« M ill I We have not seen any millionaires 

No Millionaires 

whose business was primarily 
In Farming. farming, though there are of 
course quite a number who own land and have it 
worked. But to evolve or develop a millionaire by 
farming — it would be the hardest crop ever under- 
taken. A student of the last census of the United 
States shows that of the farmers of this country 
one-fourth, or 25 per cent, have property valued at 
less than $1000; 73 per cent have holdings rated at 
from $1,000 to $10,000, and only 2 per cent have 
property valued at from $10,000 to $100,000. The 
number of millionaires among the farmers is so inap- 
preciably small that it does not appear in the census 
returns. 

The French propose to get all the 
he.p they can from the whole 
world in advancing their indus- 
tries. The French Society for the Encouragement 
of National Industry has published a list of prizes 
and prize subjects for the year 1896 that may be 
profitably studied by American inventors. The 
grand prize of 12,000 francs, or say $2400, will be 
given this year to the author of the discovery most 
useful to French industry. The list for 1896 is very 
comprehensive, and covers almost every branch of 
industry. There are sections, each ottering a large 
number of prizes. In the agricultural section some 
of the subjects inviting competition are the best va- 
rieties of barley for brewing, the re-establishment of 
vineyards on chalk soil, a new forage plant, study on 
the culture of wine, and a work on the influence of 
various processes on vinification on the quality of 
wine. Here is a chance for some Californian to 
teach the French how to make wine. 



Prize 
Products. 



The Marketing Problem Again. 



To THE Editor: — As a grower, having a considerable stake 
in the fruit interests of this State, I have been watching 
with a good deal of interest the different moves made in dif- 
ferent sections for the purpose of bettering the conditiou of 
the fruit interests, and I have regretted to see so many years 
and seasons spent in the vain effort for something better. I 
had hoped years ago that the fruit business had passed 
throught its experimental stages, and yet, after vain waiting 
of years, I lind the same old discussion going on. In the mean- 
tiine the market prices of everything have dropped, and I find 
my dried fruit is just as expensive to produce, as far as labor 
and manipulation are concerned, as ever before. I have tried 
all kinds of ways to market my fruit, with more or less suc- 
cess. Sometimes the most criticised channels of distribution 
have proven to me the best, as far as results are concerned, 
and again sotne of the most lauded efforts on the part of grow- 
ers to provide selling machinery, officered by themselves, 
have shown uie the poorest results. I do not claim, however, 
that growers' efforts always result disastrously and that ef- 
forts on the part of some merchants are always satisfactory, 
for .sometimes positions are reversed. It seems to me that the 
whole subject is one that, perhaps, we can gain some light on 
through the valuable columns of your paper. It is with this 
spirit of inquiry that I address you. 

Some of my neighbors have requested me to join them in an 
effort to concentrate all our products in an exchange and ap- 
point agents all over the country for the purpose of sellihg 
our dried fruit. I must confess that I am not a merchant, and 
I look back with a good deal of pleasure to the early days of 
the dried fruit business, when I could sell my fruit for cash, 
generally at .satisfactory prices and almost invariably to the 
merchant. I confess that I know nothing about the mercan- 
tile portion of the business, and I do not believe my neighbors 
are any wiser than I am, and a combination of growers gener- 
ally results, as far as my observation goes, in our holding our 
fruit while growers not in the exchanges sell, and we thus 
make a marliet for them at considerable expense to us. Yet, 
on the other hand, if there is not some kind of a combination 
of growers, will not the weaker ones make the market; Will 
not the necessities of the poorest grower force him to sell at a 
price that will cause a break and force a grower who is well 
off and able to hold, to sell at these low figures ! So a com- 
bination to a limited extent seems a good thing to me ; but a 
lot of growers turned merchants is not, in my present opinion, 
wise, as it seems to me that, perhaps, we are on the right 
track but our path was carrying us too far; that if we would 
stop at some intermediate point and meet the merchants and 
these distributors at some half-way house we could come to- 
gether, and each doing his part a greater success could be 
made of the business. 

I cultivate, prune, pick, dry or pack nearly the whole year 
through, and I find all this toil rewarded by only one crop a 
year, and naturally after twelve months of hard labor the re- 
sult of this work, "coming as it does but once a year, is the 
subject of great concern to me. A merchant has a hundred 
ventures in a year, the farmer only one, and he must not be 
blamed if he" looks most carefully into this subject. The 
question with me is : Shall I join one of these co-operative 
movements or shall I remain free to take advantage of the 
market that will, no doubt, be largely the result of these co- 
operative exchanges ; If I could enter an exchange for the 
purpose of combining my product with those of my neighbors, 
and then sell mv product to the highest mercantile bidder, I 
should feel no hesitation ; but to place my supplies with those 
of ray neighbors in the hands of an exchange, then to elect 
officers from my neighbors, who are empowered to go into an 
agency business and compete with the brightest minds in the 
dried fi'uit trade ; to sell goods all over the East at a distance ; 



July 13, 1895. 



The Pacific Rural Press. 



in 



to run the risk of untried brokers (and I assume we would not 
pet the pick, for we have not the wide range of goods to give 
them); to run the risk of bad debts and many other contin- 
gencies is a grave question. 

I commenced by saying we are yet in an experimental 
stage. I then referred to our efforts in this State. To carry 
our efforts still further, and attempt to do business all over 
the Eastern States, seems to me to be inviting disaster. I 
was in hopes that our aims would have been more moderate 
and that we would have been content, at least for the pres- 
ent, to gather our fruit, to dry it economically, to grade it 
and then stop short of anything else. If we could concentrate 
our supplies in the most economical way, and grade to the 
best advantage, it seems to me we would be doing our part, 
and with intelligent management we would be able to market 
all our supplies without attempting to go East. I understand 
that lately our San Jose exchanges have sent representatives 
East for the purpose of working up a direct connection with 
the trade, and that a large number of agents have been ap- 
pointed, and it is the avowed policy of the exchanges to sell 
direct to Chicago, New York, St. Louis, Milwaukee, all 
through the South and the Western States. I believe we 
will be beaten at this game. I believe we are doing business 
at too great a distance. I do not believe we have, first, the 
organization; second, the experience; and third, the capacity. 
I do not desire to express too great disbelief in an organiza- 
tion and scheme of this character, yet I should like to inquire 
if there is any one authorized by the exchanges to shed light 
on this important question. A Fruit Grower. 

Santa Clara Co., July 6, 189.5. 

While the letter printed above is written from a 
standpoint somewhat outside the lines from which 
we have viewed the dried fruit marketing question, 
we print it with pleasure because it is representa- 
tive of views very common amonj^ fruit gfrowers of 
this State at this time. Candor requires that the 
declaration of the writer, namelv — that the whole 
business is still in the experimental stage — be frankly 
admitted. Experiments in the way of marketing 
have been many during the past three or four years, 
but no one of them has fully met the hopes which 
hailed its beginnings. The record of the raisin 
effort during three seasons, the history of the State 
Fruit Exchange effort, the well known facts of the 
San Jose movement — all these efforts leave still 
undetermined the question as to whether the business 
of distributing our dried fruits to those who consume 
them in the Eastern States can better be done 
through the established mercantile channels or by 
agencies directly representing those who produce 
the fruits. 

Experience thus far has done much, but that it has 
not settled the question is shown by the state of per- 
plexity in which the writer, whose letter is printed 
above, finds himself. That there are many others in 
the same state of mind is unquestionably true. The 
editor of the Rural, whose home is in one of the 
largest and most advanced fruit districts in the State 
and who comes daily into contact with producers who 
have been personally interested in every experiment 
thus tar made, finds doubt and uncertainty every- 
where. He meets many times each week the ques- 
tions put by the writer in the letter printed above, 
with such inquiries, as follows : "When trade gets 
established in definite channels can it — without 
radical change in conditions — be 'diverted without the 
employment of more experience, more capital, and 
by all means more inducements than are employed in 
promoting and sustaining the original and established 
forces ? " " Is it better for co-operative associations 
to go directly into competition with the merchants, 
or to limit their efforts to economical administration 
of the drying process, to the grading and to the con- 
centration of supplies ? " "Which is the better pol- 
icy for an organization — say the West Side or the 
Campbell — to endeavor to compete with the mercan- 
tile interest or to make use of it; or, in other words, 
is it better to use the merchant or to fight him ? " 

These are questions worth considering, for they 
involve the vital problems of the fruit business in 
California. Not everything, indeed, but much may 
be done by frank and friendly discussion; and to 
such discussion the Rural Press opens its columns 
and invites participants. But here let us say that 
cnntrovcrKii is not discussion and that it convinces 
nobody. That which may be useful at this time will 
be candid presentations of facts and arguments. 
There are many persons qualified from the basis of 
practical experience to write on these subjects; and 
these, especialUy, we ask to give to the fruit inter- 
ests of California the benefits of their counsel. 



Watsonville Pajaronian: The daily berry shipments to 
San Francisco are averaging 180() chests. The Pajaro valley 
is shipping about 700 chests daily— .500 of strawberries and 
200 of blackberries and raspberries. The daily receipts of 
strawberries in San Francisco arc about 700 chests. Stockton 
and the islands are sending down big shipments of black- 
berries and raspberries. The season there will be over in a 
few weeks, and the Pajaro will have the small-fruit market 
in the fall. The berry farmers have had a discouraging year, 
but there are hopeful signs of a better time ahead. Their 
persistency deserves success- 



From an Independent Standpoint. 

In the matter of the lease of a tract of State land 
on the San Francisco water front to the Valley 
Railroad, the final papers were duly signed, sealed 
and delivered on Monday of this week. The pro- 
jected road has now assured to it for fifty years 
ample terminal facilities in this city, and will be able 
to compete with the Southern Pacific for San Fran- 
cisco traffic upon equal terms. The adjustment of 
this matter coincides practically with the accom- 
plishment of the more serious preliminary work. 
The first ship-load of rails is now in San Francisco 
harbor, grades have been fixed for the first section 
beginning at Stockton, timber is ready for delivery 
as it is wanted, and bids for grading are in hand. 
By the time this paper reaches its readers it is ex- 
pected that ground will have been broken at Stock- 
ton and that thousands of men and hundreds of 
teams will be busy at work. The directors have 
made a good rule, namely, of dealing as far as prac- 
ticable with the localities through which their line 
will go. Thus, in seeking bids for grading the first 
section, application was limited to the counties 
in which the work is to be done. This principle will 
be applied throughout the progress of the work. In 
the matter of buying general supplies, it is proposed 
to favor California houses and California industry 
wherever it may be done without violating business 
principles. 

Athletics, while they have clearly " captured " the 
rising generation, have not yet won the entire ap- 
proval of older heads. The sobered man of mature 
years, in whom the fight of life has developed strictly 
utilitarian ideas, is likely to see in the football field 
and on the boating course little else than a silly 
waste of time and force. Another view is chiefly 
concerned with the dangers of accident and dwells 
with horror upon reports of broken bones, smashed 
noses and miscellaneous mishaps. But in spite of 
the sneers of one class of critics and the fears of the 
other, out-door sports continue to grow in popu- 
larity. This has been plainly evident during the past 
week when half the country has been waiting eagerly 
to see how an American college crew (Cornell) would 
carry itself in a boat race in English waters with a 
combination crew from the two English universities. 
The event was fixed for Tuesday of this week and the 
Americans were declared the victors, but under cir- 
cumstances which rob the victory of anything better 
than a purely technical honor. When the word was 
given to go, the Americans started and rowed over 
the course, but the Englishmen claimed to misunder- 
stand the signal and did not start. The umpire 
awarded the race to the Americans and they were 
unquestionably entitled to it, but the fact remains 
that it was no race at all. Of course, this sort of 
triumph is not what the Cornell boys were after; 
and it is presumed that they will ask to have judg- 
ment in their favor suspended and that there may 
actually be a trial of merit. 



The interest which this event — a contest between 
Eastern and foreign crews — has created in California 
is in strange contrast with the indifference manifest 
in the matter of the recent victories of the Berkeley 
team of athletes in the East; and it illustrates a 
curious dominance of National above State pride. 
As a matter of fact the success of the Berkeley boys 
was a thing of much greater significance. They met 
the best men who could be pitted against them in a 
dozen States in a round of contests, and, excepting 
in a single instance, came off winners. The youths 
were almost all native sons; they were from every 
part of the State and they represented California 
strength, hardihood and method. Their unexampled 
success is a complete answer to those who have been 
fond of asserting that a strong generation of men 
cannot be reared under our climatic conditions. 



Fourth-of-July doings appear to have turned the 
thoughts of the country toward national affairs, and 
there is a sudden increase in the volume of Presi- 
dential gossip. The most notable fact in the present 
situation is the persistent effort of the friends of Ex- 
President Harrison to withhold his name from the 
preliminary discissions, Scarcely a day passes in 
which somebody supposed to be close to the Ex- 
President does not assure the public that he is not 



and will not be a candidate for the Republican nomi- 
nation; but it is a notable fact that Mr. Harrison has 
himself not a word to say. It would seem that if he 
were really annoyed, as he is declared to be, at the 
reports in which his name is used, he might easily 
stop the talk. That he is quietly a candidate there 
is practically no doubt; and the general opinion, so 
far as it can be gauged at this time, is that he will 
have to make the fight against McKinley in the con- 
vention. On the Democratic side matters are not 
nearly so far advanced. The practical divorce 
between Cleveland and the rank and file 
of his party prevents anything like a frank 
discussion of party affairs. Then the silver 
split makes another cause for uncertainty and 
for reserve on the part of that large mass who never 
speak until they think they see how matters are go- 
ing to turn. The only Democrat of national promi- 
nence who has dared speak out his mind is Judge 
Garland, who, in an interview on Tuesday, declared 
that he thought the party would split wide open on 
the silver question and that each faction would nom- 
inate a Presidential ticket. He thinks there will 
be a corresponding break in the Republican organ- 
ization, and looks to see no less than seven Presi- 
dential tickets in the field next year. 



Gleanings. 



It is proposed to establish a line of steam freight vs^agons 
between Redding and Tehama to connect with Sacramento 
river steamers at the latter point. 

Fifty Napa Valley wine makers propose to form a corpora- 
tion for leasing the Greystone wine cellar. A hundred thou- 
sand dollars capital subscription is called for. 

It is estimated that Dr. Prosek's fine olive orchard, near 
Guerneville, Sonoma Co., will this year yield thirty tons of 
fruit. He has 8.500 trees, representing thirty-five varieties. 
All are now in bearing. 

Sacramento, July 8. — Fruits are ripening very rapidly since 
the return of the warm weather and shipments to the East 
are large. Thirty-four carloads, destined for Chicago and 
New York, were sent out Saturday, and thirty-one on Sun- 
day. 

At Redwood City on the 8th inst., Mr. McSweeney, the 
agent for W. O'B. Macdonough, appeared before the Board of 
Equalization and asked that the assessment on Ormonde be 
reduced from S25,000 to $.5000. He gave as a reason that Or- 
monde had turned out to be a very poor foal-getter. Ormonde 
is the famous English running horse, for which Mr. Mac- 
donough paid 11.50,000. The matter will be considered at the 
next meeting. 

Fresno Exposifor : As long as California imports butter, 
hams, bacon, lard, eggs, chickens and turkeys by the carload 
from the effete East, while there are thousands of acres of the 
most productive soil in the world lying idle within easy reach 
of markets, on which these things can be produced cheaper 
than anywhere else in the world by intelligent effort, so long 
will a large element of the population remain unthrifty 
grumblers. 

GiLROY Gazette: The seed farms and vegetable gardens at 
the south and east of town are doing well, but, sad to relate, 
the well doing is done by Chinamen. Why should not white 
men take hold of such enterprises ? To assure success only 
brains, diligence, economy and frugality are needed. It is an 
undesirable comment to make, but unfortunately true to say 
that, apparently, the Mongol is superior to the Caucasian in 
the possession of these desirable qualities. 

SoNOMAFnrm.fr: Arpad Haraszthy knew the value of the 
standard Hungarian grape, hence he has ever urged its plant- 
ing in California, with the result that to-day from 75 to 85 per 
cent of all the claret-wine producing grapes in California are 
of the Zinfandel variety. As a rule this grape will yield very 
light this year in Sonoma and a number of other counties ; 
hence, as the wine cellars will be almost entirely empty 
when the new vintage come in, a liberal price should be fixed 
for grapes. 

By the last steamer from .lapan there came a small lot of 
Japanese orange trees, designed for an ornamental garden 
near San Francisco; but upon being inspected by Quarantine 
Officer Craw, of the State Board of Horticulture, they were 
found to be infested with the scale known as " the orange 
chronaspis." This is one of the most destructive scales known 
to the orange grower and one of the hardest to destroy. So 
far as known there is none in the State. The trees were, of 
course, destroyed. 

Watsonville Pajaronian: San Jose canners are offering 
from $.35 upward for Moorpark apricots, and yet Eastern trade 
papers report that the New York market is glutted with 
California canned apricots of the pack of 1804, and that poor 
quality of fruit and low prices have ruined the market for 
1805. It is a difficult matter to reconcile these conditions. A 
large portion of the San Jose apricot extra pack goes to 
Europe, and is not effected by the New York quotations on 
second-grade fruit. 

The Traver Advocate grows indignant over the reports of 
Eastern egg arrivals at San Francisco. It says: " We have 
the best country in the world for poultry industry and do not 
produce enough eggs each day for our breakfast the next 
morning. We know a few people who give care to this busi- 
ness as one of the important side issues of the farm ; and as a 
help in keeping down the running expenses their merchants' 
account will attest. The low price of eggs is no excuse. If 
Eastern farmers can afford to ship them 3000 miles or more to 
market it will surely pay us; and now that we are assured of 
lower freight rates by reason of a competing line, there would 
be no better time or better business for a man of small 
means than to start a poultry ranch." 



20 



The Pacific Rural Press. 



July 13, 1895. 



Rainfall and Temperature. 



The foUowintj data for the week ending 5 a. M., 
July 10, 1895, are from official sources, and are 
furnished by the U. S. Weather Bureau expressly 
for the Pacific Rural Press: 



CALIFORNIA 
STATIONS. 


Total Rainfall for the 
Week 


Total Seasonal Rain- 
fall to Date 


Total Seasonal Rain- 
fall Last Year to 
Same Date 


Average Seasonal Rain- 
fall to Date 




Maximum Temperature 
for the Week 


Minimum Temperature I 


Eureka 


.01 


.01 


T 


.05 




66 


46 


Red BluB 


.06 


06 


T 


T 




104 


58 




.04 


.04 


T 






96 


54 


San Francisco 


.01 


.01 




T 




S3 


54 


Fresno 






T 






103 


56 




T 


T 


T 


.01 




84 


54 


San Diego 








T 




86 


56 








T 


T 




106 


6^ 



Weather and Crops. 



Rt-imtt for the Week by the Director of the State Weather 
Service. 

Director Rarwick of the Weekly Weather and Crop 
Service summarizes as follows: 

The average temperature for the week ending 
Monday, July 8th, was for Eureka 56°, Independ- 
ence 74°, Los Angeles 68°, Red Bluff 74°, Sacramento 
70°, San Francisco 60°, San Luis Obispo 60° and San 
Diego 64°. 

As compared with the normal temperatures, there 
is a heat deficiency at all points named excepting 
Eureka, which reports an excess of heat of 1°. The 
deficiencies at the other stations are as follows: 
Fresno 4", Los Angeles 3°, Red Bluff 5°, Sacramento 
2° and San Diego 3°, while San Francisco reports 
normal conditions to have prevailed. 

There were a few sprinkles during the Fourth of 
July in the Sacramento valley and in portions of the 
coast counties, but no damage was done as the 
amount precipitated was too small. 

Grasshoppers are damaging crops, etc., along the 
foothills of the Livermore valley and in the foothill 
regions of upper Sonoma county. 

The army worm has made its appearance in por- 
tions of El Dorado and Yuba counties, but does not 
as yet appear to be doing any great amount of dam- 
age. 

Fruit is beginning to come in quite freely, and the 
canneries and driers are getting in proper shape to 
handle it as fast as it may arrive. It is generally j 
reported that peaches will be a pretty good crop 
both in quantity and quality, but most other fruits 
will be rather short in yield, although the quality is 
reported as being unusually good and the fruit of a 
larger size. Beans are doing only fairly well as yet, 
while hops are slowly advancing towards maturity. \ 

Sacramento A'alley, j 

Tehama (Red BluiT) — Peaches are plentiful; apricots arc 
scarce; blackberries are plentiful, while prunes are a medium 
crop. 

Bi TTE (Pentz) — Rain on the 4th, vchich did no damage ex- 
cept to dry feed. (I'alermoi — Raiu on the 4th did no harm. 

Com SA (Gi'and Island) — Rain on the 4th did no harm. 

Yi RA (Marysville) — The rain on the 4th appears not to have 
done any damage. Wheal is turuinfj out poorly. Many i 
farmers will not have overono half what they expected. The j 
peach crop will be light; two-thirds of a crop was at first ex- 
pected, but now only about half of a crop will be gathered. 
The curl leaf is what has done the damage. Barley yield 
short, although the acreage is large. ( Wheatland )--Army 
worms made their appearance at places along the Bear river 
this week: no damage: they are now diminishing in numbers. [ 

Sacuamkxto (Union House) — Grain is not turning out more 
than iialf what was expected. (Trask) — Weather favorable ! 
for all kinds of fruit, and heavy shipment will soon begin. 
The army worm has appeared and is doing considei'able dam- 
age to tomatoes, beans and alfalfa. 

SoLAXo (Briggs Vineyard) — The southwest winds have been 
of great good to the fruit crop. The only good the rain did 
was to cool the air. (Batavia) -There will not be more than 
half as much grain stored here as usual. (Maine I'rarie) — 
Grain is coming into the warehouses, but the yield is so light ( 
that the quantity stored will be much less than usual. (Tre- j 
mont) - It is generally conceded now that the sevei'e frosts of 
the past spring had considerable to do with the shortage of 
the grain i-rop. It has always been considered that frost had 
no effect on growing grain, but from the experience of this , 
and previous years the conclusion has been arrived at that, if 
frost strikes the grain late in the season or when the first 
joint is formed, it is bound to be more or less damaged. 

Contra Costa (Byron) — The grain in this vicinity is not 
turning out as well as expected, there appearing to be too 
much straw. 

Santa Clara Valley. 

Ai.AMEDA (Livermore) — Grasshoppers are literally eating 
everything in sight at various points in and near the foothills 
around the valley. Near the old coal mine, after destroying 
all other vegetation, they have been eating the leaves of the 
gum and pepper trees. (Decota)— Weather cool and cloudy, 
with a light shower on the 4th. Grain is about all out. 1 
( Irvington) -Apricots and prunes will probably yield from aj 
third to a half crop. Strong northwest winds have prevailed 
during the week. 

Santa ("i. AHA — Weather cool and foggy at San .lose. Apri- 
cots have had a pretty severe drop, which reduces the already 
light crop. Prunes increasing in size verj' fast. Salways not 
much more than one-fourth of a crop. Grain is a pretty fair : 
i;rop. (Campbell)— Some fruit has already been brought to ' 



the drier and there is a promise of splendid fruit this season. 
Apricots are very fine and smooth, while prunes are already 
as large as they frequently are at maturity. 

.San .Joaquin Valley. 

San .JoAQt'iN (Lodi) — Grain in the upper portion of the 
county is not turning out .so well as was promised early in the 
season. Frost which nipped it in the milk, followed by 
heavy winds which whipped it out badly, have very ma- 
terially reduced the output, until there vrill not be anything 
like a full crop this year. Apricots and almonds are light, but 
peaches are very good and grapes will be a heavy crop. 

Khksno (Easton)— The weather has been remarkably cool 
for the season and grapes do not seem to be making much 
headway. Api-icot drying is done. Pears are scarce but 
poaches promise well. 

Ti LAKi; ( Woodville)— Farmers are complaining of rust in 
their wheat. In all the vineyards noticed there appears to be 
a better crop set on the vines than there was last year. 
Sonoma Valley. 

Sonoma (Healdsburg) — In some places next to the foothills 
the crop has been entirely destroyed by grasshoppers. The 
hoppers are more numerous on the hillsides than ever before 
and seem to be moving westward. 

Southern California. 

Venti ka (Fremontville) -There has been -some fog during 
the week and beans are making a satisfactory growth in 
heavy land. Api-icot picking and drying is getting under 
good headway, and there will be only about half a crop. Pears 
and apples will yield better; some orchards will produce fine 
crops. Beans and corn are looking splendid. 

ORAN(iE (Tustin) — Apricot drying is at its height, the season 
of which will he short and the crop small. Prunes continue to 
promise a tine .yield. Bee men are gathering honey and with 
varying results. Corn is doing well. 

Coast Counties. 

Hi miku.dt (Eureka)— The rain was of no benefit to the hay 
or the cherry crop; other fruit and grain is turning out well. 

Sax Lns Oiusro (San Luis Obispo)~Barley is turning out 
as well as was expected. Beans on bottom lands are doing 
well. Fruit, excepting grapes, will be much less than an 
average crop. 

Foothill and Mountain Counties. 

Lassen (Susanville)— The apple crop will be a large one. 
All crops are fair. 

SrsKiYoi- (Yreka)^Rains during the forepart of the week 
were of great benefit to the grain. Considerable wheat in 
this county is being cut for hay. 

Pi.ACEK "(Newcastle)— Fruit is coming in in large quantities. 

Ei, Doha IK) (Georgetown) — The army worm has made its 
appearance in this vicinity and gardens are suffering from 
its depredations. 



Auction of War Still On. 



Sacramento, .July 8. — The attempt made recently to com- 
promise the present difficulties between the rival auction 
houses of New York, on the Erie and West Shore docks, has 
fallen through. H. A. Fairbanks, who repi-esents the Nation- 
al P''ruit Assoi'iatiou here, suggested, with the idea of ascer- 
taining which of the two docks is the most convenient to the 
trade of New York, and to prevent the loss to growers, con- 
sequent upon auctions taking place in both rooms at the same 
time, that the sales of California fruits be held on alternate 
weeks on each dock. By telegram, he obtained from Sgobel 
& Day, representing the opiKisition auction room on Erie dock, 
an indorsement of this arrangement and an agreement that, if 
the Erie people would not consent to it, they would leave the 
Erie Road and make arrangements with some other. 

The proposition was finally submitted to the ("alifornia 
Fruit Growers and Shippers' As.sociatiou over a week ago and 
it was supposed would be accepted, but a final answer was 
given by the association on Saturday declining to enter into 
the arrangement, as it is deemed impracticable. E. L. Sum- 
mers, general Western fruit agent of the West Shore railroad, 
on whose dock the auction-rfK)m of the Fruit Growers' Asso<'ia- 
tion is located, is in this city and states that the Hoats, or 
lighters, of the railroad companies differ in size and shape, 
and the floats of the Erie cannot di.scharge on the West Shore 
do<-k. As a matter of fact, each of the rival railroad companies 
is averse to any arrangement which might cause it the loss of 
business or prestige. 

The rivalry between the auction firms of Sgobel & Day and 
Brown & Seccomb is great, and the fruit of the California 
grower is being slaughtered in order that rival roads and 
rival auction houses may make good their respective claims of 
merit. 

News came this morning that the Buyers' Association walk- 
ed out of the Union auction room in Chicago and declined to bid 
on California fruit because the California Fruit Growers and 
Shippers' Association declined to exclude the peddlers from 
the auction. The Fruit Buyers' As.sociatiou has sent a repre- 
sentative to California, and he is now on the ground making, 
or attempting to maKe, contracts for fruit. The only way by 
which he may succeed is by offering cash f. o. b. or by making 
cash advances on contracts. 



Fresh Fruit Prices in Santa Clara. 



The San Jose Mercury of the 7th inst. reports the 
following interview on fruit subjects: 

During the past week or ten days a large amount of apri- 
cots were bought in this county, said Colonel T. Weaver yes- 
terday. The apricots were contracted for for canning pur- 
poses," and for choice fruit as high as per ton was given a 
week ago. No such price is offered to-day, but .$:3(l can be 
readily secured for good fruit. The apricots are very thin on 
the trees this year, and for that reason a good percentage of 
them ai-e large and fine. This is especially desired by cauners, 
and they are willing to pay $:!•"> a ton for such fruit. The top 
prii-e last year, when there was a much larger crop of apri- 
cots, was i!;^0 per ton. I sold all my crop to the canners this 
year. The prices, hovrever, were "not as good as they should 
be for the very light crop. Not much is being done in peaches, 
although they" are ripening fast. . Good prices are being real- 
ized by those who are making shipments of early peaches 
East. It was thought six weeks or two months ago that there 
would be a tremendous crop of peaches, but so many fell since 
that time that the crop is only a medium one. It is a little 
early to get definite figures upon peaches. There is talk of 
prices ranging all the way from ^'ZO to $40 per ton according to 
quality. The top pri<'c, .?40, is said to be offered for fancy 
clings! There is talk of offers of $:<0 for clings. This is not 
sufHcient, as it means only about four cents a pound for the 
dried article. The average price realized for the dried fruit 
is much higher than that usually. 



The Santa Clara people are endeavoring to spread 
the gospel of dried fruits in the East and have 
named a committee to prepare and send out litera- 
ture. It has been planned to raise $20,000 for the 
work this season. 



Forest Waste in America. 



Baron Michling, a cultured and wealthy gentleman 
of Germany, was in Chicago recently, and when ask- 
ed by a reporter what he did not like about the 
United States replied: "The destruction of your 
forests. In every other way the keenest, most far- 
sighted nation the world has ever seen, the people of 
the United States seem to have been blind to the con- 
sequences of the wholesale destrution of their timber 
lands. The matter does not interest the public as it 
should. In some States now the original forests 
have already been exterminated, and practically 
nothing is being done in the way of planting. The 
people of America will find themselves obliged before 
many years to pass forestry laws, such as Germany 
has had for years. Already you have practically 
exterminated several varieties of the most valuable 
woods. Let me tell you this: Within twenty years 
you will be bringing American woods fromGermany. 
For years we have been systematically planting 
American walnut, maple, cherry and other trees. 
When your supply is exhausted we can supply you. 
I now have growing on my estate in Hesse-Thuringen 
thousands of American trees which I secured mainly 
through the kindness of my friend, Mr. Fernow, who 
is the head of your forestry division of the agricultu- 
ral department. Pardon me for saying the people of 
the United States are ungrateful. God gave to them 
the grandest trees on the face of the earth — the 
giant sequoia of Mariposa. I now have quite a 
number of them growing in Germany which I sent 
from California. They are about four feet high, and 
I am very proud of them. You have not learned to 
love the trees for themselves, as we do. To the 
average American, the first question about a nice 
tree is, How many feet of lumber can I get out of it ?" 

It is often the case that others see us more clearly 
than we see ourselves. We may not fully appreciate 
the truth of Baron Michling's remarks, says the 
Nortlnirsttrrn IjKmlii rmnn, but our children will ex- 
perience it, and wonder why their progenitors were 
so wasteful of material which is so slowly produced. 



Preserving the Forests. 

The question of preserving our forests from de- 
struction by tire is certainly one of National impor- 
tance and it is time the Government at Washington 
has taken hold of it. Poorest property which has 
required frotn one to two hundred years to make 
merchantable is sacrificed at the rate of $25,000,000 
I a year. The cause and the remedy are serious 
problems. 

I Carelessness in clearing lands, escape of locomo- 
tive sparks, burning-over marshy grounds, careless- 
ness with matches and gun wads, escape of fire from 
coal pits, incendiarisms to hide timber steals, light- 
ning strokes and possibly friction and spontaneous 
combustion are all sources of fires in our woods. 

j Whether by accident, carelessness or evil intent, 
the spread of many of our fires might be prevented 
by the systematic guarding of our forests. Spark ar- 
resters upon our locomotives, non-combustible gun 
wads, common prudence on the part of individuals 
and a general vigilance such as is exercised in F^u- 
rope, would make our loss much less. 



War is being waged in England against the use of 
the word scientist. The Duke of Argyll, Sir John 
Lubbock, fjord Rayleigh, Lord Kelvin and Professor 
Huxley unreservedly condemn the word: Sir .lohn 
Lubbock proposes philosopher instead; TiOr-ds Ray- 
leigh and Kelvin ])refer naturalist. Professor Hux- 
ley thinks that scientist must be about as pleasing as 
electrocution to any one who respects the J^nglish 
language. Grant Allen, while disapproving of the 
word, thinks it is pedantry to object to a new word 
when it is used by a majority of the persons; after 
the camels of altruism and sociology, scientist is 
comparatively a gnat. Alfred Wallace alone is not 
disturbed by the word; he describes it as useful, and 
argues that, since we have biologist, geologist, 
chemist, physicist and specialist, we might as well 
use scientist, nnd he further asks, " What i> there 
to use instead ? ' Scinin- (,'o.sxip says the word was 
first invented and used by Whewell in his " Philoso- 
phy of the Inductive Sciences." 



The right of a man to defend himself on his own 
premises has been vindicated by the United States 
Supreme Court in an Arkansas case, A man with 
two others came on the premises of his brother-in- 
law to seize a cow. He drew a revolver to intimi- 
date the owner of the animal, and was thereupon 
struck and killed. The court at the trial held that 
this killing was not justifiable, as the man must re- 
treat inside his dwelling-house before he had a right 
to fire in self-defense. The Supreme Court over- 
rules this decision. It holds that a man on his own 
premises is where he has a right to be. If he did not 
provoke an assault, and believed his life in danger, 
he was not obliged to retreat, and was justified in 
meeting force with force. This is common-sense 
doctrine, and it is gratifying to know that the 
highest court has affirmed ii to be good law. 



July IS, 1895. 



The Pacific Rural Press. 



HORTICULTURE. 

What a Redlands Man Thinks of the 
Future. 

W. M. Tisdale, of Redlands, San Bernardino 
county, writes an interesting letter to Garden and 
Forest about fruits which will become of greater im- 
portance than they are at present. Many readers 
will be pleased to compare Mr. Tisdale's ideas with 
their own. We quote as follows : 

The chances for pioneering in California fruits are 
not entirely in the past. What has been true of the 
lemon, olive and orange is true to-day of the pomelo, 
pineapple, the fig, and possibly other popular and 
expensive fruits, all of which can be readily marketed 
if they can be grown of good quality. 

The pomelo is still regarded in California as an 
uncertainty, dependent for its popularity upon a fad 
that may not last. The sudden growth of the fruit 
in favor found California unprepared to take ad- 
vantage of the unexpected demand. The shaddock, 
a larger and coarser fruit, was grown to a very 
limited extent and as a curiosity. Its quality was 
poor, the fruit being thick of rind, full of " rag " 
and deficient in flavor. Since it was discovered 
that pomelos sell readily in Eastern cities improve- 
ments have been made. The bud of the shaddock 
has been grafted upon orange roots, and the result 
is a tree which produces the nearly spherical pomelo, 
which is far superior to the huge, coarse, pear- 
shaped shaddock. This nomenclature is the popular, 
if not the scientific, method of distinguishing these 
fruits. Some quite extensive orchards of the im- 
proved variety have been planted in southern Cali- 
fornia, and, with the rapid growth that all such 
fruits make, the growers will soon know whether 
they are to reap large rewards in advance of prob- 
able competition. [As ^rown in Florida the pomelo 
and the shaddock are quite distinct. — Ed.] 

The pineapple has been successfully grown in some 
sheltered nooks of San Diego county. The fruit has 
been marketed at high prices and the growers are 
confident of success with it. They claim that it is of 
superior quality. It would seem that so high priced 
a fruit would repay unusual care, even to the extent 
of growing it under glass, if necessary. The markets 
of the Pacific Coast cities have never been over- 
burdened with pineapples, and it is not probable 
that the limited area adapted to them will produce 
enough even for local consumption for many years to 
come. 

As a commercial factor the fig has been of little 
importance among California fruits, although it has 
been an incumbent of almost every rancher's door- 
yard since the padres taught their Indian peons 
horticulture. As a fresh fruit it is luscious, and 
invaluable for its medicinal qualities. Eaten with 
sugar and cream it is as grateful for dessert as the 
strawberry, and more wholesome. But as it is good 
only when perfectly ripe, it will not bear transporta- 
tion under existing conditions, and the fresh figs 
offered in Eastern markets are a delusion and a 
snare. As a dried fruit it has also been a failure in 
the market. 

Quantities of dried figs are sold in California, 
although they are usually small and shriveled in ap- 
pearance and lack the rich, aromatic, nutty flavor 
of the imported fig. The latter commands in Cali- 
fornia, as everywhere, a high price, usually twenty- 
five cents a pound. The home product sells for ten 
cents. It has been the dream of fig culturists for 
years so to improve the quality that the California 
fruit may compete with the imported. To this end 
soils, climates and varieties have been patiently 
studied. 

The nearest approach to success that I have seen 
is the product of an orchard grown on very deep, 
sandy loam, in an interior county, where the heat of 
sum.mer usually hovers between 80 and 110 degrees. 
Moisture is fatal to the successful curing of the fig. 
Even an adjacent field of alfalfa, with its necessary 
frequent and copious irrigations, has been found to 
cause sufficient moisture in the air to turn the fruit 
sour upon the tree before it could be picked and 
cured. The fig tree is almost a continuous bearer 
during the producing season, and figs in all stages of 
development grow upon the same tree. Under the 
conditions above mentioned only a day or two suffices 
to spoil the successive relays of fully ripened fruit. 

The soil above referred to permits of very exact 
and careful irrigation in whatever quantity it may 
be desired, the less the better. After irrigation it 
is easily cultivated. It does not bake, and a careful 
pulverizing of the surface keeps the moisture sus- 
pended by capillary attraction in the deep, porous 
silt, where the roots of the tree find it, and at the 
same time it gives a gleaming surface that reflects 
the full vigor of the sun. As I rode on horseback 
through a three-year-old orchard grown on this soil 
the branches were above my head, and had a spread 
of twelve feet at the top. The lai-gest of the trees 
were seven inches in diameter a foot above the roots, 
and, standing without a symptom of scale or any dis- 
ease, seemed personifications of thrift. The branches 
were crowded with growing fruit. 

The product of this orchard has so far been sold 



at fifteen cents a pound, dried, to the wholesale 
grocers of Los Angeles. Packed in fancy boxes, the 
figs resemble the imported article, with a thin, 
transparent skin and a greater development of sugar 
than is common in the California fig. The variety is 
the White Adriatic, which is very large and has the 
excellent quality of drying upon the tree instead of 
falling to the ground when ripe. 

There are still other uses to which the fig may 
profitably be put. It is well adapted to crystallizing, 
but in this process there are trade secrets not yet 
understood here, consequently the French crystal- 
lized fruit sells readily at fifty cents a pound, while 
the California article goes begging at half that price. 
Delicious marmalades, preserves and sweet pickles 
may be made from the fresh, fully ripened fig. These 
are especially fine when given a home-made flavor. 
The process of picking and either drying or preserv- 
ing this fruit requires great care, skill and delicacy 
in handling. It should seem, therefore, that women, 
if possessed of health, courage and perseverance, 
might make a success of this industry. The tree is 
hardy and is not usually afflicted with scale or other 
pests. Only a moderate capital would be required 
for an orchard and the market is a wide one. There 
is much less risk than in growing oranges or olives. 
The greatest uncertainty would be in the cost of the 
finished product, which might make it too high 
priced; but, with the constantly increasing demand 
for delicacies of this sort, there ought to be a satis- 
factory market for meritorious goods. 



The Cicada in the Orchard. 

We recently mentioned the cicada as sent us by a 
reader in Santa Cruz county and noted the char- 
acter of its work in fruit trees at Dutch Flat. A 
very good account of the cicada and its operations 
on fruit trees comes from the pen of Prof. C. V. 
Piper, entomologist of the Washington Experiment 
Station. The cicadas belong to the same order as 
grasshoppers, but they are readily distinguished by 
their broad heads, the large and very convex eyes 
on each side and the three eyelets on the crown, by 
the transparent and veined wing covers and wings, 
and by the elevation on the back part of the thorax 
in the form of the letter X. The females are fur- 
nished with a curiously contrived piercer, for per- 
forating the limbs of trees, in which they place their 
eggs. These insects have been noticed more largely 
in Washington and Oregon the past season than 
formerly. 

The piercer of the female consists of three parts, in 
close contact with each other, namely: Two outer 
ones grooved on the inside and enlarged at the tips, 
which externally are beset with small teeth like a 
saw, and a central spear-pointed borer which plays 
between the other two. Thus this instrument has 
the power and does the work both of an awl and of 
a double-edged saw, or rather of two key-hole saws 
cutting opposite each other. No species of cicada 
possesses the power of leaping. 

The duration in the winged state is comparatively 
very short, seldom exceeding two or three weeks in 
extent. 

After pairing, the females proceed to prepare a 
nest for the reception of their eggs. They select for 
this purpose branches of moderate size, which they 
clasp on both sides with their legs; then bending 
down the piercer at an angle of about forty-five de- 
grees, they repeatedly thrust it obliquely into the 
bark and wood in the direction of the fibers, at the 
same time putting in motion the lateral saws, and in 
this way detach little splinters of the wood at one 
end so as to form a kind of fibrous lid or cover to the 
perforation. The hole is bored to the pith, and is 
gradually enlarged by a repetition of the same opera- 
tion till a longitudinal fissure is formed of sufficient 
extent to receive from ten to twenty eggs. The fe- 
male is about fifteen minutes in preparing a single 
nest and filling it with eggs; but it is not unusual for 
her to make fifteen or twenty fissures in the same 
limb. They may attack any kind of trees or shrubs. 

Remedy. — The punctured limbs should be cut off 
and burned, thus destroying the eggs. The young 
insects if hatched out in about forty to fifty days 
(some say fourteen days) are very lively. After a 
few moments they run to the side of the limb, de- 
liberately lose hold and fall to the earth, where they 
seem to follow the roots of plants, imbibing vege- 
table juices. Here they have many enemies which 
contribute to diminish their numbers. Their eggs 
are also eaten by birds. The young, when first 
hatched from the shell, are preyed upon by ants. 
Blackbirds eat them when turned up by the plough 
in fields, and hogs are excessively fond of them, and 
sometimes devour immense numbers when at large 
in the woods to root them up. Many also perish in 
the egg state by rapid growth of wood and bark. 



A Sonoma County Olive Mill. 



Near Guerneville and on the Forestville road is 
the largest olive orchard in Sonoma county, and 
probably one of the largest in the State. It is owned 



by Dr. Prosek. There are 100 acres of orchard \ 
8o00 trees, all in bearing. The crop last year wu. 
ten tons, and this year will be about thirty tons. 

Dr. Prosek built the first olive mill in Sonoma 
county m 1894. The building is forty feet wide and 
sixty feet long, with an engine-house 14x20. An 
eight-horse power engine generates the pressure. 

Immediately on picking, the olives are put into a 
novel crusher, the first of the kind in the State. In 
the crusher are two granite wheels which weigh 1500 
pounds each, and revolve on a flat granite slab. The 
wheels are reversible, and can be raised or lowered 
according to the size of the olive. Latest improved 
scrapers, which keep the paste under the wheels, 
have supplanted much work in that operation — an 
arrangement has been made whereby it empties it- 
self by two or three revolutions of the wheel. The 
crusher has a capacity of two or three tons daily, 
both first and second grinding. 

A hydraulic press receives the paste and the juice 
that comes out goes into a separator, which sepa- 
rates the oil from the water of the vegetation. When 
settled and clear the oil is filtered and bottled and is 
then ready for market. 

Last year was a disastrous one for olives and yet 
the output of oil was 250 gallons. Dr. Prosek has 
in his grove thirty-five different varieties of olives 
and will bud from those that do best in the locality. 
The earliest and best bearers are the Nevadillo 
Blanco, Rubra and Manzanillo, while the Polymorpha 
produces the largest olives and the best for pickling. 



THE POULTRY YARD. 



Mid-Summer in the Poultry Yard. 

I. K. Felch gives a mid-summer exhortation to 
watchfulness and labor in the poultry yard quite as 
vigorously as though he were preaching in the early 
spring time. See what a host of things must be done 
in the hottest weather. If we fail to lime wash our 
houses this month; if we fail to have on hand a lice 
dust — made by fine pulverized carbolic lime and 
tobacco dust in proportion of one-third tobacco, two- 
thirds carbolic lime — which can be used upon the 
fowls as a louse exterminator, and about the house 
as a deodorizer and germ destroyer, then we are 
giving up a percentage of our profits. If the droopy 
ones are left to the vermin then your laziness is rob- 
bing you and you are bringing reproach upon your 
calling. 

If you have failed up to this time to hatch the 
number you should, and now desist on the plea that 
the season is too late, instead of hatching the requir- 
ed number, and by extra care assisting them to 
make up for the time lost, then you are making a 
compromise with laziness — losing part of the year's 
income. Poultry meat costs so much per pound; 
produce all you can to four months of age and take 
your pay for it. The pullets will come to productive 
age in from five to seven months, and for the fol- 
lowing sixteen months earn you money and convert 
your labor into a bountiful supply of eggs — which 
means cash. 

But you say it is hot. All the more need that your 
flocks should be made comfortable. Put every chicken 
coop in the shade, if you have to make shade coops 
over them of brush. If you are " short " on brush, 
then go to the store and buy muslin at six cents per 
yard and make shade that way that will keep the 
sun off the ground surrounding the coops, and 
sprinkle down that it may evaporate, thereby 
cooling the surroundings. Peed early and late and, 
with the shade between ten and four o'clock, it will 
result in the very best development and ultimately 
paying results. 

White- wash — shade — cleanliness — meat — vege- 
table — grain — corn only as a seed grain, cracked fine, 
as twenty percent only of the food furnished. Nor 
think your labor done till all this is supplied. It is 
taken for granted the mulch litter and gravel and 
lime put into the hen house last fall is now taken 
out and a fresh supply put in and three pounds of 
sulphur for every ten feet square of floor space raked 
onto it. This, with the liberal use of lice prepara- 
tions, will make the house comfortable and free from 
lice and thereby the flock freed from the evils of 
nervous prostration. Do you believe hens do not 
have nervous prostration ? Well if they do not they 
ought to if confined in some houses I have seen. 

Do not be afi-aid, one each week, to add a dessert- 
spoonful of saturated carbolic acid to two gallons of 
pure water and force the flock to drink it for 
one day of each seven. Furnish charcoal without 
limit, and next fall tell me if you have had any cholera 
or aggravated diarrhcKa. All this is labor, more than 
money, for you to furnish. Therefore does it convert 
your labor to a greater percentage in cash, and the 
sweat of your brow becomes converted into cash to 
bring you pleasure and profit. 

While our prairies, as a rule, are bare of shade, 
they are sure of a breeze, and a current of cooling air 
can be secured any time by a frame covered with 
cloth and fixed to four posts. 

I once had a cow entirely exhausted and was 



22 



The Pacific Rural Press 



July 13, 1895 



obliged to unload her, when a yeoman came along 
saying: " I will help you out of your trouble." He 
then 'drove four stakes into the ground and drew 
the corners of a blanket over them the same being 
over the cow, then, sprinkling the blanket, and the 
ground about the cow, there was a cooling influence 
created which induced the cow to drink, get up on 
her feet and go to grazing. How much labor was 
there in all that V By that amount of labor you keep 
fifty or seventy-five chickens comfortable and grow- 
ing throughout the hot days before us. Will it not 
pay ? Remember, from shell to griddle; from shell 
to show pen will take you clear through June, July 
and August, when the sun scorches the chicks, pro- 
duces lice, and if the chicks are to grow they are 
to be protected from both. Your labor will do it. 
So convert that labor into cash. The labor that 
yesterday you did not render you can not collect for 
in poultry culture. The mill will never grind with 
the water that is past." Poultry culture is manual 
labor, the fulfillment of the divine injunction, but if 
cheerfully done becomes a means of pleasure and of 
profit. 

Goose Farming. 



They often do damage to pastures, and destroy and 
waste much that they should not disturb. 

The best breeders are the Toulouse and Embden, 
the latter being entirely white in color, thus render- 
ing their feathers more valuable. A cross of the 
Toulouse gander on the Embden goose makes the 
largest product for the market. A goose will lay 
from twenty to forty eggs, but seldom hatches more 
than one brood. The goslings should not be allowed 
near water until fully feathered, as dampness is in- 
jurious to them, the down being no protection. 
They should be fed for the first six or eight weeks on 
a mixed diet, and may then be left to their parents 
altogether. Old geese make the best breeders, but 
only the young ones are marketed. Eggs from 
geese under two years old do not hatch well. 



THE SWINE YARD. 

Wheat for Pork flaking. 



It is a matter of curious study, says the Southern 
Farm, that geese are bred only in such limited num- 
bers. They are hardy. They require only the 
cheapest of shelter. For many months in the year 
they will obtain the whole or a greater part of their 
living. Goslings are easily and cheaply reared. The 
flesh sells readily and brings a good price. The 
birds are handsome, on water rivaling the beauty of 
the swan, but yet few breed them. 

One reason why so few breed them is doubtless 
due to the fact that they are aquatic fowls. They 
love the water, yet water is not an absolute neces- 
sity. We are not sure that as large a proportion of 
the few who do keep geese have no water for thern 
to swim in as those who have a pond or creek near 
at hand. We have known many who raised them 
successfully where water was not to be had for such 
purposes. Another, and perhaps the most influen- 
tial reason, is that farmers, rightly or wrojigly, are 
prejudiced against geese. They say that they de- 
stroy more value than they create; that a flock 
which would produce $50 worth of flesh and feathers 
would destroy, by eating and trampling down, $50 
worth of hay; in a word, they do not think they are 
profitable. T5ut geese do not need to run in a 
meadow. They need grass, but they can feed in a 
pasture as well as a cow. Kept in a hay field a cow 
might destroy as much hay as her income would 
equal. Regarded in this light cows would not be 
profitable. The fact is, geese properly managed 
will pay a handsome profit. During the summer 
they can be turned into a pasture, and so long as 
the feed is good will get their own living. They can 
be plucked several times in a season, and their 
feathers sell readily at a high price. The eggs can 
be set either under hens or under geese, the best 
method being to set the earlier eggs of the litters 
under large hens, and the latter under the goose 
which lays them. They do not lay a large number 
of eggs, although we recall one instance where a 
common gray goose laid over fifty eggs. The eggs 
are almost always fertile and hatch well. The gos- 
lings are easily reared, their teuderest age being 
when they begin to feather. For the first few weeks 
of their existence they make very rapid growth and 
then comes the additional strength of not only feed- 
ing their bodies, but also that of clothing them. At 
this time they need a little extra care and feeding, 
and giving to them, in addition to all the grass they 
eat, corn meal thoroughly scalded and seasoned with 
a little salt. 

They should also, at this stage of their growth, be 
protected against drenching rains, as, having out- 
grown their downy covering and not yet having 
grown their feathered coat, their bodies, and espe- 
cially their backs, are nearly bare, and they are un- 
fitted to withstand the wet. But once feathered 
they become extremely hardy, and are almost abso- 
lute strangers to disease. Foxes and extreme old 
age are their chief enemies. Fifty years is reckoned 
as the average age of the goose, although some 
manage to reach threescore and ten. 

Goslings, after attaining their growth, can be 
quickly fattened, and as there is ready sale for such 
j)oultry, and as the prices realized are generally 
satisfactory, the fowl which has cost almost nothing, 
except the exercise of a little common sense to rear, 
affords a very handsome profit. 

It is strange that in this land, where the dollar is 
said to be almighty and the people regard it as a 
very moving argument, that so few geese are kept. 
Geese are profitable or unprofitable, according to 
the manner in which they are kept. If given the 
use of a pond, on which they may enjoy themselves, 
and dive down in search of minnows and tadpoles, 
they can supply themselves with all the animal food 
they require. They should also have plenty of grass. 
When geese are kept in abandoned fields and have 
access to ponds they are profitable; but if they are 
to be fed altogether they will be kept at a loss. 



Bulletin No. 85 of the Cornell Experiment Station 
is a record of a careful experiment made to test the 
economic value of various feeding stuffs, including 
wheat. That portion of the bulletin showing the 
comparative value of wheat and corn as a pork 
maker will prove of interest to many of our readers. 
We quote: 

In order to make a comparative test of the value 
of the wheat product with that of corn as a food for 
pigs, the food was so mixed that the grain fed to 
each kind had the same chemical composition, so far 
as the nutritive ratio was concerned. It was found 
by mixing twenty-six pounds of gluten feed with 100 
pounds of corn meal that the nutritive ratio of the 
mixture was practically the same as that of wheat. 
This mixture was fed to one lot of pigs and ground 
wheat to another. Each lot received equal amounts 
of skim milk. 

Two lots of pigs were selected as nearly uniform 
as possible, and fed with the following results: 

RECORD OF flROWTH AND GAIN. 
LOT I— WHB.AT. 

Total Average Average 

Date of weigliing. weight, weight. gain. 

October 18 387 61.1 

November 9 628 104 6 43 5 

December 10 968 161 56.4 

January 10 1,294 215.8 M.6 

February 11 1,5M 259.3 33 9 

Total gain 1,189 

LOT II— CORN MEAL AND GLUTEN. 

Total Average Average 

Date of weighing. weiglit. weight. gain. 

October" 10 394 85.7 

November 9 TM 117.3 .W.8 

December 10 1,082 180.3 63 

January 10 1,413 235.5 55.2 

February 11 1,701 283.5 48.0 

Total gain 1,307 

The difference of growth of these two lots is most 
marked in the difference of gain; the time when the 
greatest growth was made was nearly the same for 
the two lots. During the time of feeding each lot 
consumed 8110 pounds of milk, or about ten pounds 
per head per day for the whole time. Lot I con- 
sumed 3473 pounds of ground wheat, and lot II 2876 
pounds of corn meal and 735 pounds of gluten feed. 

The grain food of these two lots was fed with the 
milk; the meal and ground wheat was stirred in the 
mild and fed as a slop. The grain was given in as 
large quantities as would be readily consumed, and 
varied somewhat from day to day, no record being 
kept of the amount consumed daily. Water was 
kept before each lot all the time, no record being 
kept of the amount drank. 

The total dressed weight of lot I was 1331 pounds, 
and the average loss in dressing was 14.4ti per cent. 
The cost of the grain fed this lot was $38.20, that is, 
allowing 60 cents per bushel for the wheat, and 10 
cents per cwt. for grinding. Allowing the milk to 
be worth 15 cents per cwt., the total cost was 
$50.37, or $.049 per pound for the pork. 

During the same time and on the same basis lot II 
produced 1120.20 pounds of pork at a cost of $.0456 
per pound. The corn meal was computed at $23 per 
ton; gluten meal was purchased at $17.50 per ton. 
These calculations are made on the market prices 
of grain during the experiment; the price of wheat 
was unusually low, while the price of corn was con- 
siderably above the average for the last four or five 
years, but notwithstanding all this, the corn pro- 
duced pork at a less cost per pound than did the 
wheat. 



may need all the skill of a breeder. I put water in a 
clean trough a few hours after the sow has farrowed; 
that is all the first day. The next day all the feed I 
give her is a handful of shorts in water, and increase 
from day to day until she has had shorts five days. 
1 then take mother and pigs to a one-eighth-acre lot 
of grass, in which there is a nice house, 8x7 feet, dirt 
floor. Now is a critical time, and no iron-clad rule 
will do; of a dozen sows, no two are exactly alike, 
hence the necessity of having them in lots by them- 
selves. One may have a voracious appetite and will 
need holding in, or you will soon have a patient on 
your hands with dyspepsia. Another may have but 
little appetite, generally occasioned by fever in bag. 
She will need close attention. 1 bathe the belly with 
cold water, and have a bottle of flaxseed oil with a 
little carbolic acid in it, and with a turkey feather 
put this over her teats. The washing with water 
cleans off all dirt and allays fever; the oil and acid 
preserves the pigs from sore mouths. I try to coax 
up an appetite sometimes with little scraps of meat, 
milk, mush, etc. I now, if they have good appetites, 
increase the food; clear fresh water, shorts and a 
little oil meal mixed, as food, and give all they can 
eat up clean. At this time 1 commence on one-half 
ear of dry corn, increase from day to day until on a 
full feed. I keep on in this way. At about three 
weeks old the pigs will begin to come up to the 
trough. It is fixed low so they can eat all they will. 
Then soak oats and corn and put it in a shut-off cor- 
ner. Stand and look at them eat and grow, and feel 
happy. At five weeks of age 1 open the doors of 
each pen or lot, and have the sows from six or eight 
come up to a common feeding place. Of course the 
pigs come too. Toll the pigs into a clean-floored 
house and feed slops as heretofore, and soaked oats 
and corn, all they will clean up— always sweet. At 
eight or nine weeks old I turn the sows in back pas- 
ture and leave the pigs in their pasture, and keep 
right on giving same food and care. When fair time 
comes we select what we want to exhibit. After 
the round-up of the fairs we separate the sexes, 
castrate what males appear to be below the 
standard, put them with such of the sow pigs as we 
do not want to retain either in our own herd or to 
ship for breeders, push them as fast as possible and 
try to have them in Chicago before the 1st of Febru- 
ary, at from 200 to 250 pounds. After selecting 
what I want to retain, I try to have the rest in 
other hands by the time they are six months old. 

This year 1 have had the personal care and over- 
sight of 130 pigs. There has not been a single case 
of scours, but one case of thumps, and only three or 
four with sore mouths. There is not an unhealthy 
looking pig in the bunch. They are in five groups 
and kept separate. 



THE APIARY. 



Converting Old Comb for a New Hive. 



How to Feed 



and Manage Pigs 
Montlis Old. 



up to Six 



The following paper was read by W^m. Roberts at 
the Iowa Swine Breeders' meeting: For two weeks 
before farrowing I feed the sows as near the kind of 
food as possible I intend to feed afterwards. I have 
well arranged, roomy breeding pens with good 
feeders, in which I put the sow a few days before 
farrowing time. When the time is up for her to 
travail I am on hand, but to tell you just what I do 
I will not attempt, for my doings are various, to 
suit the case. One may need no attention; another 



During the past season an Eastern beekeeper, W. 
Little, succeeded in working over old brood combs to 
his complete satisfaction, and he gives this account 
of his experience in Bn- Culture: 

I had about 200 old combs that had been in con- 
stant use for twelve years and tried rendering them, 
but could secure only little wax as the cocoons and 
other substances absorbed all of it, and 1 had nothing 
left for my labor. So I began to experiment a little. 
With a sharp honey-knife I trimmed down the cells 
of these old combs (some of them were old trans- 
ferred combs taken from old box hives ten years 
ago), and soon found I could cut through the cocoons 
down to the septum by care, and leave the base of 
the cell intact; then, turning the L frame over on a 
board, cut the right side to fit the frame, thus sup- 
porting the comb, and I could trim down the other 
side in like manner, leaving a sheet with the base of 
the cells defined. 

The bottom of each cell will be filled with the base 
of the cocoons of all the past generations bred in 
them; these, however, the bees remove in a short 
time, leaving the septum much like the sheet of 
foundation at the first. If the sheet is torn, or if 
there are patches of drone comb that I desire to dis- 
pense with, I cut it out and patch it with brood 
foundation, using melted wax to hold the patch in 
place until the bees fasten it permanently. 

I succeeded in getting 150 combs of this kind built 
in a few days in the early part of June last, before 
the honey dew began to be gathered by my bees, 
when they would not build comb of any kind. These 
combs were mostly built on wired foundation in the 
first place, and, having been rebuilt, are firmer and 
stronger than those built first on foundation. After 
working at cutting these combs down I became quite 
expert; at it. It takes a keen, stiff knife, using wa- 
ter to keep the septum stiff so that it will not stick 
to the blade and tear. 

With a little experience at the business one can 
trim them down quite rapidly and can make brood 
combs much more rapidly and with less waste of wax 
than by rendering the combs and molding thi>ni 
again. The bees seem to delight in pulling out the 
base of the old swaddling clothes of former genera- 



23 



tions of bees, and mending the rents and patches in 

the old comb and working them over. 

If my health permits and the bees have work to 
the coming season, I will work over a large number 
of my old combs this year, as I am well pleased with 
the result of my experiment last year. 



Dividing Colonies for Increase. 

A California writer sends the American Bee Journal 
a note which may be useful to some of our beginners 
in the business. He says: 

There are many people in our midst who keep 
bees, but the practical and scientific apiarists of 
modern development are few. They are composed 
chiefly of that element which never looks into or 
reads a bee paper and knows nothing whatever of 
the progress of modern apiculture. Their anxiety 
and ambition is in the direction of increase, foster- 
ing the idea that bees must issue first, before their 
propensity leads them to store surplus honey, divid- 
ing and subdividing without the introduction of 
queens, or mature cells, being practiced indiscrim- 
inately, resulting in the end by a degeneration of 
their colonies. Subdividing, by allowing each sub- 
division to rear a queen from their own larva, takes 
away all energy and vigor from the working force, 
and produces a queen of inferiority; such queens are 
longer in hatching and seldom prolific. 

It must be borne in mind that it requires nearly 
one month to mature a perfect queen and fit her for 
egg-laying duties. It will be remembered also that 
it fequires thirty-seven days to develop a worker- 
bee for field duty, in a normal condition, hence it 
will be seen that two months have elapsed before the 
progeny of the subdivision are able to sustain the 
colony, in which time all old bees have passed out of 
existence. While a queen in a populous hive will lay 
2000 and .3000 eggs every twenty-four hours, this 
one, under such conditions, will not exceed so many 
hundred for the next month to follow. 

For the benefit of the inexperienced, I would sug- 
gest a method of increase which will be in accord 
with nature, producing queens of standard value, 
and with but little intermission on their part, com- 
pared with subdivision. 

First, reduce the space of the colony to the ca- 
pacity of five Langstroth frames, by means of a di- 
vision board, and allow only two queen cells to be 
constructed at a time. The incapacity of the hive 
restricting the queen from performing her full duty 
will compel an issue. Hive them in like manner, and 
so continue until towards the end of the season, when 
plenty of room should be given, allowing each colony 
ample opportunity to prepare their winter stores. 

In a good season, where nectar secretions are in 
abundance, it is astonishing to note the rapidity in 
which new colonies will be formed. 



SHEEP AND WOOL. 



Buying Rams. 

In a paper read by Ex-President J. B. Geddis, 
before the South Dakota Sheep Breeders Meeting at 
Mitchell, last month, we find the following: When 
men invest their money in the sheep and wool growing 
business, they do so with the expectation that they 
are going to make money. But if they do they must 
use great care in the selection of their sheep. They 
must first decide the kind of sheep they wish to raise, 
whether for wool, or both. If for wool, then select 
those that will produce the largest and heaviest 
fleece. If for mutton alone, then that which will 
give you the largest carcass and the most pounds 
mutton. But if for both wool and mutton, then select 
that which will produce a fair medium fleece and 
carcass. 

The most important thing to be considered in going 
into the sheep business is the selection of rams. No 
one can make a success of the business unless that 
one point is strictly guarded. Many people neglect 
that most important part of the business, and instead 
of using only thoroughbred rams, will buy something 
cheaper, not knowing from what stock they come, 
and then wonder why they have no luck raising lambs, 
and in a few years become disgusted with the business, 
sell their sheep for what they can get, and say there 
is no money in the sheep business. No one can make 
a success of the sheep business unless they use good, 
thoroughbred rams. And then after they select the 
kind and breed of rams they intend to use, stick to 
that breed until their sheep are as near thoroughbred 
as it is possible for them to be made. It does not 
matter what breed you select; all are good and will 
pay you good profit on the investment if they are only 
given a fair chance. 

Not only is it importan t that you should be careful in 
the selection of your rams, as to well bred stock (with 
a register attachment), showing them to be pure 
blood, but it is just as important that you should 
not select rams for breeding purposes that have been 
fed and fitted for the ring. I am not here for the 
purpose of advertising q,ny breeder of thoroughbred 



sheep in South Dokota, neither am I interested in 
any breeding establishment. But having had several 
years experience in raising sheep, and having seen 
the mistakes of several new beginners in the business, 
I believe you cannot be too careful in the selection of 
your rams. Buy your rams at home, where they 
are acclimated and are accustomed the same feed 
and care that you can give them on your own farm. 



Shearing in flontana. 

The sheep industry in Montana, the one gigantic 
enterprise in which one- third, possibly, of the people 
are interested, is the principal attraction for 
strangers at Foston. One flock near there has 
12,000 sheep in it. They are subdivided and on the 
ranges kept apart, there being a man to watch each 
flock. These men seldom come to town, their wants 
being supplied by a superintendent, who carries 
their food and other necessaries to them. 

Sheep shearing is a business. Some of these 
shearers come all the way from California. A writer 
gives this account of his observation of the shearing: 
If you or I were to shear a sheep we might take him 
upon a table so we would not have to bend our 
backs. That would show, however, how green we 
were. The back of the professional shearer is bent 
nearly the whole time. The shearer catches a sheep 
by the hind leg, throws him so nicely that he does 
not appear to know that he has had a fall, thrusts 
the big shears into the wool, and in a few minutes 
the sheep gets up and shakes himself and steps off 
lightly. A sheep when being sheared is very meek. 
There is no struggling, the look on its face is one of 
surprise and submission. An expert shearer will 
turn off 100 head a day. The men work in pairs in 
little pens which will hold about twenty-five sheep, 
and get seven cents a head. 

The strain on the muscles of the lower arm is 
severe, and even professionals are sometimes obliged 
to resort to rest and liniment. Every shearer has a 
whetstone fastened to the fence, and after sheai-ing a 
sheep gives his shears a riTb on the stone. In work- 
ing so fast the sheep are sometimes cut, occasionally 
so badly that it is necessary to transform them into 
mutton. The sheep are not washed, and as a result 
the wool is filled with dirt. After being sheared a 
letter is marked on the sheep's side with red paint, 
and it is turned out to raise another crop of wool. 

The wool is packed in sacks, which hold about 400 
pounds each, and is ready for shipment. What it 
brings is a subject for political economists to talk 
about. 



Sheep Of The World. 

In order to hold out a ray of hope to the man who is 
still holding on to his sheep in the belief that a better 
day is coming, and to him who has not entered into 
the mad rush to get out of the business, which resulted 
in the depleting of our flocks to the something more 
than six million of sheep in the past year, we quote 
the following from the Montana Stockman: It will be 
observed that the United States is not the only 
country of the world where a shortage exists, and if 
these conditions of themselves are not suflBcient to 
produce an increased interest and demand for the 
animal of the "golden hoof " then we are sadly mis- 
taken in our judgment of the situation. 

The decline in sheep husbandry from the low price 
of wool is meet with similar decline in the other sheep 
breeding countries. While our wool breeds are being 
so rapidly reduced, our mutton breeds are being 
developed as an important change in the modern 
sheep breeding interest. The Department of Agri- 
culture in United States reports 42,294,064 sheep, 
January, 1895, a decline of nearly three millions. 
The wool clip for 1894 was 298,057,384 pounds, with 
an average of fleece of 5.42 pounds as against 5.33 
pounds in 1893. 

Australia, the largest sheep breeding country, has 
] 18,438,063 sheep, a decline of two million heads from 
the year before. Their sheep are chiefly of native 
scrub and fine wool sheep raised in large flocks on 
wild ranches. Such wool must always be cheap. 

The Argentine Republic has 100,000,000 sheep, 
showing a decline of 3,000,000 since the last report; 
these sheep also are of inferior native and fine wool 
breeds on the wild ranches. 

Great Britain reports 30,037,818 sheep, showing a 
decrease of 1,737,000 head the past year. England 
and Scotland have developed the mutton breeds to 
the highest perfection, and on their high-priced rich 
islands raise chiefly the large mutton sheep of the 
pure breeds specially adapted to the different 
localities. 

France and Germany are also developing the mutton 
sheep industry to supply the increasing home demand 
for more meat, leaving cheaper lands of other 
countries the production of cheap wool. 

The marked decline in the great sheep breeding 
countries must soon improve the price of wool, while 
the great markets of the world eagerly call upon 
America for more good pnutton sheep, 



THE DAIRY. 



Work of the Dairy Bureau. 



The State Dairy Bureau of California, provided 
for by the last Legislature, and of the organization 
of which information has already been given in the 
Rural, has been conducting an active campaign in 
the interest of pure dairy products. The members 
of the Bureau are L. Tomasini, Dr. Thomas Flint 
and Geo. W. Burbank. Wm. Vanderbilt is secre- 
tary and S. E. Watson inspector and examiner. 
Good offices are fitted up at 113 Davis street, 
adjacent to the establishment of the California 
Dairymen's Union. Secretary Vanderbilt has just 
issued the following circular : 

The State Dairy Bureau was established to prevent decep- 
tion in the manufacture and sale of butter and cheese, and 
for the purpose of advancing the dairy interests of the State ; 
and it is imperative that the Bureau should have correct 
statistics to report to our State government at the proper 
time, so as to show an actual and honest representation of the 
magnitude of the dairy industry of the State. 

The Bureau has decided to ask the dairymen and creamery- 
men of the State to co-operate with it in its endeavor to 
obtain all the information possible for that purpose. The 
Bureau deems it necessary to ask all parties to fill out the 
enclosed detailed questions accurately, as a correct state- 
ment only will benefit the dairy interests of the State, and 
be proper to submit in our report to the State officials, in 
order that the dairymen of the State will receive the proper 
and necessary support which is justly due them. 

Up to the present time the Bureau' has been unable to find 
any imitation butter or cheese in the market. 

In accordance with the above, we would ask you to kindly 
fill out the enclosed blank within fifteen days and forward it 
to the State Dairy Bureau. The Bureau has not a complete 
list of creamerymen and dairymen. Should you find any who 
do not receive circular, please send their address on enclosed 
blank. 

The effort for correct statistics of the California 
dairy industry is one of the most important that 
could be made, and we hope all our dairy readers 
will assist the Bureau in its undertaking. The follow- 
ing are the lists of questions to which answers are 
desired : 

FOR OWNERS OP PRIVATE DAIRIES. 

Name of owner of dairy 

Postofljce address 

Location 

How many cows in dairy 

Do you make butter only 

Or do you make butter and cheese 

If you make both butter and cheese, state the proportion of 

butter and cheese made monthly 

Do you furnish milk to creamery 

If so, to what creamery 

Do you use separator 

Any other information will be thankfully received. 

FOR MANAGERS OF CREAMERIES. 

Name of creamery 

Location and postoffice address 

Is your creamery individual 

Is your creamery co-operative 

Or is the creamery a stock company 

How many separators have you in use 

How many patrons furnish milk to your creamery 

How many cows represented by your creamery 

How many pounds of milk do your monthly receipts average. . . 

How many pounds of butter do you average monthly 

How many pounds of cheese do you average monthly 

How many persons employed in your creamery 

Amount of capital invested in creamery 

State date your creamery began operation 

Any other information will be thankfully received. 

Answers to the above questions may be written 
on the above form clipped from the Rural and sent 
to Wm. Vanderbilt, Secretary, 113 Davis St., S. F., 
or a blank will be sent for answers to any who ask 
for it. The Bureau desires the interest and co- 
operation of the dairymen to the fullest extent. 



Poisonous Cheese. 



Occasionally we hear of bad results from poisonous 
cheese. This is called by an element in the cheese 
called tyrotoxicon, which Prof. Vaughan, of the 
Michigan University, declares to be of bacterial 
origin. Quite an outbreak of this difficulty has 
occurred the present season in certain factories in 
northern Ohio. Prof. Vaughan gives the following 
method for the detection of this poison in cheese: 

If a piece of blue litmus paper be applied to the 
freshly cut surface of a cheese and the paper turns 
an intensly red appearance, the cheese should be re- 
garded with suspicion. While all green cheese will 
slowly redden blue litmus paper, the poisonous arti- 
cle alone will give the intense and instantaneous re- 



24 



The Pacific Rural Press. 



July 13, 1895. 



action. If the cheese is dry, a bit of it may be 
moistened with water and the paper then apphed. 
The paper may be obtained at any drug store. 



Cause for Kicking. 

A cow never kicks, says H. B. Gurler, without 
cause. She is either hurt or frightened when she 
kicks. An instance comes to my mind now that 
illustrates this point. Several years ago, when liv- 
ing on my farm, I was in DeKalb and the mayor 
spoke to me about his cow. He had an excellent 
one and had talked with me frequently about her be- 
fore. At this particular time he was in trouble 
with her. He said she had contracted a habit of 
kicking and he could do nothing with her. and 
thought he would be compelled to sell her. I told 
him there must be a cause, but he said he could find 
none. T insisted there must be some good cause for 
it and it should be discovered, and talked with him 
for some time about the cow and her surroundings. 
I asked him if her teats were not chapped and he 
said not. I told him to get some linseed oil and 
apply a little after milking to her teats. He did so, 
aad the next time I saw him he told me his cow was 
all right. The oil had performed the cure and 
helped him to discover what the cause of the trouble 
was. This was during August when the flies were 
troublesome, and the cow to get rid of the flies had 
been in the habit of getting into a pond of water in 
the pasture, where she kept her teats wet fighting 
the flies, and caused them to chap, but not enough 
so the owner, who milked her, had discovered it 
until they commenced to heal, when he discovered 
the trouble. When you have a kicking cow study 
the case and learn the cause, and if you cannot learn 
and remove the cause you should remove the cow, as 
a kicking cow is too severe a test on the milker's 
patience and the effect is not good in the stable, as 
affects the whole surrounding atmosphere. 



What About Low Dairy Prices ? 



Prof. W. J. Spillman, of the Washington Experi- 
ment Station, writes for the Northuxxt Horticulturist 
a very forcible comment upon the dairy situation, 
which will interest California dairymen as well as their 
brother producers farther up the coast. He puts 
the case in this way: One serious phase of the ques- 
tion is low prices and an overstocked market. Elgin 
prices have gone down to an unprecedented figure 
this spring. Butter has been a drag on the market. 
There are two causes for this. The amount of butter 
manufactured in the United States is very large, 
and is increasing; and millions of pounds of oleo, 
costing only a few cents a pound, is being .sold as 
butter. The market would probably be ample for all 
butter made if so large a part of the market were not 
absorbed by oleo. This is the most serious phase of 
the butter situation to-day. In a future article I 
hope to discuss the relation of oleomargarine to the 
butter trade. The subject is too broad to be taken 
up here. 

Looking at dairying from the standpoint of the 
farmer, one thing may be mentioned briefly: A cow 
that makes less than 250 pounds of twenty-cent but- 
ter a year is not profitable. This estimates her food 
for one year at $35, and cost of milking, feeding, 
etc., $15 a year. This does not mean that a farmer 
is losing actual dollars and cents when he keeps cows 
that fall below the above figure, but it does mean 
that he would make more by hiring out to his neigh- 
bor at ordinary wages and selling the feed at ordi- 
nary prices, than by feeding and caring for such a 
cow. In other words, the man who puts in his time 
raising feed for such cows, and in tending them, is 
working for less than ordinary wages. This is far 
above the average cow of the State, and means that 
many of our dairy farmers are working for very 
poor wages. We must improve the quality of our 
cows. 

How To Air a nilk=Room. 



A great mistake is sometimes made in ventilating 
cellars and milkhouses. The object of ventilation is 
to keep the cellars cool and dry, but this object often 
fails of being accomplished by a common mistake, 
and instead the cellar is made both warm and damp. 
A cool place, according to the Xniinunl Builder, 
should never be ventilated unless the air admitted is 
cooler than the air within, or is at least as cool as 
that or a little warmer. The warmer the air the 
more moisture it holds in suspension. Necessarily 
the cooler the air the more this moisture is condensed 
and precipitated. When a cool cellar is aired on a 
warm day, the entering air, being in motion, appears 
cool, but as it fills the cellar the cooler air with 
which it becomes mixed chills it, the moisture is con- 
densed and dew is deposited on the cold walls and 
may often be seen running down them in streams. 
Then the cellar is damp and soon becomes moldy. To 
avoid this the windows should only be opened at 
night and late— the last thing before retiring. There 



is no need to fear that the night air is unhealthful. 
It is as pure as the air of midday and is really drier. 
The cool air enters the apartment during the night 
and circulates throughout. A cellar may often be 
thoroughly dried by placing in it a peck of fresh lime 
in an open box. A peck of lime will absorb seven 
pounds or more than three quarts of water, and in 
this way a cellar or milkhouse may soon be dried. 



Appearances Were Deceitful. 



Twenty-five cows condemned at Rutland, Vt., by 
the tuberculin test were all found affected with 
tuberculosis. The Rutland Ilrnihl says: Many of 
the sick beasts were so sleek in appearance that 
farmers who were present were ready to vouch for 
their .soundness until they saw them opened. On the 
I other hand, a cow that was old and emaciated in ap- 
pearance was declared to be ill, although both Dr. 
Rich and Mr. Winslow decided, from a physical ex- 
amination, that she was all right. As an object les- 
son she was appraised and killed, and when examined 
was found to be perfectly well. 



THE FIELD. 



Washing Out Alkali. 

About two and a half miles southeast of Bakers- 
field is the place of J. F. Buckles, who lost two plant- 
ings of trees on the alkali patches of his land, and 
only lately began to flood and fertilize. The Cali- 
foriiiiiu says he leveled and checked his land and then 
flooded and allowed the water to stand until thor- 
oughly saturated and nearly as black as ink. After 
the land was dry enough he hauled on six inches of 
well rotted manure and turned it under. Then he 
flooded again and ran off another lot of alkali in the 
water. After this he piowed and seeded to barley 
and alfalfa, with a result of a vigorous and uniform 
stand of both plants. 

Adjoining this check on, the east the salt-grass 
roots are thick as hairs on a dog, and on the west is 
alkali as black as your hat. It has been well known 
for a long time tlfiat alkali could be washed out 
wherever there is drainage as well as facilities for 
flooding, but here is a convenient object lesson easy 
of reference for visitors who will generally have the 
impression that such land is worthless by the time 
they have driven that far. The truth is that most 
of it can be reclaimed if there is a chance to flood 
and drain, and these conditions largely determine 
the value of such land. Here and there along the 
road one can see a strip of rank alfalfa, with salt 
grass and alkali spots so located as to prove that 
the land now producing so well was once as barren 
as the rest. When once set to alfalfa, it is the gen- 
erel testimony that soil not too heavily charged with 
alkali produces the best growth and requires the 
least water. 



Good Roads Literature. 

Now that our State Road Bureau is actively at 
work many may desire to read up the subject as it 
is being presented by the general Government. The 
U. S. Department of Agriculture has printed for 
free circulation a line of bulletins on road building 
and the question of better roads, which will be sent 
free to all who write for them. 

The Bureau for Road Inquiry was organized under 
an Act of Congress of 1805. and is maintained by the 
U. S. Government in connection with the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. Gen. Eoy Stone, of New York, 
an engineer and road builder of long experience, is 
an officer at the head of the Bureau. The work of 
the Bureau is to collect information about roads and 
the best methods of their improvement, and to pub- 
lish the same for general distribution. One of these 
bulletins contains the proceedings of the National 
Road Conference held at Asbury Park, N. J., on 
July 5th and 6th, 1804, and attended by delegates 
from all parts of the United States. Another 
bulletin contains a number of excellent addresses by 
Gen. Stone upon the methods of obtaining better 
roads. Other bulletins contain full information 
about the splendid roads recently built in New Jer- 
sey, and about earth roads, their construction and 
repair. Some eighteen or twenty different bulle- 
tins have been issued so far, and thousands upon 
thousands of copies of each have been sent to all 
parts of the country. 

We advise every farmer and every road officer to 
.send his name to the "Bureau of Road Inquiry, 
Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C," 
requesting that he be sent free the publications of 
that office. They will find all of them full of, interest. 



Hints on Small^Reservoirs. 



C. C. Hutchinson writes to the Irrigation Age con- 
cerning Kansas experience, and states that it is 
becoming known that reservoirs are needful to fur- 
nish sufficient head to carry irrigating stream 



I where it is needed, and to warm water in the sun 
j before applying to growing crops. Few of these 
I reservoirs are built with sufficient care to make them 
tight. The top soil should be removed to a depth of 
six or eight inches, entirely outside the foundations 
of the banks. Then plow around where the banks 
are to stand, and harrow the same, pump water into 
it and puddle by plows or scrapers; or, better yet, 
by tramping of stock. Now scrape inside of this 
ring and commence the banks, wetting the same as 
you build up. When the banks are high enough, 
plow and harrow the bottom of the reservoir, and 
after wetting it a foot or more in depth thoroughly, 
puddle it by tramping of stock. It the soil is sandy, 
haul clay and spread it in the trough through which 
water flows from the pump, stirring the clay with a 
rake that it may be worked into the sandy soil on 
the bottom. If the reservoir leaks after completion, 
keep a supply of clay or clayey soil in a long trough, 
carrying the pump water into different portions of 
the reservoir, and these fine particles of clay will be 
carried by the leaks and percolations in the bottom 
or sides of the reservoir and finally make it as tight 
as a jug. For fish breeding, the water standing 
below the surface of natural soil is desirable, and 
breeding black bass, perch, croppie, etc., is profit- 
able and agreeable. 

Of course, if you have a naturally good bottom, do 
not go through it into sand. Bore down with an 
auger and find out. 



TRACK AND FARM. 



The Latest Sulky. 

A one-wheel bicycle sulky is a possibility of the 
1895 trotting season, says the New York World. 
Should it fulfill the hopes of its inventors the light- 
harness horse will undoubtedly pass the long antic- 
ipated two-minute mark. The fastest miles of the 
past season, Queen Alix's 2.0.3} and Robert J's 
champion pacing record of 2.01}, are within a short 
space of the coveted speed, but in such low figures 
fractions are as big as pyramids. 

Flying Jib, hitched with a running mate, has paced 
the mile in l..o81, but this, while a phenomenal per- 
formance, does not count in these calculations, for a 
team could not be used to the one-wheel sulky under 
any circumstance. If, as it is claimed, the one-wheel 
will be as much faster over the ordinary bicycle sulky 
as that invention was over the high-wheel type, a 
straight trotting or pacing record under two minutes 
may be expected. 

The new sulky has a pneumatic tire wheel, with a 
high seat resembling the ordinary bicycle seat in its 
mechanism. It is attached by solid steel rods to the 
shafts. The traces are short and the shafts are 
given no play at all, so the wheel will run smoothly 
and be as easy to ride as an ordinary sulky. There 
is no danger of the hoofs striking the wheel, and it 
is claimed that the sulky helps the horse to keep an 
even and well balanced gait. The axle has ball 
bearings like a bicycle. 

The principle is a small, rubber-tire wheel, hitched 
close to the horse, with the drivers' seat well forward, 
so that his feet will be on either side of the horse's 
quarters, it is claimed that when the horse is speed- 
ing the wheel, horse and man will be so perfectly 
balanced by the rigid shafts and the foward seat as 
to make a perfect union. The inventors claim that 
there will be no danger of an upset or of the horse 
being thrown out of his stride at the turns; in 
fact, that it will increase the speed of both trotters 
and pacers fully two or three seconds to the mile. 



Injury to Horses' Eyes. 



How a horse's eye was injured is thus described by 
a writer in the London Live Stock Journal : A riding 
horse doing but little work, and kept in a box, was 
frequently afflicted with a very bad cold in one eye, 
but never in both. One day I had been looking at 
him, and after closing the door heard him turn from 
the manger, and heard his head against the door. I 
happened to turn around and look towards the door, 
and caught sight of the light falling upon his eye 
through a small round hole which was under the latch 
to allow of a finger being passed through to lift the 
the latch from the inside. The mystery was solved; 
the horse, having little to do and being loose, had 
been playing the part of " Peeping Tom," and watch- 
ing what went on outside the stable by standing with 
his eye to this small hole. I had the hole filled up, 
and the eyes were henceforth all right. The other 
case was a very short time since, in which similar 
symptoms appeared in a hackney stallion. On hear- 
ing from my man that the horse had a bad cold in one 
eye, I at once examined his stall box and found that 
a bolt with a knob running in a slit in the door had been 
taken away when a better fastening had been sup- 
plied, but the slit had been left unstopped. I watched 
the horse, found his eye placed to the slit, which I 
had filled up at once and had no more trouble witt) 
cq]^ \n t.}i§ eye. 



July 13, 1895. 



The Pacific Rural Press 



25 



Patrons of Husbandry. 



The Oregon State Orange. 



The Oregon State Grange held its 
annual session last month at Oregon 
City. Some of its transactions have 
been published, showing a healthy con- 
dition of the Order in our northern 
neighbor. Membership is increasing, 
and the objects of the Order are be- 
coming the subject of inquiry and are 
being taught and better understood. 

We submit herewith extracts from 
Worthy Master Voorhees' annual ad- 
dress. It contained much valuable in- 
formation for the guidance of the 
Order, not only in Oregon but in all 
States. 

He called attention to our Declara- 
tion of Purposes, and the principles 
therein laid down for our guidance, 
instead of a few of them, when we 
would be familiar with every part of 
the Grange field and all its lanes would 
bear the imprint of our footsteps, 
with the result of mailing the Grange 
a bright light among the many fra- 
ternal organizations incur State. 

He contended, and very properly so, 
that the necessity for organization 
among farmers is as great to-day as it 
ever has been. 

There is no fraternal society better 
suited for the farmers' needs than the 
Grange. It has been an important 
factor in educating the agriculturist in 
the past and will be of great use in the 
future if we but exercise our privilege. 
The best things are not going to drop 
into our laps while we sit idly waiting 
for something to turn up. The world 
is not built that way. We must work 
for what we get. * * * In the 
financial crisis that has come to us the 
past two years, the Grange has been 
tried as by fire, the result of which 
will be a strengthening of our borders, 
a uniting of our forces to give battle to 
the foes who are trying to bring de- 
struction to our fair land. 

The address contended that under 
the low price of staple productions 
our farmers cannot long maintain them- 
selves. We must search out the cause, 
then unite in applying the remedy, for 
in no other way can we hope to obtain 
what justly belongs to us— a comfort- 
able Uving. 

While we are doing this we must try 
to bring our expenses within our in- 
comes, even though we have to go 
without all the luxuries and some of 
the necessities of life. There is no more 
effectual way to break up trusts and 
combinations than by not using their 
goods. We will get the assistance of 
other callings when they realize that 
the goose that lays the golden egg is 
being killed. 

The address recommends the creation 
of an officer whose duty shall be to 
collect information for the use of the 
members where they may buy and sell 
their commodities to best advantage. 
* * * He contended that we shall 
always remain at the mercy of the 
trader if we do not try to get reliable 
information within our own ranks as 
to what we raise and where to market 
it. * * * With a Grange in every 
community that has a statistical agent 
to report to a State Grange agent, our 
information as to our products should 
be as complete as any Board of Trade 
i-eport, and result in great saving to 
our membership. 

The speaker then dwells on the 
alleged causes of hard times, with most 
of which he disagrees; then follows 
these words of rare wisdom : 

" Should I give my opinion, it would 
simply be another doctor with his 
diagnosis. Yet I will venture to say 
prosperity will never come to the 
American farmer so long as the dispo- 
sition exists to bond everything in 
sight. No people," says he, "can be 
prosperous and happy that are com- 
pelled to pay high taxes to liquidate 
bonds for State, county, municipal and 
school purposes." 

Then, questioning the theory of rad- 
ical reform in the shortest possible 
time, the address proceeds : 

"But would it not be wiser for us to 
unite on that proposition for reforma- 
tion to which we can bring the most 



support and carry it; then move on to 
the next that we can bring most 
strength to, until we have restored 
prosperous conditions on our whole 
country." 

Continuing, the speaker very truth- 
fully contends • 

" We do not have the influence that 
our numbers entitle us to or we should 
have, because we are not united in our 
work of bettering the condition of the 
agriculturist as we should be, appar- 
ently caring more to have our own in- 
dividual way than to be working col- 
lectively for the good of the whole." 

The address highly recommends co- 
operative trading, which, however, can 
only result successfully when the 
utmost good faith is observed. 

A flattering business proposition was 
before the Grange, which would be 
given Masters and Secretaries to 
execute. 

All members are conjured to do their 
share in rendering the sessions inter- 
esting and profitable. Too many think 
all they have to do is to sit back and 
enjoy themselves. " If the Master or 
some other officer does not furnish in- 
teresting themes to discuss, we are apt 
to criticise the manner in which the 
Grange is conducted; call it unprofit- 
able and a failure." * * * "Let us, 
then, show our good sense and strength 
by laboring together to advance the 
interests of the agriculturist in all the 
various departments that affect his 
welfare." 

Continuing, the essayist discussed 
the agitation for improved wagon 
roads; that it should be the business of 
every Patron to lead in the movement 
in such a manner as not to bankrupt 
the generation, yet accomplish the end 
desired. Grading and drainage would 
improve the roads; and the width of tire 
should be regulated by law on freight 
wagons. In France they do these 
things; besides the tire being wide the 
wheels are not permitted to run in the 
same track, the hind axle being as 
much longer than the front as the com- 
bined width of the rear tire. He 
thinks with proper care in the use of 
our roads they could be improved 100 
per cent, without additional cost. The 
most expensive and unnecessary tax 
we pay, he contends, is using bad roads 
and allowing them to be so for years, 
when a little labor at a season when 
our time is not required in regular 
farm work, in draining and grading the 
roads would avoid it all. 

Take it altogether, this is the most 
practical and business message that 
has appeared for some time in Grange 
circles. 

Grange Celebration. 



Independence Day was kept in Visalia 
with extra ceremonies and festivities. 

There was a parade, with floats, for 
the first time; the Fourth of July com- 
mittee preparing fioats for the Goddess 
of Liberty, California and Tulare county. 
Tulare Grange prepared its own float, 
as did the Good Templars and Visalia 
firemen. The Grange float represented 
a Court of Pomona. On the floor was 
a raised platform., having on each side 
"Tulare Grange." In the center of 
the platform was a raised seat for 
Ceres, Flora on her left, Pomona on 
her right. Sister Gill, representing 
Ceres, was dressed in cream color, 
with a garland artistically made of 
grain and holding a sickle and sheaf 
of wheat, her dress being further 
decorated with oats. 

Flora had a garland of flowers and 
carried a basket of the same, her dress 
being white. Pomona wore a garland 
of fruit and was dressed in pink; at 
her feet was a cornucopia overflowing 
with fruits. 

Over the platform was an arched 
canopy, supported by four columns, 
canopy, platform, sides, columns and 
seats being covered with cream- 
colored cloth, looped up at the sides, 
where it hung over. The columns were 
decorated with the various cereals, all 
producing a pleasing and harmonious 
effect. 

The Grange float was the only four- 
horse float in the procession, a brother 
of Tulare Grange walking by the side 



Patented 
Feb. 5, 
1895. 



THE **ACmE.** 




Patented 
Feb. 5, 
1895. 



> 
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O 
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> 
13 



«IND GRrtDIlNG 



PRUNES. 



.OUT„ P.RST STRBBT ^AN .OSB, 

H. M. BARNGROVER, Proprietor. (Write for Circulars.) 



CUrNINIINGI-I/\/VV© ♦♦^^ 

Prune Dipping Machine. 




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all kinds. 

Wc also manufacture and deal in 

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ELEVATORS AND FRUIT CONVEYORS 

For both Green and Dried Fruit. 

DIPPEK CAULDRONS, GALVANIZED COLD WATEK CAULDRONS. FURNACE IKONS, 
DIPPING BASKETS. FLOOR TRUCKS, FIELD CARS, TRANSFER CARS, 
TURN TABLES, and a General Line of 

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Send for Illustrated Catalogue of Fruit Dryers' Supplies. 



-f-f-f DRIED APRICOTS AND PEACHES can be graded by the -f-f-f 

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RR/\INCIS 




(ContinwA on page 30.) 



FOR TO\A/IS Vl//\TER W/ORK.S. 

Hydraulic, Irrigation and Power Plants, Well Pipe, Etc., all sizes. 

L?0 BEALE STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Iron cut, punched and formed, for making pipe on ground where required. All kinds of Tools sup- 
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with Asohaltum. 

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IWa.t-i^&t St.. S^n F'r^ncisco, Cal. 



26 



The Pacific Rural Press. 



July 13, 1895. 



THE HOME CIRCLE. 



Forty Years After. 



We climbed to the top of Goat Point Hill, 

Sweet Kitty, my sweetheart, and I, 
And watched the moon make stars on the 
waves 

And the dim white ships go by : 
While a throne we made on a rough stone wall, 

And the King and the Queen were we, 
And I sat with my arm about Kitty, 

And she with her arm about me. 

The water was mad in the moonlight, 

And the sand like gold where It shone, 
And our hearts kept time to the music. 

As we sat in that splendor alone. 
And Kitty's dear eyes twinkled brightly, 

And Kitty's brown hair blew so free, 
While I sat" with my arm about Kitty, 

And she with her arm about me. 
Last night we drove in our carriage. 

To the wall at the top of the hill. 
And though we're forty years older. 

We're children and sweethearts still. 
And we talked again of that moonlight. 

That danced so mad on the sea. 
When I sat with my arm about Kitty, 

And she with her arm about me. 

The throne on the wall was still standing. 

But we sat in the carriage last night. 
For a wall is too high for old people 

Whose foreheads have linings of white. 
And Kitty's waist measure is forty. 

While mine is full fifty and three. 
So, I can't get my arm about Kitty, 

Nor can she get both hers about me. 



Old Friends. 



I'll nerer go back on my old friends, my dear 
friends. 

Those who have proved to be faithful and 
true ; 

1 never will forget them, but cherish them 
ever, 

For such friends I've found in this world to 
be few. 

Many, ah ! many, have passed on from earth- 
" life. 

To their rest beyond that remaineth for 
aye; 

A few linger here awaiting the summons. 
That .sooner or later we all must obey. 

I'll never find now, as my years are declining, 
As dear friends as those of the long, long 
ago; 

Their memory to me is more precious than 
rubies, 

'Twill cheer me along down life's pathway 
I know. 

I'll never, no never, in sunshine or shadow. 

Go back on such friends as some people do ; 
But as the years roll treasure them as my 
jewels, 

I'll never forget them, no never, will you ? 
Bay State Garden, Ira W. Adams. 

" Calls toga. Gal., July 2, 1895. 



How They Named the Baby. 



They talked of Medora, Adora and Flora, 
Of Mabel and Marcia and Mildred and May ; 

Debated the question of Helen, Honora, 
Clarissa, Camilla, and Phyllis and Fay. 

They thought of Marcella, Estella, and Bella: 
Considered Cecilia, Jeannette and Pauline; 

Alicia, Adela, Annetta. Arabella. 
And Ethel and Eunice, Hortense and Irene. 

One liked Theodora, another Lenora ; 

Some argued for Edith and some for Elaine, 
For Madeline, Adeline, Lily and Lora; 

And then, after all, they decided on Jane. 
—Judge. 



A Railroad Story. 



Miss Polly Ward had a grievance. 
Tears of angry disappointment stood 
in her eyes as she sat under the spread- 
ing branches of the old elm tree in the 
front yard of her pretty little home. 
And all this had be«n caused by the 
big, broad-shouldered young fellow who 
was now making his way across the 
open prairie toward the "Q" round- 
house, dinner-basket in hand, and with 
the usual roll of underclothes under his 
arm. 

The Brotherhood of Railroad Fire- 
men were to give the first entertain- 
ment of the season that night, and Joe 
Quinn, the bright young engineer, with 
whom Polly had been " keeping com- 
pany " for over a year, had promised 
to take her; and now, just as the even- 
ing shades were falling, and it was 
nearly time to don the pretty dress 
made with such loving care for the oc- 
casion, he had come to the house and 
told her it would be impossible for him 
to keep his engagement. He had been 
called to go out onNo. 5, the "limited," 
and could not get off. It was enough to 
vex a saint, Polly thought. 

The mellow tones of the engine t>ell, 



softened by the intervening distance, 
floated across the plain, rousing Polly 
from her reverie, and telling her that 
her lover had started for the passenger 
depot in the city, two miles away. She 
watched the headlight until it disap- 
peared around the curve, and was 
about to start for the house when her 
attention was attracted by voices on 
the other side of the high tight board 
fence that inclosed one side of the lot, 
scarcely ten feet from where she sat. 

" I tell you it's a dead sure go if we 
only hustle. That's Quinn, now. back- 
ing down on the 57. He'll run the life 
out of 'em here, and a couple of good 
oak stuck in that trestle will do the job 
slick enough. After the tumble they'll 
get, nobody will be watching very 
close, 'n' we can grab the safe and make 
a sneak for the woods." 

" God, Bill ! " said a second voice," I 
don't just fancy killing such a lot of 
people as that'll do. Can't we flag "em 
at the trestle n' go through the car 
same as the other gangs do '? There's 
six of us, 'n' we ought to be able to 
bluff that express man easy enough." 

" It's no use talking about that now, 
Hank." responded the first speaker. 

"The boys have sot the thing all 
fixed now, 'n' we can't change it. Come 
on — we'll have to run if we want to get 
to Rock Creek before Quinn does." 

As they finished their low-toned, 
hurried talk, two men came from be- 
hind the fence and started on a run 
down the road toward the railroad 
track. 

Polly was a bright, quick-witted 
girl, and very self-reliant, but now she 
stood in the black shadows of the big 
tree completely paralyzed by the atroc- 
ity of the awful plaii these men had 
revealed. 

They were going to wreck No. 5, to 
rob the express safe. 

How could she give the alarm in 
time to avert this awful sacrifice of 
human life It was over half a mile 
from her house across the prairie to the 
shopSj and from thorn it was nearly as 
far to the main track, to reach which 
one would have to cross the great 
switching yards, which, at this time of 
the year, were crowded with grain 
cars. Could she get to the shops, find 
some one trustworthy, tell her story, 
and still have time enough for her mes- 
senger to reach the main track and 
stop the train ? 

While these questions were flashing 
through her brain the little clock in 
the hall chimed the half hour. It was 
8:30 and at 9 the train left the city. 
Suddenly she started to the house on a 
run, crying : 

" I can do it ! I know I can ! " 

On Joe's last trip she had given a 
little lawn party, and Quinn, with the 
characteristic love of a railroad man 
for light and color, had brought over 
from the shops a lot of railroad 
lanterns, green, blue, red and white, 
to hang on the trees, and now they 
were stacked in the hall awaiting their 
return to the storeroom. In a second 
Polly was beside the pile, holding first 
one and then another between her eyes 
and the great arc light at the shops. 
She soon found what she wanted — a 
red one — and with it clasped in her 
arms ran to the kitchen for matches 
with which to light it. Match after 
match was struck, only to go out; but 
at last success crowned her efforts, 
and the light burned bright and clear. 
In another moment she was speeding 
down the road bare-headed, thinking 
only of Joe and the awful fate that 
awaited him if she were not on time. 
****** 

Down in the city Engineer Quinn 
had looked over the train register and 
bulletin boards in the train dispatch- 
er's office, and was back where his 
engine was standing just outside the 
passenger shed. Torch in hand, he 
was taking one last look at the massive 
machinery before starting on this, his 
first passenger run. The train was 
reported ten minutes late, and he had 
in his pocket an order from the division 
superintendent to make up that lost 
time over his division. 

"Hello! here she comes!" called 
Joe, as the bright headlight of an ap' 
proaching train shot into the farther 
end pf t^fi big passenger station, ' ' (ret 



her hot, Tim, I'm going to nail her to 

the cross out of here." 

The engine was soon coupled to the 
train, and in a few minutes the huge 
machine was drawing its long, heavily 
laden train out of the depot. Joe at 
the throttle, vigilant and cautious, 
carefully watching the little vari- 
colored lights on the semaphores, and 
running slowly until the crowded con- 
fusion of the city .should be passed. All 
the worry and vexation of the wait at 
the station for the delayed train had 
vanished, and now, with the cool night 
air blowing in his face, the engineer 
was filled with that exhilaration known 
only to those hardy fellows who drive 
the iron horse — that knowledge of 
mastery over the powerful machine, 
which seems almost human in its work, 
obeying the slightest touch. 

Soon the city is left behind, and, as 
he nears the long curve at the outer 
yards and sees the last semaphore sig- 
nals at " safety," he gives the throttle 
lever a light pull. Under the increased 
pressure the iron giant leaps forward 
like a living thing. With his body half 
out of the cab window, the little cap 
pulled down over his eyes, every nerve 
and muscle in his athletic frame at its 
highest tension, Joe is closely watching 
the track ahead for the danger that 
may arise at any moment. 

Meanwhile, how fared it with the 
little woman we left flying down the 
street ? 

Polly reached the road crossing out 
of breath and trembling like a leaf. 
She stopped in the middle of the track 
and listened. The train had not 
passed, of this she was sure; she would 
have seen it from the road if it had. 

Ah ! a bright light was dancing on 
the rails at the end of the curve, and 
now she could plainly hear the rumble 
of the heavy train on the rails. A mo- 
ment later the brilliant electric head- 
light was throwing its powerful rays 
down the line, and now, for the first 
time since she left the house, she 
thought to look at her lantern, and was 
almost frozen with horror to find it had 
gone out. A little glowing coal still 
on the wick told its own story. 

There was no oil in it. 

"God help me now! What shall I 
do ? " cried the girl in an agony of dis- 
tress as she held the lantern at arm's 
length and could see no sign of light 
within the dark globe. 

Then, even as the hoarse note of the 
duplex whistle broke on the night air 
giving the crossing signal, less than 
eighty rods away, there came to her 
mind, as plainly as if she had seen the 
very incident, a story told her by her 
engineer lover, which might save his 
life now. 

* * » » * * 

On the engine, Joe, as soon as he got 
out on the straight track, could see 
something on the crossing. A few 
seconds brought him near enough to 
see who it was, and knowing full well 
that it could be no trifling matter that 
had brought his little sweetheart there 
at that time of night, and alone, he 
shut off steam and applied the air 
brake. Then, as he got down on the 
step, prepared to get off as soon as the 
train slackened sufficiently, he said to 
the fir«man: 

"Stop her, Tim, and back up for 
me." 

Murphy had hardly straightened up 
on the footboard when there came a 
crash of broken glass, a blow on the 
shoulder from some heavy object, and 
a shattered red lantern lay on the deck 
at his feet. 

A glance at the bent frame and 
broken glass lying in the bright light 
of the open fire box told him, and the 
reverse lever of the powerful locomo- 
tive went back with a jump, a stream 
of sand was pouring down on the rails 
beneath the big driving wheels, and 
the little Irishman at the throttle was 
giving the big ten-wheeler the full 
benefit of the 100 pounds of steam she 
carried. 

Hearing the crash as the lantern 
went through the window Quinn took 
desperate chances, and, as the engine 
cleared the crossing, jumped to the 
ground. The speed of the engine was 
so great that he was unable to keep 
bis feet, ^nd he rolled jn tbf ditoh be- 



side the track. He was on his feet 
again in a moment and, running back 
to the crossing, found Polly's slender 
form lying in the road. 

When she opened her eyes her head 
was on Joe's broad breast, and the blue 
and gold conductor, lantern in hand, 
was eying her severely, while a small 
but rapidly growing crowd of passen- 
gers stood around and wondered what 
had happened. 

Her story was soon told, and as she 
was on her way home under the pro- 
tection of the baggage master, Quinn 
went thundering down the hill with his 
light engine, her cab and tender 
crowded with an armed posse recruited 
from the passengers and led by that 
muscular little Irishman, Murphy, who 
sported a murderous-looking Winches- 
ter he had borrowed from the express 
messenger. 

The engineer knew when to stop 
now, and as they slipped to the end of 
the trestle they saw a skulking figure 
make for the woods. Murphy sent a 
shot or two after him, but when the 
party searched the woods in the bot- 
tom there were none of the wreckers 
to be found. In the timbers of the 
bridge, firmly fixed between the rails, 
they found four big ties, so placed that 
they surely would have thrown the 
train to the rocks below. 

What became of Polly, do you ask ? 

A short time ago I received a copy 

of a paper published at , which 

contained among the marriage notices 
that of Joseph Quinn and Miss Polly 
Ward, and in another column I found a 
notice of the event, including a long 
list of the valuable presents given the 
two. 

But the gifts which seemed almost 
holy in the eyes of Mrs. Polly were a 
beautiful little watch from the 
Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, 
inscribed: "To Polly Quinn, from B. 
of L. E., in memory of Rock Creek;" 
and a watch charm in the shape of a 
shield, made of solid gold, on one side 
of which was traced: "Polly Ward, 
Flagman; " on the other side wore the 
crossed red and green flags, the in- 
signia of the Brotherhood of Railway 
Trainmen, who had elected the young 
lady an honorary member of the 
largest organization of railroad men in 
the world. 



rianners for Boys. 



The boy in the family seems to call 
for every one's espec ial attention. He 
is always doing something he should 
not do, and his rollicking, thoughtless 
manners are always getting him into 
trouble. From father to youngest 
sister he is scolded and admonished as 
to his behavior. All think it their 
duty to add something to the polish 
which most boys so sadly need. 

We are sure a boy would rather be 
polite than otherwise. He would much 
rather know that people said, "What 
a perfect little gentleman," than to 
have them say the reverse. And he 
would only have to be particular about 
a few things to accomplish this object. 
The following are a few rules which 
well-bred boys always observe: 

Take your hat off on saying "How 
do you do," or "Good-bye." 

Take your hat off on entering any 



Awarded 
Highest Honors— World's Fail 
Gold Medal. Midwinter Fair. 

•DR. 




IMING 

mm 

Most Perfect Made. 
40 Years the Standard. 



July 13, 1895. 



The Pacific Rural Press. 



27 



room, whether it be office, church or 
private dwelling, and also in elevators. 

When walking with a lady, always 
keep her at your right hand, whether 
she be on the outside of the walk or 
not. In meeting people you turn to 
the right, and you would thus save her 
from being brushed against by the 
passing crowd. 

When opening a door for a lady, hold 
it open with the hand and permit her 
to pass in first. 

Precede a lady when you must go 
single file. 

When walking with a lady, always 
carry her bundles. She may say "no," 
but she will think more of you if you 
insist. 

Should you meet a gentleman you 
know with a lady you don't know, 
raise the hat in passing. 

When passing a lady on the street, 
coming from behind her, raise the hat 
in passing. She, of course, will see 
who it is when you get ahead of her. 

When necessary to pass in front of 
any one always beg pardon for doing 
so. 

Precede a lady in going upstairs. 
At the table: 

If napkin rings are provided fold 
your napkin and put it in ring. Other- 
wise do not fold it, but leave it lying 
loosely on the table. 

Never eat with the knife. 

Never turn liquids into saucer to 
drink them. 

Eat desserts with a fork when possi- 
ble. 

Do not toy with the knife, fork or 
tumbler. 

Do not rest the elbows on the table. 
Sit erectly and lift the food to the 
mouth. 

When dining with a lady at the 
restaurant, seat her opposite to you. 
If not possible to do that, let her sit 
around the corner of table. If she 
must sit beside you, place her at your 
right hand. 



Gems of Thought. 

The truths we least wish to hear are 
those which it is most to our advantage 
to know. — Gems of the Orient. 

Life is good, and the highest life is 
God; and wherever man grows in 
knowledge, wisdom and strength, in 
faith, hope and love, he walks in the 
way of heaven. — J. L. Spaulding. 

Everything of an abstract or sym- 
bolic nature, as soon as it is challenged 
by realities, ends by consuming them 
and itself. So credit consumes both 
money and itself. — Goethe. 

If the devil ever laughs it must be 
at hypocrites; they are the greatest 
dupes he has; they serve him better 
than any others, and receive no wages; 
nay, what is still more extraordinary, 
they submit to greater mortifications 
to go to hell than the sincerest Chris- 
tian to go to heaven.— Colton. 

It behooves us always to bear in 
mind that while actions are always to 
be judged by the immutable standard 
of right and wrong, the judgment 
which we pass upon men must be qual- 
ified by considerations of age, country, 
station and other accidental circum- 
stances, and it will then be found that 
he who is most charitable to his judg- 
ment is generally the least unjust. — 
Southey. 

The great duty of life is not to give 
pain, and the most acute reasoner can- 
not find an excuse for one who volun- 
tarily wounds the heart of a fellow 
creature. Even for their own sakes 
people should show kindness and re- 
gard to their dependents. They are 
often better served in trifles, in propor- 
tion as they are rather feared than 
loved; but how small is this gain com- 
pared with the loss sustained in all the 
weightier affairs of life ! Then the 
faithful servant shows himself at once 
as a friend, while one who serves from 
fear shows himself an enemy. — Fred- 
erika Bremer. 

Health is, indeed, so necessary to all 
the duties as well as pleasures of life 
that the crime of squandering it is 
equal to the folly; and he that for a 
short gratification brings weakness 
and disease upon himself, and for the 
pleasure of a few years passed in the 



tumults of diversion and clamors of 
merriment condemns the maturer and 
more experienced part of his life to the 
chamber and the couch, may be justly 
reproached, not only as a spendthrift 
of his happiness, but as a robber of the 
public; as a wretch that has voluntarily 
disqualified himself for the business of 
his station, and refused that part 
which Providence assigns him in the 
general task of human nature. — Dr. 
Johnson. 

Fashion Notes. 



Stylish suits of tan and gray duck 
have heavy white vests. 

The tartan craze has attacked para- 
sols as well as shirt waists. 

The newest materials for costumes 
are alpacas and bareges of the old kind 
revived. 

Blue serge suits are made with box- 
plaited bodices, the plaits edged with 
detachable needlework frills. 

Corsets made especially for cycling 
are fitted out with elastic on the hips 
and in the fastenings back and front, 
so that they give perfect freedom to the 
figure. 

A stunning boating costume is made 
of blue and white striped canvas, with 
a box- plaited blouse waist open to show 
a shirt of tucked lawn trimmed with 
narrow lace. 

Black silk muslin and chiffron flow- 
ered in soft colors and large patterns 
make lovely summer gowns for matrons. 
They are made up over black tafleta 
and require very little trimming. 

Another novelty in black silk has a 
narrow yoke of green velvet, and the 
satin is cut in a deep point at the back, 
on the shoulders, with two points in 
front and covered with spangles to 
match the velvet. 

Pretty flowered lawns and muslins 
for young girls are trimmed with two- 
inch striped ribbons, as neck band, 
holding a puff in the sleeve above the 
elbow, and in smart, perkish bows each 
side of the slight fulness in the bodice 
front. The lovely Dresden and chine 
ribbons are u,sed with plain materials. 

The latest capes for summer wear are 
triumphs of color and decoration. One 
example is made of glace silk, that 
with three colors to it has a chameleon 
eflect. It is slashed to the neck at 
intervals all the way round, and cream 
guipure is inserted in the openings, 
while the whole is spangled with small 
black sequins and lined with white silk. 

A charmingly simple design for a very 
young girl's frock is of the very popular 
tartan materials. This is intended for 
a cool-day gown always useful in the 
summer wardrobes of children. The 
yoke and sleeves are made of plain 
goods, or may be white tucking or mus- 
lin, the hanging pocket is a pretty addi- 
tion when the frock is intended for 
more dressy wear. 

Tan, brown and dark-blue mixed 
tweeds, whipcords and checked chevi- 
ots, soft in texture and light in weight, 
are also used for summer traveling and 
outing suits, and for these, in addition to 
the Eton and blazer coats, there are 
Norfolk jackets, box-plaited and belted 
with tan leather or a belt of the same 
cloth. Another variety of jacket is 
short in front, like the Eton coat, and 
has a short fluted basque at the back. 

Observing Citizen — "The needless 
waste in a great city is simply dread- 
ful. Think of the hundreds of thou- 
sands of tons of garbage which are de- 
stroyed annually, and then reflect 
what a blessing it could be to the agri- 
cultural districts." Real Estate Man 
(sadly)— " Yes, it's too bad. Whole 
mountains of it go to waste every 
year, when if I had it out to Frog Hol- 
low I could fill in the whole guUey, call 
the place Zephyr Terrace, and sell off 
the lots at $1000 apiece." — New York 
Weekly. 

A young widow who raised a magnifi- 
cent monument over her late husband 
inscribed upon it; " My grief is too 
great for me to bear." After her mar- 
riage to a second husband, upon her at- 
tention being called to the inscription, 
she amended it by adding the word 
' ' alone. " — Boston Bulletin. 



DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 



Hints to Housekeepers. 



Grease spots may be removed from 
wall paper by putting clean blotting 
paper over them and pressing it with a 
hot flat-iron. 

To clean the railings of balusters, 
wash off the dirt with soap and water; 
and when dry, rub with two parts of 
linseed oil and one of turpentine. 

Linseed oil, thickened with resin, is a 
good mixture for making fly papers; or 
boil to a thick paste 1 lb. of resin, 3j oz. 
of treacle, and the same of linseed oil. 

When your face and ears burn terri- 
bly bathe them in very hot water — as 
as hot you can bear. This will be more 
apt to cool them than any cold applica- 
tion. 

In eating oranges cut the fruit in half 
on your plate, then in quarters, and then 
cut the pieces of orange out of the peel 
with the knife and fork (still on your 
plate, not holding it up to peel). 

Papered walls are cleaned by being 
wiped down with a flannel cloth tied 
over a bi'oom or brush. Then cut off a 
thick piece of stale bread and rub down 
with this. Begin at the top and go I 
straight down. 

Powdered starch will take stains out 
of linen if applied immediately. Tea 
stains may be removed from a table- 
cloth by immersing it in a strong solu- 
tion of sugar for a few minutes, and 
then rinsing it in soft water. 

Bits of toilet soap which are very 
small may be utilized. Make a bag of 
Turkish towelling about 9 in. square, 
and put in it all the small pieces of soap. 
When three-quarters filled, sew up the 
end and use it the same as if it were a 
cake of soap. 

Black kid gloves are sometimes a 
source of annoyance on account of little 
white streaks at the seams. This 
trouble will be diminished by coloring a 
little salad oil with black ink, then rub 
this over the white places with a 
feather; dry quickly outside the win- 
dow. 

Here is an excellent preparation for 
polishing brass: Pound fine and then 
sift half pint of rotten stone. Add to 
this half a gill of turpentine and enough 
sweet oil to make a thick paste. Wash 
the brass first in soap and water; wipe 
dry, and then rub with the paste. Rub 
with a soft, clean rag, and finish with 
a piece of chamois skin. 

Flowered or brocaded silk may be 
cleaned by having sifted upon it some 
crumbs of stale bread, which must be 
rubbed over the silk with the hands. 
If a very little powdered blue be mixed 
with the crumbs it will be advantageous 
to those shades of white that are not 
creamy in tone. But great care must 
be taken in using the blue. 

When putting on new gloves, an au- 
thority says, begin by buttoning the 
second button first; then take the first, 
which is thus fastened with less danger 
of tearing the kid. To remove the 
gloves, do not pull them off by the 
fingers, but draw the top of the glove 
over the hand. Never roll gloves when 
putting them away, but lay them 
lengthwise. 

A mother recommends numbers six- 
teen and twenty cotton for sewing but- 
tons on children's waists in those cases 
where the eye of the button is not large 
enough to admit the large eyed needle 
that will carry linen thread. In order 
to make a shank to the button, and not 
to strain it too closely to the cloth 
underneath, put a pin across the top 
of the button and pass your thread over 
it into the holes of the button, binding 



the doubled thread in your needle 
around the button once after each 
stitch. When the pin is taken out the 
button will be firmly, but not too 
tightly, fastened in place. Coarse 
black twist like that used by tailors 
wears better than linen thread for sew- 
ing on coat and shoe buttons. 

Mysterious rust spots on clothes are 
caused by Prussian blue which is substi- 
tuted for indigo in some kinds of laun- 
dry bluing. To test bluing, drop a 
piece of washing soda in a mixture di- 
luted with cold water. If the compound 
turns to a reddish hue, Prussian blue 
has deen used. 

One of the simplest means of clean- 
ing silver that has become badly black- 
ened is to mix a teaspoonfulof ammonia 
with a cup of water, and use a little of 
this liquid to form a paste with whiting. 
Polish the article to be cleaned with the 
paste, using a soft chamois leather to 
apply it and another to dry it. 



Domestic Hints. 



Chocolate. — Put one quart of milk 
into a double boiler. Moisten two 
ounces of cocoa and a tablespoonful of 
rice flour with a little cold milk, then 
stir them into scalding milk; stir con- 
tinually until it thickens, add two table- 
spoonfuls of sugar and a teaspoonful of 
vanilla. Then, with an egg beater, or 
whisk, beat rapidly over the fire until 
light and smooth. Serve with whipped 
cream. 

Rolls. — Take two quarts of flour, 
two ounces of butter, one tablespoon- 
ful of sugar, one pint of boiled milk 
(cooled) and one-half cup of yeast. Put 
the flour into a big earthen bowl and 
make a hollow in the center; put in the 
butter, sugar, milk and yeast, not rub- 
bing in the butter separately. Mix 
at night, cover, and set in a warm 
place, where the temperature will be 
even, but do not put it where it will be 
hot enough to scald, or where you 
would not hold your hand for an indefi- 
nite length of time. In the morning 
knead for at least fifteen minutes. Set 
away to rise again, and do not hurry 
the process. When the rolls are 
wanted for a New England tea at 6 p. 
SI., the dough is generally kneaded 
again at 2 p. m. Then it is rolled out 
about a half-inch thick, is cut with a 
biscuit cutter and folded over, roll 
fashion, with a small fleck of butter in- 
serted in each one. They are placed in 
a baking pan, are covered to keep from 
draft, and are allowed to rise slowly 
and then baked. 

Pineapple Shortcake. — Beat three 
eggs, whites and yolks together, till 
they are very light. Add one and a 
half cupful of powdered sugar, the juice 
of half a lemon and beat again till it is 
frothy; then stir in a scant half cupful 
of cold water, still keeping up the beat- 
ing process. Meantime, having put 
two cupfuls of flour in a sieve with a 
teaspoonful of cream of tartar and half 
as much soda, now sift the same into 
the egg mixture. Mobile it is baking 
the pineapple is prepared by peeling, 
removing all the eyes and core, pound- 
ing the pulp to a paste, and adding the 
right quantity of sugar for sweetening. 
This is spread over the sponge cake to 
a thickness of about a quarter of an 
inch, and upon it is poured a meringue, 
made by beating the whites of three 
eggs to a stiff froth with three table- 
spoonfuls of lemon juice. After the 
meringue is spread over the pineapple, 
the cake is set back in the oven and al- 
lowed to cook slowly for ten minutes, 
when it is taken out, allowed to cool, 
and is then ready for the table. This 
is one of the most delicious ways in 
which a pineapple can be used. 



Highest of all in Leavening Power. — Latest U. S. Gov't Report 



28 



The Pacific Rural Press. 



July 18, 1895. 



Dimensions of the Universe. 



While it is interesting to know the 
distance of some of the stars in miles, 
when stated in that way the nmnbers 
are so large that they convey very 
indistinct conceptions to the mind. For 
this reason it is customary to estimate 
star distances in "light years." A 
light year is the distance that light 
moving at the rate of l.SC.HOO miles per 
second travels in one year. _ This 
amounts in round numbers to 5,880,- 
000,000,000 miles. The distance of 
Alpha Centauri is 4.35 light years; 
that of Sirius, the Dog Star, is almost 
exactly twice as great, or 8.0 light 
years; that is, light requires 8.9 years 
to come to us from Sirius. And these 
are among the very nearest of the 
stars. Some, whose parallaxes have 
been rather estimated than measured, 
appear to be situated at a distance 
which light could not traverse in less 
than one or two centuries. The great 
star Arcturus, for instance, has, ac- 
cording to Dr. Elkin. a parallax of 
only eighteen one-thousands of a 
second. Its distance must, in that 
case, be about 181 light years, or more 
than a thousand million million miles. 
And if its distance is so great, then 
since light varies inversely as the 
square of the distance from its source, 
it can be shown that Arcturus must 
actually give forth 5000 or 6000 times 
as much light as the sun yields. Yet 
Arcturus is evidently much nearer than 
the vast majority of the stars are. 
Not one in a million is known to have 
a parallax large enough even to be in- 
telligently guessed at. There may be 
stars whose light requires thousands 
instead of hundreds of years to cross 
the space separating them from us. 

We thus see that only a few points 
on the nearer shores of the starry 
universe lie within reach of our meas- 
urements; here and there a jutting 
headland, while behind stretches the 
vast expanse over which the hundreds 
of millions of stars known to exist are 
scattered. 



A Powerful Projectile. 



Horseless Road Carriages. 

For several years inventors and 
manufacturers have been trying to de- 
vise vehicles for common highways 
which might be propelled by steam, 
gas, compressed air or electricity for 
several liours without interruption. 
There is a growing demand for such 
carriages, and in time it will be met in 
a satisfactory manner. In a competi- 
tive trial held in France last year, 
there were twenty-six entries. Tests 
of speed were made on roads running 
out of Paris in various directions, and 
the honors were divided between steam 
and gasoline engines as propelling 
agents. However, it should be added 
that there was only one carriage rely- 
ing on electricity derived from a stor- 
age battery in that contest. So great 
was the interest developed that a fresh 
competition was soon arranged for this 
year; it was held last week. A race 
in which fifteen carriages took part, 
and extending over the common high- 
way from Paris to Bordeaux and re- 
turn, afforded a more thorough, though 
by no means conclusive, test of the 
various systems. The distance trav- 
eled was 730 miles altogether. The 
best time both ways was made by a 
carriage driven by a " petroleum mo- 
tor," and making an average speed of 
fifteen miles for forty-nine hours. The 
next three carriages to arrive were 
also propelled by the same means. 
Definite information regarding the 
mechanism used this year is not at 
hand, but the "petroleum motors" last 
year were really gasoline engines, 
arranged either in front of the dash- 
board or under the rear seat. The 
smell of the escaping vapor was un- 
pleasant, and the carriage had a per- 
ceptible vibration while stopping on 
the road, owing to the action of the 
flywheel. Efficient as the storage bat- 
tery is in propelling boats, its struc- 
ture does not at present seem to be 
proof against the jar of highway 
travel. However, it is reasonable to 
believe that it will be perfected in this 
respect ere long, and it should then 
surpass all rivals. 



At Indian Head proving grounds on 
the Potomac, the Ordance Bureau of 
the Navy Department is making the 
first complete test of the most power- 
ful projectile yet contrived for modern 
naval warfare — the Wheeler- Sterling 
semi-armor piercing projectile; each 
of these shells weighs 1000 pounds. 
The projectiles are thirteen inches in 
diameter, two feet long, and have a 
conical head of chrome steel. They 
are supposed to pierce the toughest 
nickeled steel armor to a depth of 
seven inches and then explode. There 
is no end to the havoc they will cause. 
One of them successfully shot is sup- 
posed to tear the biggest battle ship to 
pieces. The projectiles carry sixty 
pounds of highly explosive powder in 
their heads. The Ordnance Bureau 
has ordered 400 of these projectiles 
and two selected at random from each 
hundred are put to the test. In order 
to make the shells conform to the re- 
quirements of the navy these eight 
shells must perform successfully the 
work claimed for them. A charge of 
(i50 pounds of powder is required for 
each shot. The gun from which they 
are fired is thirteen inches in inside 
diameter — the largest bore used on 
modern battle ships. The test ar- 
ranged is to be conducted under all the 
conditions as nearly as possible as they 
would exist in naval engagements. A 
ship's side in facsimile of the battle 
ship Iowa has been built at the navy 
yard at Norfolk and sheathed with the 
armor plate to be used on this great 
battle ship. This has been brought to 
Indian Head and the eight lOOO pound 
projectiles will be fired into it from a 
distance of 2000 vards. 




SCIENCE CONFIRMS HORSE SENSE. 



A m;i,iiM-ity of the 6ist class Ballroads of 
the United States and Canada are uslnt: The 
Page feiu-e. Scientjlio t*'sts and comparisons 
led to this result. Strange to say tlie best 
prairtlcal farmers of l)otli countries, led only 
by e.xperlence and good common sense, liad 
already decided In its favor, and now Park 
Commissoners and I'emetery Offlclals seem 
bound to make the decision unanimous. We 
have sold double the amount of park fence 
this season than heretofore in the whole his- 
tory of the business. 

PAGE WOVEN WIRE FENCE CO., Adrian, Mich. 




" - - - 

of Bees, Wasps, Hornets, Centipedes or 
Scorpions — bites of animals, reptiles or 
insects, are instantly soothed and quickly 
cured with Pain-Killer. It cotmtcracLs 
th« effect of the poison, allays the irrita- 
tion, reduces the swelling and stops the 
pain. When ) ou go fishing, on a picnic 
or on any otiting trip, be sure and take a bottle of 

Pain -Killer 

For all pain — internal or external — it has no equal, and 
for Cholera IVIorbus, Diarrhoea and Dj sentery, it is almost 
a .specific. Sold everj'where at 25c. a bottle. (Quantity 
has been doubled.) Accept no imitation or substitute. 
The genuine bears the name — Perry D.wi.s & Sox. 



P. & B. FRUIT DRYING PAPER. 

★★★★FIFTH 5EAS0N.^^^^ 



UNEQUALED FOR DRYING RAISINS AND PRUNES! 

If you have not used it, XRV" IX ! 



SAMPLES AND CIRCULARS PUKNISHED ON APPLICATION. 

PARAFFINE PAINT CO. 

116 Battery Street 5aii Francisco. 



CHICAGO VETERINARY COLLEGE. 



I The Williams Standard Typewriter 

I Is a great improvcmcut over thct old "lift and 
' peek" machiues. You see your writing while 
I writing it. No liftiuK of platen. No dirty ribbon. 
Perfect alignment. Weighs but 16 pounds Does 
the finest work. Kasiest learned. No experiment. 
In use <i years. Adopted by British War Depart- 
ment over all the old-fashioned ' blind " machines. 
Write for sample work and illustrated catalogue 
and testimonials. 

PACIFIC STATES TYPE FOUNDRY, 

409 WashinKtuD St Sau Kraiiclsco. 

Sole Agents for California. 

ALMOND HULLERS 

For Sale by 

A. O. RIX, Irvlngton, Alameda County, Cal. 



UTRUMRN 



^ ..r tl ';T MIllV.'SiJ 



MONARCH CAR PRESS 

lOTONS goxCARSftOO 

MONARCH J Ro.,„AKv 

.THE ,nCM J— 

ISTMEbClTVtMX 

uu-ECAiipREasirniB 
WORUX. 




Monarch and 

Junior Monarch 

HMY F»RESS. 

Patented by Jaob Price. 

ALSO 

Double-End HURRICANE Press 

(Two Sizes). 
FOR SALE BY 

L. C. nOREHOUSE, 

8.\N I.K.VNOKO. CAI.. 
wn. H. QRAV General Agent. 



VEHICLES 

ALL KINDS. 



SAVED. 



HARNESS 

ALL KINDS, 




No. 600. Prxe. $65. 

Top Bai^gieH S7Stuflll3S 

Road WaRons , 45 to 00 

Two !Seat Wasons 46 to 110 

Phaetons 100 to ISO 

Snrrles and Carriages 126 to '.iOO 

Harueas 8 to 36 

WE SHIP EVERYWHERE. 
SoDd 2c stamp for Catalogue or call. 

CALIFORNIA WAGON AND CARRIAGE CO. 

:ui'i KKi-;.>io> r sr.. san fk.xncisco- 



Price's Traction 
Engine. 




I 



We have one of these engines that was used 
I about one month last season and was taken back 
I by us by reason of illness of purchaser. Engine is 
in perfect order, and in better working order than 
when first sent from the factory. A BARGAIN. 
Indleated power, 80-horse; Cylinders, 8x8: Wheels, 
8 ft. high, 28 in. wide; weight, less than 10 tons. 
Price when new, J4500. 

HOOKER & CO., 

16 anil IK iJriimm Street, San FraurUro. 



At i Price 



am] Sllvrr Waff hct, ftlfrrlM^ 

rtrjrt.... Ouusar.-I I'i.lolH I'mtf 




Orcwis, PilBos Cider BlITl^ 



lirtllr., (Iniir null, 
An,\l-i, llnjl.itlrn, 
rrlll.. Hnnct riowl, 
ttfnttrru Il'.mprarl^ 

Skwi, f-l'^l SlnW<, 
~ ll^ RM nmfrt. 



The most uuccessful college on this continent. For fall particalars address the .Secretary. 

JOS. HUGHEH, .■«. R. C. V. S., •.j337-25J9 .Stale St., Cbicaso, 



III. 



Ouh I>m«rr«, IVpcl mitt. Si 
U*Ui>r Prf«e«t Jurk s.r...«, T— rki, 
frm Klanili, f^p? Ilnnk., Ti.,-., 
hnnSlow'rs <'>.(r>« Mills l.'>>>i'«> 
Com PhnMerf, IlamI Curl^, FnrcM, 
Fanning Mills Wrlnl»r«, FnrinM, 
flrniii nnmrts C>.,w Hnrtf |t,>Il..r«, . . - 

ILiT, Hf...|i, Klualnr. ICnl'. nad, Pl.ir.rm ri.nii(«r ."I .ILSS. 
S»r.l for rr"i. . iilol .riic nii'l cm hnw In Mi>n,-. 

UlBo. JeKersoaBc. ciiIQAiiO Ki; ^i.E ro.. Rhicaao, III. 

LEE D. CRAIG, 

Notary Public and Cominissioner of Deeds, 

316 MONTGO.MEKY 8TRKKT, 
Bet. California and Pine, SAN FRANCISCO, CaL.. 



July 13. 1895. 



The Pacific 



Rural Press. 



29 



S. F. MARKET REPORT. 



Market Review. 



SAN Francisco; July 9, 1895. 

FLOUR— We quote: Net cash prices ror Family 
Extras, in .VlwS «1 bbl; Bakers' Extras, $3 40® 
$3 50; Superfine. U 3.5(5-2 60 ii* bbl. 

WHEAT— No. 1 Shipping Wheat is quotable at 
87'4c per ctl for No. 1 and »H%c for choice. Mill- 
ing Wheat, 97i4o@$I per ctl.' 

BARLEY— Feed, fair to good, 60c; choice, 63=^0 ; 
Brewing, 67!4@70c. 

OATS — We quote: Milling, S1(®1 05; Sur- 
prise, $1(®1 12'/^; fancy feed, 95c®81; good to 
choice, S7vi@90c; pooi* to fair, 80@82'/4c; Black, 
nominal; Gray, 8n@85c * ctl. 

CORN— We quote: Large Yellow, SI 10@1 U'A; 
small Yellow, $1 15<ffil 20^ ctl; White, $1®. 
$1 10. 

RYE— Quotable at 85c V ctl for New, and nOc 
for Old. 

BUCKWHEAT— Quotable at 87!4®90c ¥ ctl. 

CRACKED CORN— Qviotable at $2.5@26 ¥ ton. 

OILCAKE MEAL— Quotable at $25 per ton from 
the mill. Jobbing lots, $27 .50. 

COTTON SEED OILCAKE— Quotable at $24 
per ton. 

MIDDLINGS— Quotable at $18 UXn' lS 50 ^ ton. 

BRAN— Quotable at $13 .50@!4 50 f, ton. 

GROUND BARLEY— Quotable at $14 .50 T?. ton. 

HAY— New Wild Oat selling at $« flOft'S; 
Wheat. $8(3,10; Alfalfa, $fi('/'8 per ton. We quote 
old: Wheat, $7 50@10 .50; Wheat and Oat, $7 .50(a 
10 50; Oat, $7®!); Alfalfa, $6@8 OO; Barley, $7(5) 
8 50; Clover, $7@8; Compressed, $7(®9; Stock, $5 
@6 ton. 

STRAW— Quotable at 40(?«60c IB bale. 

BEANS— We quote as follows : Bayos, $1 40 
(^1 .50; Butter, $2(5(2 25 for small and $2 2.5(ffi 
2' .50 for large: Pink, $1 25(^1 05; Red, $1 
(ai 25; Lima. $.5(5)5 25; Pea, $2 fi0(S)2 80; Small 
White, $2 H0(«1,2 95; Large White, $2 70(a),$2 80; 
Blackeye, $.S(a).3 50; Horse, $1 I5(a>:l 40^ ctl. 

SEEDS— We quote as follows: Mustard, Brown, 
$1 bt)m 75; Yellow, $2^2 25; Trieste, $1 90(a2 25: 
Canary, 3^(a:3i4c; Hemp, S'/jC: Rape, l%®2Hc; 
Alfalfa, 7c ^ ft; Flax, $2 25(" 2 M@ i> ctl. 

POTATOES— Early Rose, 60f"i70c ctl in boxes 
and 5fX"-60c fi ctl in sacks. Burbanks, 60(ff,85c 
ctl in boxes and .5()(f;:6.5c i? ctl in sacks. 

GREEN CORN— Quotable at 50c(6i,$l per sack 
for Vacaville; Berkeley, small crates, 8.5c@$l ; large 
crates, $1.50fgi2. 

ONIONS— Quotable at 65c ^ ctl. for Red. 

VARIOUS — We quote: Bay Squash, large 
box, 60(</ 7.5c; Cucumbers, —(n'—c f, box for Marys- 
ville; Bav, 7.5r"90c 'f, box; Asparagus, .50Si$l 00 V 
box for ordinary, and $1 .50(g.),2 1* box for choice and 
fancy; Rhubarb, 25@.50c 1^ box; Tomatoes. 20(840; 
Bay, large; boxes. $1 50(SiI 75; Winters, 6-lnch boxes, 
.50c; String Beans, 2c 1? lb tor common; Ref- 
ugee, 3c 1? ft: Wax Beans, -i'/iCaHc fh; Green 
Peas, 7.5(a$l per sack for common and ^V^fff^V^c 
if( ft tor garden ; Green Peppers, .SO(6)40c ^ small 
box and 75c(a'$l for large boxes; Green Okra, 1.5(ai, 
17c ft; Turnips, .50c ctl; Beets, .50(5i'60c f, sack; 
Carrots, M^mc; Cabbage, 7.5c ctl; Garlic, new, 
2(g,3c fi ft; Cauliflower, U)@lf>c 1* dozen; Dried 
Peppers, 1,3® 15c * ft. 

FRESH FRUIT— Apples— Quotable at 25(56.50 1* 
large box for Green and 40rn 75c ^ box for Red. 

Apricots — Quotable at 40(5!60c per box and .30(" ■50c 
f basket for Royals. 

Berries— Strawberries, Sharpless, $2(<ii3 ^ chest; 
Longworth, $3rgi4; Raspberries, $1 75(5(3 ^ chest; 
Blackberries, $1 .50@2 .50 f, chest. 

Plums — Quotable at2.5(a50c as to quality and va- 
riety. 

Pears— Quotabk! at 25(a'.50c in baskets and boxes. 

Canteloupes— Quotable at .$3@3 .50 f. doz. 

Cherries— Quotable at Hmihc f< box. 

Currants— Quotable at $2 M@Z 50 chest. 

Pigs — Black, single layers, 15fcft25c V box; double 
layers .30(S40c per box. White, single layers, 20(5' 
2.5c; double layers, .•iO(5J4()c. 

Peaches- Quotable at ;«(« fMlc in boxes and 3.5@65c 
in baskets ; 30-ft open boxes, 6.5(5'7.5c. 

CITRUS FRUIT— We quote: California Navels, 
$1 .50(^2; Seedlings, 5()('ai7.5c; Mexican Limes, 
$4@4 .50 :p box; California Lemons, $1@2 for com- 
mon and $2(S\3 .50 per box for good to choice. 

DRIED FRUIT— Following are the prices fur- 
nished by the San Francisco Fruit Exchange. The 
figures presented represent carload lots, smaller 
parcels occasionally selling at slightly lower 
rates: 

Apricots — Fancy Moorpark, 8c: choice, do, 7c ; 
fancy, old, 7c: new, 89ic: choice, old, fic; new, 8>4c; 
standard, old, 5'/jC; new, 7!4c; prime, old, ,5c; 
new, 7c. 

Apples— Evaporated, 43i(a5'/ic; sun-dried, 4(3i4Hc. 

Peaches — Fancy. 6!4c; choice. .5c; standard, 
4i4c; prime. 4c: peeled, in boxes. l2(5M.3c. 

Pears— Fancy, halves, .5c; quarters, 4!4c ; choice, 
4c; standard, 3i4c: prime, 3c. 

Dried (Jrapcs— I'/Sc 1? lb. 

IMums— Pitted, 3a)4c;unpitted, \(<fic. 

Prunes— Four sizes, 4c. 

Nectarines — Fancy, 6c; choice, 5c; standard, 
4i4c: primi'.. 4c. 
Pigs— White, choice, .3(5\5c. 

Raisins— In sacks (.Vl-Tb. boxes selling at J^c V 
lb. higher): 4-crown. loose. 3'/4c; 3-crown, 2Hc; 2- 
crown, 2c; seedless Sultanas, 3c; seedless Mus- 
catels, 2c ^ ft; 3-crown London Layers, $1 40 
1» box in 20-Ib. boxes: clusters, $2: Dehesa clus- 
ters, $2 .50; Imperial clusters. $3; 4-crown, loose, $1 ; 
4-crown, loose, faced, $1 15 f, box. 

NUTS— Walnuts. 6(6)7c for hard shell, l& Wc for 
paper shell; California Almonds, 6(ai.7c for .soft 
shell; 3(a4c for hard shell and 8(»10c for paper 
shell; Peanuts, 3'/2(5 414c for California and .5rni6'/jc 
for Eastern: Pecans, 6c for rough and 8c for 
polished; Brazil Nuts. 7r*7!4c f, ft; Cocoanuts, 
$4 .50(6)5 .50 ^ 100; Pine Nuts, 20c ft. 

HONEY— We quote: Comb,10(nmc; water-white, 
extracted, h^h%c: light amber, extracted, 5; 
dark amber, 4@4^c * tb. 

BEESWAX— Quotable at 26@38c ¥ lb. 

BUTTER— Creamery— Fancy, 15i4@16c; seconds, 
14®I.5c ^ lb. Dairy— Fancy, ISfflH^c; fair to 
choice, ll@12'/4c; store lots, nominal. 

CHEESE— We quote: Choice to fancy. 5H('>>6c; 
fair to good, 4(a.5c; Eastern. 11® 12^0 1* ft. 

EGGS— Quotable at 12i4®13"4c 'f. dozen for 
store and 1.5® 16 for ranch; Eastern, 14® 1.5c. 

POULTRY— We quote as follows : Live Turkeys 
— Gobblers, 12® 13c; Hens. ll®12c ^ ft; Roosters. 
$4 .5()(ai5 for old, and $B®H .50 for young; Broilers. $2 
(a\3 tor small and $3.50®4 for large; Fryers, $4 .50 
®5; Hens, $4 .50® 6; Ducks, $.3(n3 .50 for old and 
$2 .50("5 for young; Geese. 7.5(®$1 ^ pair; Gos- 
lings, $I®1 25; Pigeons, $1(« 1 25 f, dozen for old 
and$l(ail 25 for young. 

WOOL— Following is the Wool review of Thomas 
Denigan, Son & Co. : The bulk of the California 
spring Wools has come forward and there remain 
but a few clips from the remote sections of Hum- 
boldt and Meadocino counties, wblcb will arrive 



here before August. The Northern Wools this 
spring have been particularly tine, and therefore 
the.y have attracted special attention and brought 
very satisfactory prices as far as they have been 
marketed. The Wools from eastern Oregon are 
coming to this market only in limited quantities, 
for the reason that a large share of them have 
been marketed at home, chiefly for Boston account. 
These Wools are also reported in better than usual 
condition, and the competition up there has been 
very sharp, with prices at least 2c higher than 
last year's average. The outlook for a continua- 
tion of Wool activity is good, with every hope of 
getting good prices for our coming fall clip. The 
London market reported 10 to 15 per cent stronger 
than last April. 

We quote spring : 

Year's fleece, San Joaquin, ^ ft 6@6i4c 

6 to 8 months do 6@8c 

6 to 8 months Calaveras and foothill, free 8®10c 

Do, defective 6@8c 

Northern, good tocholce 12@13Hc 

Do. defective 8@10c 

We quote Nevada spring : 

Light and choice 9@llc 

Heavy 

HOPS— Quotable at 4®6c ^ ft. 



California Fruit Sales. 



Chicago, III., July 9.— The National Fruit 
Association sold California fruit to day as follows : 
Hale's Early. $1.0.5®l.85; Royal Apricots, $1..3.5(n> 
1.60; Peach Plums. $l.7.5@1.85; P. D. Plums, $1.70; 
Simoni Plums, $1.85@2.05; Bartlett Pears, $2..35® 
2..50; half-pound boxes. $1.15; Tragedy Prunes, 
$I.R0fr;2; Figs, .3.5c; Fontainbleau Grapes, $1.35. 

Porter Bros. Company sold at open auction to- 
day : Tragedy Prunes, $1.95; Royal Anne Cherries, 
60c®$l.35; Peaches, J1.05@1.25; Royal Hative 
Plums, $1.10@1.15. 

New York, N. Y., July 9.— The National Fruit 
Association sold California fruit to-day as follows : 
Hale's Early, $1®1.25; McKevitt's Early, $1.10® 
1.60; Royal, 'cots, $1.2.5(;i'l.30; Montgamet Apricots, 
$I.25®2.35; Royal Hative Plums, $1.10(5 1.30; Peach 
Plums, $1 40(i-/ 2..S0; Satsumas, $2.20; Tragedy 
Prunes, $1.6.5@3; Figs, 7.5c(S$1.35. 

The California Green and Dried Fruit Company 
sold at the Erie pier to-day: Pears, $2. lOfr/ 2.6.5 ; 
Tragedy Prunes, $l.6,5(o'1.75; Peaches, 7.5c(o$1.65; 
Plums, $2.7.5®3.05; San Jose Cherries, 85cfo$1..55; 
Walsonville Cherries, 40(5 80c. 

Porter Bros. Company sold to-day at open auc- 
tion: Clapp's Favorite Pears, $2.45®2.75; Ogon 
Plums, $2.20; Satsumas, $1.85ra'2.20; Simonis, $2.15; 
California Reds, -$2 10; Tragedys, $1.40fr/ 2.05; Peach 
Plums, $1.4li@2; (Jerman Prunes, $1.95; Abundance, 
$1.40®l.95; Burbanks, $I..55®I.»0; Royal Hatlves, 
$1.70; Purple Duanes Plums, $1.65; Sweet Botans, 
$1.55; Apricots, $1.65; St. John Peaches, $1.25(5 1.55; 
Hale's Early, 65c®$2.a5; Pigs, f)0c@$1.0.5. 

Boston, Ma.ss., July 8.— Porter Bros. Company 
sold at open auction to-day: Tragedy Prunes, 
$2.2.5@3; German Prunes, $2.62; Royal Hatlves, 
$1.50@2.25; Peach Plums, $1..30(o 1.77; Bartlett 
I>ears, $2.62("'2.87; Hale's Early Peaches, $1.35® 
1.75. 

Minneapolis, Minn., July 9.— Porter Bros. Com 
pany sold at open auction to day ; Bartlett Pears, 
$2.25; in half-pound boxes, $1.15@1.25; Hale's Early 
Peaches, 85(5)90c. 

Pittsburg, July 9.— Porter Bros. Company sold 
to-day: Bartlett Pears, $.S@3.25; Peach Plums. 
$1.7,5(52.90; Tragedys, $2 30®2.75; Royal Hative 
Plums, $1.85; Peaches, $1.10@1.40. 

Ci-EVELAND, Ohio, July 9.— The National Fruit 
As.sociation sold California fruit to-day as follows: 
Hale's Early, $1.2.5f'/ 1..^5; Royal Apricots, $1.55(n 
1.75; Bartlett Pears, $2.70r"2.85; Tragedy Prunes, 
$2.75; other Plums, $1.. 50(5 2.25. 



An incomplete House. 

We run wil(i over the furnishings of a 
house — its furniture, carpets, hangings, pic- 
tures and music — and always forget or neg- 
lect the most important requisite. Some- 
thing there should be always on the shelf to 
provide against sudden casualties or attacks 
of pain. Such come like a thief in the night, 
a sprain, strain, sudden backache, toothache 
or neuralgic attack. There is nothing easier 
to get than a bottle of St. Jacobs Oil. and 
nothing surer to cure quickly any form of 
pain. The house is incomplete without it. 
Complete it with a good supply. 



Horse Owners! Try 

GOMBAULT^S 

Caustic 




Balsam 



A Safe Spfcdy and Positive Cnre 
The Safest, Bent BLISTER ever used. Takes 
the place of all liniments for mild or severe action. 
Removes all Bunches or BIcraiahes from If orses 
and Cattle. SUPERSEDES ALL CAUTERY 
OR FIRING. Impossible to vroduce scar or Memish. 

Every bottle sold is warranted to give satisfaction 
Price $l,50 per bottle. Sold by drugBlsts, or 
sent by express, charees paid, with full directions 
for its u^e. Send for descriptive circulars.,' 
THE LAWRENCE-WILLIAMS t'O., Cleveland O. 



One Man P P P 
30 Tons. 

In addition to the regular drying-ground force 
one man can. with the Pacific Prune Perforator, 
clean and perforate the skins of thirty tons of 
fresh prunes or any other fruit in a day, the work 
all being done on ihe drying ground or in the 
orchard. No fuel; no tire; no lye; no hot water; 
but little cold water; no bloat'M-s. It is hy far the 
cheapest machine on the market and ei]ual to the 
best. Four sizes. Send for circular to 

Sperry Wire Works, 

715 nission Street 5an Francisco. 



I bLCO A* fjni n plioii. SPLENDOR prune, Van 
I nfctO OT bULU OEMAN .,uin. e-c/io,V,r of 

r.urliaiili's 20 Million •■new creations." STARK 
Treas PREPAID evi rvwliere. SAFE ARRIVAL guar, 
anloed. 'I lie-great inirr<erles"s:ive yoii over HALF. 
Will inns of the best trees"!) years' experience can 
grow; they •'live longer and bear better."— Sec. 
MurUm. STARK, B^4, Louisiana, Mo.,Rockport, III. 



Warm Weather Separators. 




During the hot, sticky -weather of 
midsummer, when the pastures are 
short and flies bother the cows, is 
when cream separators show their 
quaHty. The milk gets thick and 
ropy, and it is very hard to skim. The 
Sharpies Russian Cream Separator 
brings the butter fat out under these 
conditions clean as a whistle. It is also one of the meritorious 
points of this machine that is capacity does not need to be de- 
creased in order to do clean skimming. In fact it does better 
work to be kept right up to its full capacity all the time. What a 
Russian needs is a tablespoonful of oil and to be let alone w hen it 
is at work. Then it keeps right down to business. It is a hard 
machine to clog up, and with average good milk will run six or 
seven hours continuously before the bowl needs washing. Send 
for handsomely illustrated catalogue and testimonial sheets. 

P. M. SHARPLES, 

West Chester, Pa., 
Elgin, 111. 
Rutland, Vt. 



THE BURRELL PRUNE MACHINE. 

A New Process for 
Cutting the Skins 
of Prunes. 

NO FIRE; NO HOT WATER; NO LYE. 

Cleans, Cuts and Spreads the 
fruit at one operation. 

SIMPLE, STRONG, DURABLE, 
CHEAPER AND BETTER. 

Letters from Persons who 
have used the Burrel l 
Prune Machine : 

Mu W. H. AiKKX. of Wris-'lits. saya: ■■ I :i.iii i)lea.seri to reeoinnieiiii the use of the liurrell Pi'une Ma- 
chine, wliieli does Oelter work, a: less lahor and e.'ipense. than the dippinfr machines now in use My 
prune crop of IK'.e as perforated by needl s in the Burrell Machine. In.stead of being cut by lye as lii 
former y.-ars. and the crop was dried to niy entire satisfaction, and was sold at full prices. The prunes 
had a (.'lossy anpearanee. were heavy for their size, and no obieetion was ursed against them by expert 
bu.Vfrs but iliey were reco nni^nded for welsrht. fruit substance and appearance." 

Mn. H C. MoiiiiKl.i,. of Wriprhts. says: " I put out the (rrealer piirt of my crop of 1S92 (about 100 tons) 
Machine, because it w-as more coiivcnleiii. did better work, and cost less to 
altlioujrh I have a flist-cbiss dl)i|)intr apiiaratus. I dried perforated and l.ve- 
ile. and found that the perforated primes dried as quickl.v. were of better Quality. 




with the liurrell Prim 
lhan ni.\' dipper 



diinie prunes side t)y side, and found that the pertorateu primes dried as quickly, were of better Quality, 
and (rave more than tivf per cent greater weight of dried fruil lli.iii the lye-dipped prunes: the advantage 
in the season s output beintr alto(rether ..bout $1(HI0,' 



What E. J WicKsoN says of a sample of perforated prunes scut to the University of California by W. 
H.Aiken: ■ Of the table Quality of your prunes I can Only say. that they are the most delicious I ever 
used, and they have a richness and frnlly flavor which I have never seen surpassed. They area product 
to hv proud of." 

[Other letters in next week's Ritual Pkess.] 

The Burrell Prune Machine is m.aniifaclured and sold b.v 

J. B. BURRELL, 449 West Santa Clara St., San Jose, Cal. 



Send for 
CATALOGUE 
Mailed free. 




NKVKll 
KKQtllRKS 
OILING 
-OH 
CLIMHlNt; OP 
TOWERS. 



O E m SXEEL \A/ I N D m I L L 

WITH iiKArHITK BO.XKS. 

Guaranteed more durable without oil than oilier 
mills that are oiled. Practlcall.v these mills re- 
quire no attention. Trul.v a Gem, and worth its 
weight In gold. It combines beaiit.v, strength, 
durabllit.v and simplicity. Governs Itself per- 
fectly, is easily erected, and is sold on its nierlt><: 
in iacl.it is the best on earth. They .'ire gi'arcd 
l);ic-k three tu (uir the wheel making them run in 
thr liclitesl wind or breeze. The mill Is ni:ide eii- 
lirely of Steel and f'ast Iron. Each one of ourGeni 
Windmills Is warranted. If not satisfactory, freight 
will be paid b th ways .aL.d mone.v refunded. 

We carry a full line of all kinds of pumps - for 
h:ind. wiiidniill :iiid power use. .\d;ipted for all 
depths of wells. Pipe. Pipi- Fittings. Brass Goods, 
Hose. Tanks. el(\ Send for(';ita]ogiie. mailed free. 
WOOUI N& I.ITTLK, ;jl 4 itlnrkel ^t.,S.I<-. 




NiLKS' manual and reference book on subjects 
connected with successful Poultry and Stock Rais- 
ing on the Pacitie Coast. Over 100 pages, profusely 
Illustrated with handsome, lifelike Illustrations of 
the dlCferent varieties of Poultry and Live Stock. 
Price, postpaid. 50 cents. Address PACIFIC RURAL 
PRBSS Office, Sbd Francisco, Cai. 



SrfWELLMACHINERYwork.. 

All kiiiilg of tools-. Koi tiine for tlic ilri Her by using our 
,4dam>intine proc. sK; cun take a cor,-. I' Tfected Econom. 
lc«l Artesian I'liinnlnK RIkh to work bv Steam, Air, etc. 
r,etushelpT'>u. THE AMKKKXAN WELL WOKK8. 
Aiirar*, III.) OUeaso, Ill.i 9bUm, 



30 



The Pacific Rural Press 



July 13, 1895. 



Grange Celebration. 

(Continued from page 24.) 



and near the head of each horse. Bro. 
A. Showers was the driver of the float. 

The Grange float, from its artistic 
effect and from being the only repre- 
sentative in the ceremonies of the day 
of the great agricultural interest of a 
great agricultural people, attracted 
much attention and received many 
favorable comments for float and 
Order. 

The participation by Tulare Grange 
in the ceremonies and exercises of In- 
dependence Day may seem an innova- 
tion, but nevertheless it was from 
pure patriotism and good citizenship. 

It was an object lesson that love of 
country and freedom is a distinguish- 
ing tenet of the Order of Patrons of 
Husbandry, that earnestness and zeal 
are distinguishing characteristics of 
its members, that the Order is still 
laboring for the good of the farmer 
and mankind, that Tulare Grange is in 
full sympathy with the objects and 
teachings of the Order and is now, and 
ever will be, ready to aid and promote 
its mission of civilization. J. T. 



Mr. Adams Writes of the 
Summer School. 



To THE Editor: — Possibly some 
gossip about our Summer School at 
Camp Roache may not be uninterest- 
ing. By this time doubtless it is ap- 
parent that the school rather than the 
camp is what we most think of. So 
much was said at first about a camp 
and so little about the school that I 
have feared that our enterprise would 
be considered a nK ir place of recrea- 
tion rather than what we hope to 
make it — a great center of influence. 
By what I have just said do not think 
I undervalue the recreation idea. I 
only think that will take care of itself, 
while the school idea needs pushing 
because not yet well understood. 



The general publication of our pro- 
gramme has now made most intelligent 
farmers acquainted with the scope of 
our work. Now we all very well 
understand what Prof. Hilgard and 
Prof. Wickson and the others from 
Berkeley can do for us, because we 
have heard them and know that we 
make money by attending to what they 
say, but whether or not the value of 
the work of Prof. Ross in economics is 
as well understood I cannot tell; if not, 
it will be in due time. But take up 
any one of the lectures at random and 
see what we are likely to learn from 
it; take that on the money question, 
for example, where Prof. Ross will 
doubtless discuss the effect of changes 
in the form of currency on the ability 
of farmers to pay debts; will free coin- 
age of silver at the ratio of 16 to 1 
drive gold out of circulation and give 
us silver monometallism, or will it 
not ? If it does, will that help or 
hinder the farmer to pay debts ? Of 
course, as to what would happen in 
such a case we can only judge by know- 
ing what has heretofore happened in 
similar cases. What Prof. Ross' opin- 
ions are on this subject I do not know, 
and I doubt if he makes them promi- 
nent, but I am pretty sure he will tell 
us some things which we have not 
before thought of, because I know the 
man; above all, I am sure he will set 
U8 an example of not being too .sure 
that we have nothing to learn on these 
subjects. He told me that he was 
very anxious indeed to meet the farm- 
ers who are practically dealing with 
the every-day problems which he has 
to lecture to young men and women, 
and to talk these things over with 
them. He tells me that he expects to 
learn more than any one else present. 
Prof. Ross, by the way, is a strapping 
six-foot-and-three-inch (or thereabouts) 
farmer boy, who has, by his own hard 
knocks, attained his present position. 
He will not meet us as a stranger and 
a theorist, but as one just gone out 
from among us and perfectly acquainted 
with what ails us. 



until three o'clock (by the way not all 
the time on the size of one tent), and, 
although on a steep southerly slope, 
the sun's direct rays did not reach me. 
I wish I could describe the spot. On 
the east and south is a dense shade of 
second-growth redwood; a comfortable 
trail leads from the new road a few 
rods distant to the rear of the tent 
platform, which for this particular tent 
will be 12x16 feet and have on it a 
10x12 or 12x14 tent. The front door of 
the tent will be on the back side next 
the hill, while at the other end the 
platform will project some feet beyond 
the tent, permitting the camper to sit 
thereupon in his camp chair and look 
out upon the sea through a peep- 
hole which he will cut through the red- 
wood branches. The ground being 
steep, the down-hill end of the plat- 
form will be about six feet from the 
ground, and of course have a stout 
railing. This is the steepest spot that 
will be used for tenting, but it was the 
first to come to and one of the prettiest. 
It is the spot I would choose, and there 
is room for three tents behind that 
redwood clump. The water will be 
delivered by a pipe at the front door, 
and there will be a platform adjoining, 
about four feet square, for a stove. As 
I cleared away the spot I wondered 
what brother Granger would be the 
first to occupy it, and thought, God 
bless him, anyhow. 



By the way, as we go on we dis- 
cover that there are many kinds of 
campers. In proposing a farmers' 
camp we supposed we were providing 
for a vigorous lot of folks who would 
readily enjoy doing just what I did 
yesterday — and 1 never did a more en- 
joyable day's work — clearing up and 
bringing out the beauty of a beautiful 
spot; but while there are plenty of 
these, we find there are others who 
wish to go and camp somewhere where 
they can press a button and have some 
one else do the rest. Well, these are 
excellent people, and in due time we 
shall be able to provide for them and 
make them happy, but they are not 
the men and women who will move the 
world. Those whose influence will go 
out from here and be felt among their 
fellow men will be sturdy souls who 
can cut their own trails. But we 
shall be glad to see the others. 



1 write in this way because I wish 
the farmers of the State represented 
in the Grange to own this spot and 
take in it the interest which one takes 
in his own. In arranging for this we 
have struck a legal snag which we 
don't wish to cut out until the State 
Grange meets. We find that under 
our State law there can be no trust 
created for such a purpose; and while 
we are ready to deed absolutely to the 
State Grange, we cannot do so until it 
incorporates. Meanwhile we are im- 
proving the property, which is worth 
$1000 more than it was two months 
ago. By the end of this week we shall 
have done upon it nearly double the 
work that a few of us paid $1100 for 
two years since on another road. 



Yesterday I cleared away the brush 
for the first tent. I worked all day 



There will be this year no charge of 
any kind except the lecture fees of $2 
to those who bring their own tents. 
For lack of money we cannot buy tents 
to rent, and, for lack of experience, we 
would not if we could. Accommodat- 
ing ourselves as we shall to the size 
and situation of the suitable spots, 
hardly two tents will be alike, and the 
economical way will be to buy the ma- 
terial and bring a tent-maker here to 
make them as we set them up. Hence 
we must rent them and charge for 
their use just what we pay, which will 
be from $5 to $8 for a month or any 
part thereof. This will be for the tent 
alone. Campers must bring what they 
need. If they bring stoves, there is no 
end of dry wood for the gathering, but 
oil stoves will of course be handier. 
Next year we hope to have stoves for 
rent. Those preferring to do so can 
bring tents and obtain day board 
near by. 

We shall have a profitable meeting, 
although probably a small one, and 
Highland Grange pledges itself that 



all who come shall have plenty of fun 
with the serious work. Come and see. 

Edward F. Adams. 
Wrights, July 7th. 



Spry at Sixty. 

THE REMARKABLE VITALITY 
AN AGED CALIFORNIAN. 



OF 



stands To-day UiiKcathed by OiHeaMe. How 
He Conquered RheumatlHui. HIg 
Story Will Interest and 
Benefit All Old Folks. 

From the Hraminer, San Franeinco, Cal. 

There is at least one happy man in San 
Francisco to-day — one man who can enjoy, de- 
spite the fact of his being sixty years of age 
and of corpulent build, the full and free use of 
all the powers of mind and body. 

James Keenan is a prominent liquor dealer 
at 2.5(5 Brannan Street, and it is he who is now 
lauding those who have restored him from a 
bed of pain to his former youthful activity. 
Mr. Keenan had, to within a year ago, been 
blessed with the enjoyment of almost perfect 
health. He had never known what it was to 
be confined for weeks at a time upon a couch 
of painful disease, nor even to lose the vigor- 
ous action of mind or limb which had enabled 
him, through the many years of his bu.siness 
life, to perform his daily tasks unaided and 
unadvised. 

It was a year ago that Mr. Keenan first 
suffered the hand of disease to take hold upon 
him. At that time he was stricken down by 
an aggravated attack of rheumatism, which 
robbed him of the use of his lower limbs and 
of both his hands. For fully six weeks he lay 
on his couch, a helpless victim of the dread 
disease, and all the time he suffered intense 
pain in the affected jxtrtions of his body. He 
could not move himself upon his bed, and all 
that he ate had to be fed to him by those in 
attendance. He had about despaired of ever 
gaining release from the clutches of the 
frightful disease when one morning his atten- 
tion was drawn to an advertisement, in a 
morning paper, of a remedy for rheumatism. 
The story of what succeeded this casual glance 
at a medicine advertisement can best be told 
in the words of Mr. Keenan himself, who, 
when asked for an explanation of his seem- 
inglj' miraculous cure, gave the following 
account: 

"It seemed to me that after all the weeks of 
terrible suffering that I had endured there 
could not possibly be a relief. I had no faith 
in patent medicines, and when I saw in a 
paper the advertisement of Williams' Pink 
Pills, I was induced to try them only in .sheer 
de.speration. I did not feel any relief until I 
began taking the second box of the pills, but 
then the pain began gradually to leave me, 
my appetite became better, and I could sleep 
soundly throughout the night without experi- 
encing any of the jerking pains that had be- 
fore kept ine awake. I continued to take the 
pills, and it was only a short time until the 
rheumatism had entirely left my hands, and 
I had so far recovered the use of my legs as to 
be able to walk about the house without as- 
sistance. In about two weeks more I was en- 
tirel.v free from the disease, but I took two 
more boxes of the pills as a precaution against 
a return of the rheumatism. From the time 
that the last trace of the disease left me I 
have not felt the least sign of its return, and 
I can truthfully say that I now enjoy as free 
use of my limbs as ever I did before the^rheu- 
matism attacked me. 

"I have taken the pains to recommend 
Williams' Pink Pills to a number of my 
friends who are suffering from rheumatism. 
I think I know of no other remedy that will 
afford such quick and permanent relief from 
rheumatism as do Williams' Pink Pills, and I 
only hope that many others may be brought to 
see" and feel the high curative powers that 
the pills possess." 

The foregoing is but one of many wonderful 
cures that have been credited to Dr. Williams' 
Pink Pills for Pale People. Diseases which 
heretofore have been supposed to be incur- 
able, such as locomotor ataxia and paralysis, 
succumb to this wonderful medicine as readily 
as the most trifling ailments. In many cases 
the reported cures have been investigated by 
the leading newspapers and verified in every 
possible manner, and in no case has the least 
semblance of fraud been discovered. Their 
fame has spread to the far ends of civiliza- 
tion, and there is hardly a drug store in this 
country or abroad where they cannot be found. 

Dr. Williams' Pink Pills contain, in a con- 
densed form, all the elements necessary to 
give new life and richness to the blood and 
restore shattered nerves. They are an un- 
failing specific for such diseases as locomotor 
ataxia, partial paralysis, St. Vitus' dance, 
sciatica, neuralgia, rheumatism, nervous 
headache, the after effect of la grippe, palpi- 
tation of the heart, pale and sallow com- 
plexions, all forms of weakne.ss either in male 
or female. Pink Pills are sold by all dealers, 
or will be sent post paid on receipt of price 
(50 cents a box, or six boxes for $2.50— they 
are never sold in bulk or by the 100) by ad- 
dressing Dr. Williams' Medicine Company, 
Schenectady, N. Y. 



TREE - W/\SH. 

Olive* Dip. 

"Greenbank" Powdered Caustic 
Soda and Pure Potash. 

T. WJ . JACKSON iSk CO. 
Sole Agents. - - Mo. 826 Market Street, 

SAN FRANCISCX). CAL. 




VAOP CAlwIPORINIA.VA 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 
iNCOaPORATXO APBIL. 1«74 




Capital Paid Up •1.000,000 

Reserve Fund and Undivided Profits, 130,000 
Dividends Paid to Stockholders.... 832,000 
— orpicEKS 

H. M. LaRITK President. 

I. C. STEELE Vice-President. 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER. . . .Cashier and Manager. 
C. H. Mccormick secretary. 

General Banklnir. Deposits Received, Gold and 
Silver. Bills of Exchanfre Bought and Sold. Loans 
on Wheat and Country Produce a Specialty. 

January 1. 1894. A. MONTPELLIER. Manager 



The Oriental Gas Engine 




IS THE BEST be- 
cause it combines 
simplicity of con- 
structloD with power 
and economy of space. 
It can be run with 
natural or manufac- 
tured gas or gasoline. 

It can be used for 
pumping purposes, as 
well as for all pur- 
poses where a perfect 
engine is required, 
with the advantage 
of lessening the risk 
of explosions. No 
licensed engineer at 
a high salary needed 
to operate it. 

Send for circulars 
and prices if a good 
safe engine Is what 
you need. 



The Oriental Launch is Perfection. 
M. A. GRAHAM, 

Inventor and Manufacturer, 
105 lieale Street San Francisco. 



Porteous Improved Scraper. 

Patented April 3. 1883. Patented April 17, 1883. 




Mannfactared by O. LISSKNDKN. 

The attention of the public Is called to this 
Scraper and the many varieties of work of which it 
Is capable, such as Railroad Work, Irrigation 
Ditches, Lievee Building. Leveling Land. Road Mak- 
ing, etc. 

This Implement will take up and carry its load to 
any desln-d dislance. It will distribute the dirt 
evenly or deponit its load In bulk as desired. It 
win do the work of Scraper. Grader, and Carrier. 
Thousands of these Scrapers are In use In all parts 
of the country. 

|y This Scraper Is all Steel— the only one manu- 
factured In the St.ate. 

Price, all Steel, four-horse. »4(»: Steel, two-horse, 
*31. AddreHB all orders to 

G. LISSEHDEH. STOCKTOH, CAL. 



"INDURINE" COLD WATER PAINTS. 

A Most Rcmark.ible Material is the 
OUTSIDE IfSDURIINE. 

It stands rain and exposure as well as oil paint 
and costs only a fraction as much. 

It is just the thing for fences, outbuildings, fac- 
tories, etc., being cheap, durable and easily ap- 
plied by anyone. 

It has no equal as a light reflector for light- 
shafts and court-yards of large buildings. It Is 
supplied in a thick paste, to be diluted with cold 
water. It is made In white and several colors. 

IMSIOE I IN D U R I IN E 
Is designed especially for factories, stables, and 
general Inside work, as a substitute for white- 
wash, kaLsomine or oil paint. 

/( niU not rub or ecale, soften or darken with 
age, and works well over old whitewash. A dry 
powder to be mixed with cold water. 

Both Indurines are perfectly lire-proof. 

Send for circular and prices to 

WM. mJKl), MANUFACTUKKK, 
Mills KulIdinK. - - San Franclxco, Cal. 



MOORE, FERGUSON & CO. 

WOOL, GRAIN, FLOUR 
ifi General Commission Merchants, ifi 

310 CALIFORNIA ST., S. F. 
Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange. 

49*Per80nal attention given to sales and liberal 
advances made on consignments at low rates of 
Interest. 



July 13, 1895. 



The Pacific Rural Press. 



31 



Picked Up Here and There. 



AccoRinNo to the statistics of the 
tenth census, the agricultural la- 
borers of this country numbered 3,- 
321^,876. 

Native-born farmers of this coun- 
try form 26 per cent of its population; 
farmers of foreign birth number 17.6 
per cent. 

A Hungarian penman residing at 
Vienna exhibits a grain of wheat upon 
which he has plainly written 308 words, 
all properly punctuated. 

The people of the United States 
drink about 25,000,000 bushels of grain 
annually. They do not exactly take it 
in the form of grain. — Los Angeles 
Herald. 

This is evidently an awful year for 
insects. Between the Hessian fly and 
the gold bugs and the Presidential bees 
the summer will be lively enough. — 
New York Journal. 

"I'm afraid I sha'nt like this place," 
said the summer girl, as she surveyed 
the broad verandaed hotel, where not 
a man was to be seen. "There's too 
much balcony and not enough Romeo." 
— New York Evening Sun. 

The great Vina farm, belonging to 
the Stanford estate, comprises about 
56,000 acres. Besides the immense 
vineyards, the farm supports 40,000 
sheep, 200 blooded horses and 400 work 
horses, besides 1200 head of cattle. 

Miriam — Now you are out here at 
Lonesomehurst, you must fairly revel 
in fresh vegetables, dear. 

Millicent (rapturously) — We do. 
Would you believe it (impressively), 
we can buy them almost as cheaply 
here as we could in the city. — Puck. 

Twenty acres of celery in Orange 
county, Gal., will produce twenty-five 
carloads. A carload of celery will sell 
for 1400 in the Chicago market. At 
this rate the total product of the 
twenty acres would be $10,000, or $500 
an acre, less freight charges. The 
celery is raised on peat lands. 

With festivals, laughter, music and 
song, Californians are celebrating the 
new era of prosperity, which, like 
gentle dew from heaven, is spreading 
over the land. He must, indeed, be a 
misanthropist who does not see in these 
joyous gatherings a harbinger of the 
glorious future of our State. — Santa 
Rosa Star. 



WlOO Keward, ISIOO. 

The reader.s of this paper will be plea.sed to 
learn that there is at least one dreaded disease 
that science has been able to cure in all its stages 
and that is Catarrh. Hall's Catarrh Cure is the ! 
only positive cure now known to the medical 
fraternity. Catarrh being a constitutional dis- 
ease, requires a constitutional treatment. Hall's 
Catarrh Cure is taken internally, acting directly 
upon the blood and mucous surfaces of the system, 
thereby destroying the foundation of the disease, 
and giving the patient strength by building up 
the constitution and assisting nature in doing its 
work. The proprietors have so much faith in its 
curative powers that they offer One Hundred 
Dollars for any case that it fails to cure. Send 
for list of Testimonials. 

Address F. J. CHENEY & CO., Toledo, O. 

«S-Sold by Druggists, 75c. 



One way to make times good and 
money easy is to get to work produc- 
ing something that can be sold, at the 
same time developing the resources of 
this great valley, where the increase in 
the value of all property in the next 
ten years will make every man who 
owns a piece of land independent if he 
lives within his means. — Fresno Ex- 
positor. 

List of U. S. Patents for Pacific 
Coast inventors. 



Reported by Dewey & Co., Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific Coast. 



FOB THE WEEK ENDING JONE 25, 1895. 
541,.5»6.— HoseC oupling— W. Curlett, S. F. 
541,725.— Bkick Machine— W. E. Damon, Pomona, 
Cal. 

.541,539.— Steam Genkhatoh- A. Heberer, Alameda 
Cal. 

541,621.— Tuning Pin— H. Muller, S. F. 
541,496.— Car Coupling— J. C. Parrott, Pullman, 
Wash. 

541,790.— Elevator— S. M. Philbrick, Portland, 
Ogn. 

54 1, .500.— Electric Contkoller— O. H. & A. F. 

Pieper, San Jose, Cal. 
541.681.— SusPENUKKS—H. Putz, S. F. 
541.792.— Safety Pin— J. Schary, S. F. 
54l,.'Sl() — Roll Paper Printer- Sullivan & Ma- 
thews, Seattle, Wash. 
24.432 —BADtiE Design— W. N. Brunt, S. F. 
Note.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign patents fur- 
nished oy Dewey &. Co. in the shortest time possible 
(by uiall fur telegraphic order). American and 
rorelgii pait ius obtained, and general patent busi- 
ness for Pailtie Coast Inventors transacted with 
perfect seciirliy. at reasjuable rates, and lu the 
shortest possible time. 



Breeders' Directory. 



Six lines or less lu this directory at 50c per line per 
iiionth. 



Horses and Cattle. 



F. H. ItUKKK, H2B Market St., S. P. Al Prize Hol- 
stelns; Urade Milch Cows. Fine Pigs. 



HULLS— Devons and Shorthorns. All pure bred 
and registered. Fine Individuals. At prices to 
suit the times either singly or In carload lots. 
Oakwood Park Stock Farm, DanvUie, Cal. 



P. H. MUKPHY, Perkins, Sac. Co., Cal. Breeder of 
Shorthorn Cattle, Poland-China & Berkshire Hogs. 



M. D, HOPKINS, Petaluma. Registered Shorthorn 
Cattle. Both sexes for sale. 



PKTER .SAXK & SON, Lick House, S. F., Cal. Im- 
porters and Breeders, for past 21 years, of every 
variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. Cor- 
respondence soUciied. 



JERSEYS— The best A. J. C. C. registered prize herd 
la owned by Henry Pierce, S. F. Animals for sale. 



Poultry. 



A. BU.SCHKE, Traoy. Cal., breeder of Thorough- 
bred White Leghorns. Barred Plymouth Rocks; 
.OUO head young stock to select from; single birds 
from $2 up; trios from S.'j up; eggs $1.50 per setting. 



WELLINGTON'S IMPROVED EGG FOOD 

for poultry. Every grocer and merchant keeps It. 



CALIFORNIA POULTRY FARM, Stockton, Cal. 
Send for Illustrated and descriptive catalogue, free. 



Swine. 



F. H. BURKE, «26 Market St., S. F.— BERKSHIRES. 



CIIAS. A. .STOWE, Stockton, Berkshire and 
Poland-China Hogs. 



M. MILLER, EUslo, Cal. Registered Berkshlres. 



J. P. ASHLEY, Linden, San Joaquin Co., Cal. 
Breeds Poland-China, Essex and Yorkshire Swine. 



TYLER BEACH, San Jose, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 



Sheep and Goats. 



J. H. HOYT, Bird's Landing, Cal. Importer and 
1 Breeder of Shropshire Sheep; also breeds Cross- 
. bred Merino and Shropshire Sheep. Rams for sale. 
□ Prices to suit the times. Correspondence solicited. 



J.H.iiiLIDK, Sacr;imento. Very large choice Span- 
ish. French and Shropshire rams. Bedrock prices. 



R. H. CRANE, Petaluma, Cal. Southdown Sheep. 




1000 SHROPSHIRES. 

I..arifeRt Mutton Ram 
Hreeding: I'arm ill 
America. 

Range trade a specialty. 
Also atted show stock 
in season. 
Come or write — 

A. O. FOX. Owner. 
Oregon. Dane Co., AVls. 



FARMERS, ATTENTION ! 



DO YOU WANT TO EMPLOY ANYBODY? 

If so, we furnish Farm Hands, Teamsters, Men 
and Wives, etc.. promptly. No charges to 
employers. Send in your orders to 

J. F. CROSETT & CO., 

Employment Agency. 



628 Sacramento Street, 



San Francisco, Cal. 



SAMPLE American Bee Journal. 

(Eetablished 1861 ). 
Weekly, *i a year. 7 Editors. 



1 (iO - page 
Bee-Book 
Free! 



FREE 



All about Bees and Honey 

G.W.YOEK&CO. 

56 Fifth Ave. 
CHICAGO, Ilil^INOIS 



SENDYOURNAMEaAOORESS ON POSTAL CAPO^o 
LE CRAN D POULTRY RANCH,WE5T RIVERSIDE CAt 
"auCEHi'UHEY WILL SEND YOU SOMETHINd USe'fUL 
aY DECEMBER IS!" N EX T.>'">" SCW UECHORNSSJJiSr. 




IN THESE TIMES 

You Can Largely Increase 

Your income by buying an Incu- 
bator and engaging In the chicken 
business. Send stamp for oui 
catalogue of Incubators, Wire 
Netting, Blooded Fowls and PouJ 
try Appliances generally. Remem- 
ber the Best, m the Cheapest. PACIFIC 
INCUBATOR CO., 1317 Castro St. 
Oakland, Cal. 



THE 



OWEN 
ELECTRIC 
BELT 




DETOY & GO'S 

Patent Agency. 




Trade Mark— Dr. A. Ovvet 



FOR MEN AND WOMEN 

The latest and only scientiflc and practical 
Electric Bolt made, for general use, producing 
a genuine current of Electricity, for the cure 
of disease, that can bo readily felt and regu- 
lated both ill quantity and power, and applied 
to any part of thobody. It can bo worn at any ' 
time during workiug hours or sleep, and 

WILL POSITIVELY CURE 

IIHEUMATISM 

GENER.t L, REBILiITY 
LAITIE B.\€K 
N^'RVOUS DISEASES 

CHRONK; diskasks 
AND FUNCTIONAL 
DE It A Mi K ,>I K NT.S 

WITHOUT MEDICINE 

Electricity, properly applied, is fast taking 
theplncoof drugs for all Nervous, Rheumatic, 
Kidney and Urinal Troubles, and will effect 
cures in Bcjmingly hopeli I s ( .-t.es where every 
other known moans has failed. 

A!iy slug ■i'-h, weal£ or diseased organ may 
\y this I-'?, ns lie roused to healthy activity 
■jc.'ore it is t 'O Ute. 

Leading i .cjieal men uao and recommend the 
Owen Belt In tlieir practice. 

OUR LARGE ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE 

('ontainsfullest information regarding the cure 
.if acute, rhr niic and nervous diseases, prices, 
md how I ) (1- Icr, in English, German, Swedish 
ind NorwoGlan 1 mguages, will be mailed, upon 
ipplication, to dnyrddress for G cents postage. 

I he Owen ElGctric Belt and Appliance Co. 

MAIX llFrU " AMD O.NLY FACTORY, 

The Owen Elec.ric Coll rid>, 201 to 211 State Slreet, 

CHICAGO, ILL. 
he Largest Electric Rnll rstihhshmentin the Woett 




* C. H. EVANS & CO., * 

(Successors to THOMSON & EVANS.) 

110 & 118 BEALE >STKEET, .S. I'' 

MACHINE WORKS, 

Stsam Pumps. Steam Engines. 

All Kinds nf MACHINERY . . 




Our U. S. and Foreign- Patent Agency 
presents many and important advantages a^a 
Home Agency over all others, by reason of 
long establishment, great experience, thor- 
ough system, intimate acquaintance with the 
subjects of inventions in our ovi^n connnuuity, 
and our most extensive law and reference 
library, containing ofiicial American reports, 
with full copies of U. S. patents since 1873. 
All worthy inventions patented through Dew- 
ey & Go's Patent Agency will have the bene- 
fit of a description in the Mining and Scientiflc 
Press. We transact every branch of patent 
business, and obtain patents in all countries 
which grant protection to inventors. The 
large majority of U. S. and foreign patents 
issued to inventors on the Pacific Coast have 
been obtained through our agency. We can 
give the best and //lost reUalile advice as to the 
patentability of new inventions. Our prices 
are as low as any first-class agencies in the 
Eastern States, while our advantages for 
Pacific Coast inventors are far superior. 

Advice and Circulars free. 

DEWEY & CO., Patent Agents, 

220 Market St., San Francisco. 

GEO. H. STROr" . Manaeer. 



Business College, 



24 Post Street, 



San Francisco. 




OUR ELECTRIC BELTS CURE 
Kidney Tronbles, Bhenmatlsni, 
Reneral Debility, etc. Circnlars 
Free. Want Agents. Address E. 
TAYLOR & CO., Cleveland. Ohio. 



FOR SEVENTY-FIVE DOLLARS 

This Coilepre Instructs In Shorthand, Type- Writing 
Bookkeeping. Telegraphy, Penmanship, Drawing, 
all the Enjjlish branches, and everything pertaining 
to bnslness. for full six months. We have sixteen 
teachers and give individual Instruction to all our 
pupils. 

A Department of Electrical Engineering 

Has been established under a thoroughly qualified 
Instructor. The course Is thoroughly practical. 
Send for Circular C. S. HALEY. Sec. 

School of Practical, Civil, Mechanical, 
Electrical and Mining Engineering, 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing and Assaying 

V -2 3 /V1«RK.ET STREET, 

San Francisco, Cal. 
Open All Year. : A. VAN DER NAILLEH, Pres't. 

Assaying of Ores, 82.5; Bullion and Chlorination 
Assay, S25; Blowpipe Assay, $10. Full course of 
assaying, ISO. Established ise^l. Send for Circular. 




SESSIONS <& CO., 

Lynwood Dairy and Stock Farm 



p. O Box I 



Los Angeles, Cal. 



We have Berkshires of the most fashionable strains. 
They are from I'rize Winners and are Prize Win- 
ners themselves. We can furnish pigs three to six 
months old. Correspondence solicited. 




JOHNSON 

CORNER CALIFORNIA AND FRONT STREETS 



LOCKE MERCANTILE CO. 



.SAN FRANCISCO, CAL 



32 




The Pacific Rurai Press. 

W. C. ANDERSON, 



July 13, 1895 



-DF.ALKR IN- 



Horticultural 




Supplies. 



Anderson Prune Dipper No, 1 

Dips, washes and spreads the fruit upon the trays with a mini 
mum amount of labor and expense, besides doin;; the 
work more thoroughly than any other dipper. 



Dippers, 

Rrooessers, 
Ceirs, 

Xransfe-r Cars, 
XL4rntafc>Ies, 

F'ruiit F*resse^s, 
Lye^, Eto., Etc 




Anderson Prune Dipper No. 3 

Is the only successful processcr or redipper 
manufdctured. It is the machine adopted 
by all the unions and packers throughout 
the country. 



Speaking of Dippers — Did you know that three=fourths of the prunes raised on 

the Coast pass through Anderson Dippers ? it is a fact, easily demonstrated. 



Send for Our New Catalogue 



-CONTAFNING- 



WHYS AND WHEREFORES 

OF PRUNE CURING, 




Write for Prices and Terms. 



W. C. ANDERSON, 



Factory 



45S West Santa Clara St. 



BY W. C. ANDERSON. 



Anderson Field and Transfer Cars. 



p. O. Box ^70. 

SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA. 



WRITE FOR CATALOGUE 

No. 1-)— Agricultural 
Machinery. 



These Stackers and Rakes 
are California made and are 
specially adapted to the 
Pacific Coast. 




Jackson's Improved "Eclipse" Stacker and "Acme" Rake. 

NOTICE.— We have disconllnuea our Sole Agency for the " Eclipse " Stacker and "Acme" 
Rake, heretofore controlled tiy the Deere Implement Company, of San Francisco; and they will no 
longer represent us. 

Henceforth we will supply these Stackers and Rakes direct to the trade. We carry a large stock 
on hand: and all orders will receive prompt attention. Send your orders direct to us, or through your 
local dealiT. 

\J\Jf\Ft IN I NG.— These Slackers and Rakes are fully protected by Letters Patent. BEWARE 
of infringements, and inferior, imported machines. 

Byron Jackson Hachine Works, 

625 SIXTH STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 

The German Savings and Loan Society, 

n^G California St. 

For the half year ending June 30, 189.5, a dividend 
has been declared at the rate of four and eight- 
tenths {4 Ml)) per cent per annum on Term De- 
posits, and four (4) percent per annum on Ordinary 
Deposits, free of taxes, payable on and after 
MONDAY, July 1, 189!i. 

GEO. TOURNY. Secretary. 

BLAKE. MOFFITT & TOWNE, 

DEALERS IN 

PAPER, 

SI2to 516 Sacramento St., 5an Francisco. Cal. 

BLAKR:, MOFFITT & TOWNE Los Angeles 

BLAKE. McFALL & CO Portland, Or. 



Olive Trees. 

ALL KINDS OF NURSERY STOCK. Bend for 
our Book on Olive Culture. 

l-Io\A/lanci Bros., 

POMONA, CAL. 

Olive Trees for Sale 

GEO. H. KUnI, Sacraoieiito. 

Mission, ,S years 5 to 6 feet 

Mission, 2 years to 4 feet. 

Manzanillo, 2 years a to .S feet. 

Nevadillo, 2 and 3 years 4 to 6 feet. 

Plcbollne, 2 years 2 to 8 feet. 



IRRIGATION. 



W.W. mOlNXAGUE & CO 



ARE .MANUFACTUKKKS OF 



RIWEXED IRON AND STEEL 

Water Pipe 

l-Ntr Irri^at ion. IflyilrHulir Miningf, .>! Ills uml k IMaiii s. 

IRON, CUT, PUNCHED AND FORMED, AND TOOLS SUPPLIED i \ K' I NO PIPE ON THE 

GROUND WHERE Ri;yUIRED. *► 

309 to 317 Market Street, San Fra^ isco. 

ALEXANDER & HMMON. 

RIO BONITO NURSERIES, Bifgs, Butte Co., Cal. 



DECIDUOUS F^RUIX TREES 

OUR SF'ECIrtLTAf'. 

The most Complete Assortment of General Nursery Stock grown on the Pacific Coast 



1,000,000 Trees for the Season of 1894-95 in Stock. 

•S" Acknowledged everywhere to be equal to the best Guaranteed to be healthy and free frooi 
cale or other pests. 

Send for Catalogue and Prices. Correspondence solicited. Address: 

Alexander & Hammon, 

BlfXiES. Butte Countv. Cat. 



U I681I8 DRUMMST S.F.^' 



WAGON AND 
PLATFORM 



SCALES 

HOOKER & CO. ie-i8 tmum «fBEET.«.r 




AND CALIFORNIA FRUIT BULLETIN. 



Vol. L. No. 3. 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 20, 1895. 



TWENTY-FIFTH TEAR. 

Office, 220 Market Street. 



5anta Clara County Highways. 



Now that the State Road Commission consisting 
of three engineers appointed by Governor Budd are 
on their tour of investigation into road work in the 
different counties it will be pertinent to allude to the 
roads of the county which has the reputation of 
maintaining the best avenues for public travel. 
Santa Clara county holds the palm for good roads, 
and though the county has been liberal in expend- 
itures in this direction, the ratio of benefit to cost 
has probably been greater than in any other county 
of the State. This fact is due first to a prevailing 
sentiment in favor of good roads and second to the 



the year. The annual expenditure for road pur- 
poses in Santa Clara county is, in round numbers, 
$100,000. There are seventeen road districts in the 
county, and the money raised for road purposes is 
expended within the district from which it is col- 
lected. The roads vary in width from forty to a 
hundred feet, the minimum being fixed by law. 
There are many beautiful avenues. 

In pursuance of the policy of sprinkling the public 
highways the county has acquired numerous water 
stations including water and machinery and appar- 
atus for raising, storing and applying it to the 
roads. The expense of nearly all this property has 
been paid out of the annual revenue for road pur- 



Our engravings give glimpses of the country/ 
roads to which we allude. They are not the most 
picturesque but are selected especially to show the 
liberality in the sprinkling arrangements which are 
really the secret of the wonderfully satisfactory de- 
gree of maintenance which has been attained. One 
of the views shows one of the outfits for water sup- 
ply, which may be seen at convenient intervals 
throughout the county. All the views show the 
sprmkling wagons which are as abundant on the 
country roadways in Santa Clara as they usually are 
on a city's streets. Residents of other counties who 
are now dropping in chuck holes or choked with dust 
should go to Santa Clara county this or next month 




SANTA CLARA COUNTY ROADS— THE SPRINKLING SYSTEM. 



election of supervisors who have proved enterpris- 
ing, wise and economical in road expenditures. Con- 
ditions also contributing to the result have been 
possession of much good road material and soils 
favoring road construction and maintenance. But 
even with these conditions Santa Clara might have 
as poor roads as one could hate to see, had it not 
been for correct public sentiment and good work 
from the county supervisors. 

The public highways in the valley portions of 
Santa Clara county are level, and free from dust in 
the summer and mud in the winter. In the moun- 
tains they are constructed on the best system of 
engineering and have no very steep grades. There 
is no frost to disturb the foundation, while the best 
of material for construction is abundant and of con- 
venient access. During the summer season the main 
roads are sprinkled and kept solidly packed, render- 
ing them not only easy for the passage of vehicles, 
but pleasant for travelers. The result is a system 
of public highways over which there is no difficulty 
in hauling the heaviest loads at any season of 



poses and is included in the amount given above. The 
roads are all named and provided with substantial 
bridges at creek and river crossings. The thickly 
settled condition of the country districts has caused 
the opening of so many public highways that, in 
many localities, they are nearly as numerous as the 
streets in the city. The system on which the public 
highways are constructed and maintained will be 
more readily understood from the amount and char- 
acter of the expenditures for that purpose. Follow- 
ing is a statement covering twelve months ending 
June 30, 1894. The item given as "damages" is 
money paid for land used in opening new roads : 
Labor, $01,161.20; implements, repairs, etc., $7,209.- 
75; sprinkling, $19,185.70; lumber, $6,273.90; survey- 
ing, $746.20; viewing, $98.00; gravel, $2,098.40; water, 
$5,018.30; damages, $2,802.30; bridge work, $8,357.- 
15. While the matter of country roads is a serious 
and pressing problem in other communities, it seems 
to have been satisfactorily solved in Santa Clara and 
it is freely claimed that no county in the Union has 
better roads than Santa Clara county. j 



to see how much better their own highways could be 
made. 

The Dairymen's Association of Southern Califor- 
nia held its annual meeting Saturday last in Los 
Angeles, at which the following Board of Directors 
was elected : D. Durkee, Riverside county; C. E. 
Mitchell, Clearwater; W. H. Smith, Norwalk; P. F. 
Cogswell, El Monte; G. E. Piatt, Los Angeles. C. 
H. Sessions was made President, George H. Peck 
Vice-President, and R. R. Risdon Secretary and 
Treasurer. Col. W. H. Holabird, representing the 
Chino Ranch Company, explained to those present 
the advantages of sugar beet pulp for food for dairy 
stock, and upon the latter's invitation the members 
of the association will have an excursion to Chino to 
examine the sugar factory and investigate further 
the merits of beet pulp as food for stock. 

The longest American railroad tunnel is the 
Hoosac tunnel, on the Fitchburg Railroad, four and 
three-quarters miles. The St. Gothard tunnel in 
i Europe is over nine miles long. 



34 



The Pacific Rural Press 



July 20, 1895. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 

Office, Xo.-JMHarket St.; KUvator, No. n Front St.. San Francisco, Cat 

All Riih«priber» Davlne $:< In advance will receive 15 months' (one 
.^r and ifweekH) credit For »2 In advance. 10 months. For tl In 

BCe, Ave mouths. 

AdvertMnu rates made known on application. 




crlber sending an Inquiry on any subject to the- El kal 
1 a postage stamp, will receive a reply, either through the 
the paper or by personal letter. The answer will be given 

as promptly M practicable. 

Reglsteil^ »t S. P. Postofflce as second-class mall mat ter. 

loJiilAN ■ Kd»t«"-- 

Special Contributor, 



ALFRKU HO 
E. J. WIOKSON.... 



San Francisco, July 20, 1895. 



Tobacco 
Oroivingr. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



ILLUSTRATIONS.— Santa Clara County Roads— The Sprinkling 
System, Xi. . , , , « 

EDITORIALS.— Santa Clara County Highways: Dairymen s As- 
socialiou of Southern California, 33. The VVeelt; From an Inde- 
pendent Staudpoiul. 34. , ,,. . . , 

HOKTICULTURK —Olive Varieties in California; Deciduous 
Fruits iu San Uiego Couuly: Apple Growing in Southern Cali- 
fornia; OrangiK'onditious and Varieties, 38. 

FRUIT MARKETINC— Whole Stole the Onions 1 39. 

FRUIT PRESERVATION.— Best Methods of Drying Fruits, 39. 

THE FIELD.— Baruyard Manure, Green Manuring and Commercial 
Fertilizers. .39. 

THE VINEYARD.— Late Pruning of Grape \ ines, 40. 

THE DAIRY.— Weight of Hutter Rolls, 40. Allilerilla, 41. 

FORESTRY -Forestry in California; Young Oaks for Ornament. 41. 

THE HOME CIRCLE— An Old Favorite— " Little Breeches;" 
Harry McDougalTs Conversion; Summer Dresses, 42. Gems of 
Thought; Popular Science; Curious Facts ; Facts About Precious 
Stones. 43. . „ . 

DoMESTK; ECONO.MY — Household Hints; Domestic Recipes, 4.1 

MARKETS; Review of the Dried Fruit Market, in. 

Ml.SCELLANEOUS.— The Marketing Problem; What is the Matter 
with the Rhubarb? Yellow Scale Killer at Work, 3a. Tempera- 
ture and Rainfall; Weather and Crops; Gleanings, Gov. Hudd 
on the Board of Horticulture; Santa Clara Fruit Exchange Bulle- 
tin, 87. Coast Industrial Notes. 41. Eastern Fruit Sales, 46. 



BUSINESS ANHOUNCEMEHTS. 

(\ew tfde isfiie.] Page 

Vehicles, Harness, Etc.— Deere Implement Co 48 

Gas or Gasoline Engines— Adam Schilling & Sons 4" 

Boraxaid Soap Powder— Paciflc Coast Borax Co 48 



The Week. 



To Advertise 
Santa Clara Fruit. 



A very interesting meeting was 
held at San Jose last Saturday to 
devise ways and means of extend- 
ing the reputation and widening the consumptive de- 
mand for Santa Clara dried fruit. About a hundred 
fruit growers and half as many business men came 
together in l.he rooms of the Board of Trade and 
after an e.xtended discussion it was determined to 
ask subscriptions to the e.vtent of one dollar for 
each acre in bearing orchard, tlie money to be spent 
under the direction of a committee to advertise 
Santa Clara dried fruits. Within fifteen minutes 
after the adjournment of the meeting $200 was sub- 
scribed and the list is growing hourly. Following 
are the subscriptions up to Saturday evening: H. 
W. Wright, $tiO; S. P. Sanders, $55; T. K. W'eaver, 
$30; Will A. Coulter, *25; A. S. McKenzie, $20; 
M. Madden, $20; R. V. Diedrich, $15: J. S. Selby, 
$15; A. W. Hudson, $20; O. Haberdier. $10; Piatt 
Cregorv, $10; George S. Wells, $10: C. H. Allen, 
$10; J. S. B. Shnari $10. It is hoped to raise a fund 
of $20,000. 

Six days of Farmers' Institutes 
under the auspices of the State 

Institutes. TT • 1- 1 1 ■ »i. 

University were held in southern 
California last weeic. The meetings were equally 
distributed between San Diego, Escondidoand Santa 
Ana, and were notably satisfactory, the attendance 
at some of the sessions at Escondido being upwards 
of 800. At each place there were two representa- 
tives of the University present and a good corps of 
visiting speakers as well as local talent. We pub- 
lish on other pages this week selections from the 
papers presented, and shall have more in later 
issues. These Institutes are serving a grand pur- 
pose not only in instructing those who participate, 
but in focussing the results of observation and ex- 
perience for those who, in distant parts, read the 
proceedings. Southern California is doing more in 
the Farmers' Institute line than any other portion 
of the State. 

It seems clear that unless some 
good scheme of co-operation can 
be made to prevail in the handling 
of the raisin crop a large share of the producers 
will be crushed out. On all theoretical grounds co- 
operation would meet the evils, but this cannot be 
done practically because producers either cannot or 
will not combine. Some allege that the trouble lies 
with small producers who have to mortgage their 
coming crop for money to grow it and thus the pro- 
duce passes out of their control before it even exists. 
One Fresno man ])roposes that these small growers 
be allowed to fall as soon as possible under the weight 
of their mortgages and when they are out of the way 
the large producers can co-operate and get fair 
prices. It is idle to talk of this as a practical scheme 
for operation because you could not get growers to 
combine on this any better than you could on any 
other scheme that has been advanced. As this is the 
case it hardly seems worth while to denounce the 
devilish inhumanity in it. Those small farmers came 



to Fresno because the raisin industry was boomed 
as the best of all the horticultural arts and now the 
very men who did most to get them there propose to 
ruin them to get them out again. It is a horrid prop- 
osition, but not worth denouncing at any length be- 
cause it is not within the power of the proponents to 
carry it out. The proper scheme would be to help 
these small producers, to stand between them and the 
men who advance money for the purpose of con- 
trolling their produce. We are aware that this has 
been tried without success, but it is a good line to 
move along upon and it may lead somewhere some 
day. 

We have given several items re- 
cently about California tobacco. 
We are aware, as we have stated, 
that there have been many disappointments in the 
business in the past and there is, no doubt, much 
misapprehension still prevailing about it. This fact 
is clearly shown by the following letter just received: 

To THE EiiiTdK : — Your estimable paper published, at several 
times, some notes on tobacco growing in California. That the 
soil and the climate of certain areas in California are highly 
adapted to a product of superior quality, we have not the 
slightest doubt. Having raised tobacco in Europe, and being 
familiar with the agricultural requirements of the plant and 
the curing of the leaves, we thought that very favorable con- 
ditions could be found in this Stale to make tobacco growing 
a success. So, in September of last year, we inquired of three 
different merchants — cue iu Santa Clara and two in San Jose. 
We were told by all of them that tobacco was grown on a 
small scale near Gilroy, that its quality was unsatisfactory, 
as the product would not burn, and that thej- would not be 
able to pay more than ten cents a pound for it. Lately, being 
in San Francisco, we tried to get more information, but we 
learned, to our great surprise, that most likely no home mar- 
ket would be found for California-grown tobacco. Neither in 
Santa Clara nor in San Jose could we obtain any information 
as to how the tobacco was rai.sed in Gilroj', for it is manifest 
that, if the tobacco was incombustible, the grower was to be 
blamed for it. But what was most discouraging of all was 
the price. Evidently at ten cents a ix)und it would be far 
from paying for labor, and even at twentj'-tive cents a pound 
we believe the farmer would not meet labor expenses. We 
would be pleased if the Ki uai, could give more definite in- 
formation as to the market that might be found in San Fran- 
cisco for California-grown tobacco and at what prices. 

SUBSCUIBES. 

This is not a matter which can be answered on 
the moment. W"e believe that the information given 
our correspondent was from those who do not know 
California tobacco as it is now produced. We under- 
stand that there are parties who take quite a diH'er- 
ent view of the matter, as, for instance, Mr. J. D. 
Gulp of Gilroy, whose views we have already pub- 
lished. The leaves of upwards of thirty kinds of 
tobacco grown on the State University grounds at 
Berkeley are now being cured. When iu proper 
condition, this tobacco will be given to expert manu- 
facturing tobacconists in San Francisco that they 
may try and give judgment upon it. The foreman 
at the University — Capt. Emil Kellner — has had 
much experience in handling tobacco at the South, 
and he expects to be able to show samples which 
will be acceptable even for the higher manufactures. 
Capt. Kellner may be found at Berkeley, and will 
show his operations to any one who is interested. 



Shipping. 



respectfully to Major Weinstock, through whose 
efforts, chiefly, this combination has been brout^ht 
about. ° 

Fruit seems to be going eastward 
in refrigerator cars in spite of the 
arrangements made by the rail- 
ways for quick time in ventilator cars. The reason 
is that the refrigerator cars reduced their charge 
from $125 to $!>0, and at the lower rate the shippers 
preferred to go it on ice. The Southern Pacific has 
sent out less than 50 ventilator cars, while some- 
thing like 900 refrigerators have gone. There is 
much risk with the ventilators, and shippers do not 
like to take it. The ventilators may serve well for 
less perishable fruit later. The issue between the 
Eastern auction rooms is still on, though all Califor- 
nia shippers' meetings we have seen reported have 
declared plainly for the open auctions, as provided 
by the California Growers' and Shippers' Associa- 
tion. Near Sacramento the opposition auction firms 
have some influence, but at one meeting they at- 
tended the discussion held until 1 o'clock in the 
morning, and the open auction won. 



(»rowerH aikd 



Shippers. 



Crash or 
Co-operate. 



We have received the following 
note from a reader of the Rur.vl 
Press who describes his own 
standing as a fruit grower. His questions are per- 
tinent and direct and he addresses himself squarely: 

TO TUE KRIIT tiROWEKS. 

Mr. H. Weinstock said; "The California growers and 
shippers have suffered most di.sastrously in the past in the 
city of Chicago and elsewhere because of the existence of two 
or more auction house.", which divide the fruit and divide the 
buyers."' 

Who made and controlled the.se two auction houses ; Porter 
Bros. Company, a fruit shipper and commission merchant, con- 
trolled one and the Earl Fruit Company, a shipper and com- 
mission merchant, made and controlled the other. 

Can it be these two fruit shippers that Mr. Weinstock has 
reference to when he says ; " California growers and shippers 
have suffered most disastrously?" I have been informed 
that these two fruit shippers and commission companies have 
made millions of dollars out of the fruit growers of California 
within the last fifteen years, while the fruit growers are no 
better off than they were fifteen years ago. 

H. Weinstock, N. U. Salsbury of Porter Bros. Comp.inj' and 
E. T. Earl of the Earl Fruit Company are the Executive 
Committee of the California Fruit Growers' and Shippers' 
Association. These two companies are a majority of that 
Board, and is it not probable that they will manage the busi- 
ness so as to make all the money they can out of it for them- 
selves and not for the fruit growers i 

When the Horticultural Convention met last November, 
and spoke of forming a fruit growers' and shippers' associa- 
tion to look after the interests of the growers and shippers of 
California fruits, they had no thought of protecting such com- 
panies as Porter Bros. Company and the Earl Fruit Company 
any more than they had of protecting the transportation com- 
panies. All three of these companies make all they can out of 
the fruit growers of this State. In fact, they get about all 
the money the fruit growers make. 

The growers and shippers that that convention referred to 
were those who grew and shipped their own fruit. 

J. B. BUADFORD, 

July 10. 1895. A grower for iiS years. 

As to the points advanced, the FIttrai, Prkss has 
no interest or prejudice. We are aware that the 
bulk of the money from a score of years of fruit 
shipping has gone to the railways and dealers. W^e 
do not know how much they have made, but they 
have taken the most there has been in the traffic — 
that has often been clearly shown in our columns. 
Now, our correspondent asks what the grower can 
gain by combining with the dealers who have shorn 
him so close in the past. This question we refer 



From an Independent Standpoint. 

Commenting upon the possibility of Mr. Harri- 
son's election to the Senate — for which, it is 
declared, he is ambitious — a good many newspapers 
have spoken of it sneeringly as "a come-down." 
It appears to be the notion of these critics that be- 
cause Mr. Harrison has been President he is in some 
way disqualified from public service in any less con- 
spicuous capacity. This is both stupid and mis- 
chievous ; it is stupid because nothing can be said in 
rational support of it, and it is mischievous because 
it tends to promote a foolish and unpatriotic idea. 
It is a very cheap man who would decline a dut^', 
either public or private, because at some time past 
he may have held some post assumed to be of higher 
importance or dignity. That there are such men 
we all know, and we know them as poor creatures in 
whom the spirit of vanity has consumed the infin- 
itely better quality of self-respect. No really manly 
man ever becomes disqualified for any service which 
may be right and proper from him by reason of past 
dignities, while many a weak man goes through life a 
miserable failure, due to some unfortunate tempo- 
rary promotion in his youth. Whatever may be said 
about Mr. Harrison, he is not that sort of a man. 
When he left the White House he returned to his 
home and his business like a sensible American citi- 
zen. A little later we saw him .in California doing 
with ability and with evident satisfaction to himself 
the work of instructing a college class. In these 
duties he was no less dignified a figure than in the 
Presidential office ; and if now he should return to 
the Senate — which he left to go into the Executive 
office — it will be in the same simple and manly char- 
acter, and nobody save those wanting in sense and 
in respect for genuine things will call it "a come- 
down." 

The Republicans of Iowa, in their State conven- 
tion, held last Wednesday, put up a candidate for 
the Presidential nomination in the person of Senator 
Allison. Called on for a speech, in response to the 
mention of his name for the Presidential office, Mr. 
Allison declared that he was entirely satisfied to 
represent the people of Iowa in the Senate ; that he 
had no ambitions for any other place. Proceeding, 
however, he declared his unaltered support of the 
Protective principle as applied to tariff legislation ; 
that he favored international bimetallism, but ap- 
proved the free coinage of silver by this country 
alone. Later the convention incorporated these 
views in its formal platform. In this declaration we 
have another intimation of the Republican policy in 
the forthcoming Presidential campaign. It is a fore- 
gone conclusion that the National Republican Con- 
vention will follow the lead of Ohio and Iowa in their 
stand for international bimetallism. 



There are intimations from Nicaragua that the 
local government is tired of the long-drawn-out 
fooling of the American Canal Company, and that 
abrocation of the grant made to it some years ago 
is under consideration. It is undeniable that the 
terms upon which the "concession" was granted 
have not been fulfilled, and nobody could blame 
Nicaragua if it should back out of the bargain and 
offer its great opportunity to some other set of capi- 
talists or to some other Government. England 



July 20, 1895. 



The Pacific Rural Press. 



35 



would, of course, jump at the chance, and after our 
own course in the affair, the enforcement of the 
Monroe Doctrine would come with a very sour grace. 
Every fact in connection with this project points to 
the United States as its natural and legitimate pro- 
motor. This is even better known in Nicaragua 
than here, therefore it is not likely that any steps 
will be taken just now which will make it impossible 
for us to retrieve our mistake. We shall, without 
doubt, be given another chance, but it will be the 
" last call," and if we don't accept it we will have 
no right to complain if the whole thing is turned 
over to the English or the French. Everything de- 
pends upon the coming session of Congress. 

The English Parliamentary elections during the 
week give the government to the Conservatives by 
a heavy majority — a fact interesting in this country 
chiefly in its relations to Irish home rule. It will be 
remembered that the late Parliament under Mr. 
Gladstone's leadership passed a home rule bill and 
that it was beaten in the House of Lords. The 
inference from the present election is, that a 
majority of the voters of Great Britain side with the 
Lords in opposition to Irish claims. Thus, again, the 
hopes of the green isle are postponed indefinitely. 
Home rule will come of course, as every just princi- 
ple finally triumphs ; but it will not be until English 
sentiment is revolutionized. The Irish are them- 
selves to blame for the recent decline of their politi- 
cal power and credit in Parliament, for they have 
been broken into factions whose petty fights have 
put their cause in contempt. Since Mr. Parnell's 
fall there has been no recognized leadership; and it is 
upon leadership and party dicipline that success de- 
pends in Parliamentary politics. The English party 
which champions the Irish cause — the Liberal — is as 
badly off for leadership as the Irish themselves. Mr. 
Gladstone is no longer to be considered; and he has 
no successor. In all the great Liberal party there 
is not a man who combines the personal ascendency 
and the political skill essential to party leadership. 
This is a situation which commonly follows the falling 
off of great leaders. A man like Gladstone so com- 
pletely fills his place and so dwarfs all others that 
when he lays down his sword there is no man to bear 
it, for all his supporters have became habited to sub- 
ordination and want the temper and the skill for the 
leading place. Of course, the Liberal party will 
again get a leader and will in course of time come 
into power again; but until then Ireland and her 
cause will have to wait. 



Yellow Scale Killer at Work. 



George W. Harney, Horticultural Commissioner of 
Yuba county, has written to the State Board of 
Horticulture that the yellow scale parasites are 
quite numerous in his section of the country. 
Orange trees that were badly infected last year show 
but little scale on the new growth, nor is the pest as 
prevalent as in previous years. The parasite re- 
ferred to is a minute insect known as the Chalcid 
fly, which destroys the larva of the yellow scale. 

In the southern part of the State the yellow scale 
thrived. In the northern part of the State, around 
Sacramento, Marysville and Oroville, many trees 
were affected with it. The colonies of flies were sent 
out about two years ago and now are propagating 
rapidly. The work of the fly is most apparent on 
leaves and young fruit, which is the favorite point 
of attack for the yellow scale. 



What Is the Flatter With the Rhubarb? 



To THE Editor: — Will some reader of the Rural 
Press kindly advise me as to the garden cultivation 
of rhubarb ? Several years ago I set several roots 
in holes, with about half a bushel of manure in each. 
The plants did well the first year, but have not done 
better since. Wet or dry it is all the same. The 
stalks do not grow large enough for cooking. Just 
as they get to a promising size they fade and wither. 

Mulfontes. W. C. 



On Thursday of last week, at Stockton, the City and County 
Veterinary, Dr. Orvis, killed and dissected a fine looking cow 
in the presence of the Council and Board of Health. The cow 
was a family animal and appeai-ed perfectly healthy, but had 
a cough. The tuberculin test was made by the veterinarian 
and showed that the animal was diseased. Her appearance 
and general looks were against the test, but on opening the 
body it was found that there was a large tumor on the lungs, 
which was found tilled with pus. Tubercules were dis- 
covered throughout the viscera. The kidneys and heart were 
not affected, but the liver showed the disease. The disease 

was so far advaijced that the Officer directed that the body be 
ilegtroyed. 



The Marketing Problem. 



Col. Philo Hersey in Response to "Fruit Grower's" 
Inquiries. 



To THE Editor I have read with much interest a com- 
munication from a fruit grower of Santa Clara countv, in your 
issue of July .30th. His topic is mainlv the " Marketing Prob- 
lem," one which invites the thoughtful attention of us all. 
But by way of side issues and explanations, supplemented by 
criticism and denial of efficacy of all present and past efforts 
of his brother growers for '• lietterino the condition nf the fruit 
interests," he evidently desires and has even invited an\i one 
authorized to xhcd light on this important ftnh.iccf." Your cor- 
respondent shows such intelligence that in his short communi- 
cation he suggested enough to require several to make suita- 
ble reply; and with your permission I will, from week to 
week, send communications on the following items found in 
your correspondent's contribution : 

I. 

" I have Iicen watching with a good deal of interest the different 
moves made in different sections for the purpose of liettering the 
condition of the fruit interests, and I have regretted to see so 
many years and seasons spent in the vain effort for something bet- 
ter. I had hoped years ago that the fruit business had passed 
through its experimental stages." 

n. 

" Some of my neighbors ha ve requested me to join tftem in. an 
effort to concentrate all our products in an exchange and apyxriiit 
agents all over the country for the purpose of selling our dried 
fruit. A lot of growers turned merchants is not, in my present 
opinion, wise. Shall I join one of these co-operative movements or 

* * remain free to take advantage of the market that will be 

* * the result of these co-operative exchanges 7 " 

HI. 

" To carry our efforts still further, and attempt to do liusiness 
all over the Eastern States, seems to me to lie inviting disaster. I 
was in hopes that our aims would have been more moderate and 
that we would have been content * * to gather our fru.it, dry it, 

* * grade it and * stop short of anything else.''' 

IV. 

" I understand that lately our San Jose exchanges have sent rep- 
resentatives East for the purpose of working up a direct connection 
witli the trade, and thai a large number of agents have been ap- 
pointed, and it is the avowed policy of the exchanges to sell direct 
to Chicago, New York, St. Louis, Milwaukee, and all through the 
Southern and Western States. I believe we will br beaten at the 
game. I do not believe we have: first, the organization ; second, 
the experience ; and third, the capacity."' 

I beg your pardon, Mr. Editor, for quoting so extensively, 
but I wish to place before your readers just the spirit among 
some of our growers ({) that we have to contend with, and 
further that it might be fully understood to what the several 
communications apply. 

The fruit season of 'O.i being now upon us an immediate re- 
ply seems appropriate to item IV. It is true that four of the 
Santa Clara County associations have sent a representative 
East, not to establish a "direct trade," but to establish agen- 
cies to work directly with the trade. That representative 
has returned after a most satisfactory and successful trip, 
during which, contrary to the belief of your "Fruit Grower," 
he did not find it neces.sary " (o run llie rislt of untried brokers" 
but the very best and most desirable everywhere ready and 
anxious to take our account. They regarded our account as 
the best and most desirable in its line. One of the most diffi- 
cult things then for our representative to do was to decide 
what should be his " pick " among the many good men offer- 
ing. Agencies have been created from Denver to Boston and 
from St. Paul, Minneapolis and Milwaukee to New Orleans 
and Atlanta. All things being equal, these agencies are cap- 
able of selling to responsible merchants a very large amount of 
our product, much larger in fact than our brother growers will 
concentrate for us to sell. This plan is the only one in which 
the business is done. All commission houses have agencies 
created in the same way and could not do their business other- 
wise, except to keep selling representatives on the road at 
all times and a great number of them. We, having so far es- 
tablished ourselves at home as to concentrate a large amount 
of our product, the question for us to solve was whether we 
would use the direct and business-like method of establishing 
closer relations with the trade and keep in every-day touch 
with the people who are to buy from us, or connect ourselves 
with some home house who should do this for us, and we 
thus receive our knowledge of markets and market conditions 
in this mire round-about way, after such delays as should 
seem to suit the convenience of our home commission house. 
By the direct method we constantly feel the nerve and pulse 
of business. Every hour and day telegrams and lettars ar- 
rive showing the exact condition and wants of the trade We 
know within an hour after it is done who i.s " selling short " 
or*ryui(; to " sell short " on prunes and at once we can set 
ourselves at work for self preservation against this piracy 
upon the fruits of our toil. AH our home commission house 
would do for us would be to make contracts for us to till and 
guarantee. We would have the same responsibility, the 
same watchful care to guard ourselves against loss or dis- 
aster. But our method being to own the goods till paid for, 
our losses will necessarily be rare if they occur at all. If 
these statements be true, and I think no one will doubt them, 
how are " icc to be beaten in this game/"' How "are we inviting 
fii.sos/(;r" in our present undertaking? Surely, I see no way 
except that suggested by your " Fruit Grower " correspond- 
ent when he says we "/mcr not first, the organization, second, 
the erperirtirc, and third, the capacitn." If this should be ad- 
mitted as true, we are indeed "beaten'^ before we begin and 
would act wisely to abandon our enterprise at once. 

But what can be .said of our organization; There are six 
associations here duly incorporated, embracing about 900 mem- 
bers, with a capital in plant of $1.50,000. Their entire product 
would have a value of $1,. 500,000, and, if all concentrated, 
would make a very large business that could well afford the 
best and most complete service in its behalf. Four of these 
associations are united for the purpose of combining their 
efforts and dividing the expenses of selling their products, 
and have established all the requisite privileges therefor. In 
a single season these four as.sociations have concentrated and 
sold, of themselves, at satisfactory prices — as good as those 
obtained by any house or houses in the country — $110,000 
worth of dried fruit, and were obliged to " turn down " orders 
for more than $.50,000 more. To me it does not appear that an 
enterprise, even though made up of growers, lacks '■'■first the 
organization." necessary for successful business that has 
organization for such accomplishment. 

But how about '■'experience'!" One of these associations has 
been established four years, having the same board of direct- 
ors, and henco one continuous government, that planned, 
bought and constructed all its plant, of the value of $;S0,000, 
and has evolved and maintained its policy. It has, during all 
this period, had the same manager, who had had four years' 
experience in the work of preparing and marketing raisins 
and fruit. In all the essentials of curing and packing fruit to 
the entire satisfaction of the trade he may be called " crprrt." 

For the four years' existence of the association of which he 
has been manager he has had fuil control of the selling for the 
past three years, and joint control for the first year. He has 
peooffle ftcquftinted >vit)i tfie trade by visiting it. This man 



has been made manager for the joint associations. One other 
of the associations has been established three years, and has 
sold $350,000 worth of goods; another two years, and has suc- 
cessfully disposed of its product. The County Exchange, the 
fourth association in the union, has been established two 
years and has sold $5.50,000 worth of dried fruit. Its manager 
has had four years' experience in selling fruit and nine years 
in growing and preparing it. One of his associate directors 
has had twenty years' experience in selling fruit, and some 
years to the extent of .$500,000. All other members of the 
board have business education and business experience, and 
are men of mature years, without superannuation. Out of this 
combination of men the union of the associations is made, its 
manager selected, its connections made, and seems to have 
been done as by men of '^experience.'''' Additional experience 
may be valuable, but it would appear that sufficient had been 
received to take us out of the "experimental stage." 

But even with organization and experience, "aiidhnvc not 
'capacity,' we are as nothing." In ordinary affairs the 
fruit grower of Santa Clara valley does not "seem to lack 
capacity. He knows how to plant and cultivate an orchard. 
He seems to have capacity " to pick, dry and pack fruit " in a 
manner very generally acceptable to the broker, commission 
house, dealer and cousuuier. He has capacity to understand 
that he has not arrived even yet to perfection, and feels he 
has capacity still left that will bring a higher degree of per- 
fection in all these things. He believes he has capacity, 
coupled with desire, to compass his salvation and save him 
from misfortune. He has capacity for work and counsel. 
From the history of his industry he discovers he has had ca- 
pacity to accumulate and invest many millions of dollars in 
lands, homes, planted orchards and implements to establish 
the fruit industry. He finds that his canacitv has led to the 
product of 40,000,000 pounds dried prunes, '5,000,000 pounds 
dried peaches, 7,000,000 pounds dried apricots, I, .3.50, 000 pounds 
other dried fruits, 39,087,2(50 pounds green fruits, besides all 
consumed at home and shipped to local points, and green fruit 
for 21,4(51,655 pounds of canned fruit, besides other fruits 
shipped out of this valley for other canners, and all this in a 
single season. And still he is thought to have insufficient 
"capacity" to sell either individually or unitedly more than 
his individual product of one box, one sack, one ton or one car, 
and then only to sell that to the " merchant " " of the brightest 
mind," who, represented by a bright young man, comes to his 
door and talks trade and values. Our people, nearly all of 
whom are directly interested in fruit culture, have estab- 
lished banks and run them, manufactories and maintain them, 
founded -schools, colleges, observatories and universities and 
support them with great efficiency and success, build cities 
and towns and make them hives of industry, growth and 
accumulation, and now can it be possible that none among 
them can be found of sufficient capacity to sell a few carloads 
of fruit, and do it successfully and in the interest and to the 
profit of the grower ? The glory and i-hide I have in my 
home in this valley, to establish which I came :i500 miles, rests 
largely in the fact that I am among the most intelligent, 
earnest, devoted and capahle men unth the lirightcst minds of 
any community that can be found on the globe. If we haven't 
organization, let's make it ; if we haven't experience, let's 
get it; if we haven't capacity, let's build it and hr somebody. 
But we have all these things at hand and actively at work in 
the interest of the fruit growers. Now let us add to these 
confidence and good will, and a prouder aud grander success 
will follow. 

Mr. Editor, your " Fruit Grower " correspondent is under 
cover. If he should read this, I very sincerely hope he will 
make himself known by visiting me or permitting me to visit 
him, which I will do gladly. I believe he is a bright, thinking 
man and will be of great help to us. Even if he cannot ".join" 
us, he can forcibly and intelligently criticise us, and such 
criticism is of great advantage. I earnestly hope to meet him 
in the utmost friendliness of feeling before my next communi- 
cation. Sincerely, Phiuj Hek.sey. 
San Jose, July ISth. 



Mr. Edward F. Adams on Co-operation. 

To THE Editor : — Why on earth the "Fruit Grower " who 
contributed the sensible and good-tempered article on "Mar- 
keting" to the last Rural did not sign his name I cannot see. 
It is so much more pleasant to know the names of those with 
whom we have discussion. 

As one very active in co-operation for three years, and now 
permanently retired from responsibility therein, I feel that I 
can discuss it understandingly. My business life has now 
extended over thirty years. The three years I spent in co- 
operative service were the hai'dest three years' work I ever 
did, and in those years I met with more annoyance and dis- 
agreeable experience than in all my previous business life put 
together, and I can conceive of no circumstances under which 
I would again engage in it in any responsible way, so that 
when I say that I still believe the work begun in this State 
should be followed up and perfected I can hardly be supposed 
moved by anything but my conviction of the general interest. 

We have not yet sufficient conceded facts to form a basis of 
intelligent discussion. My object in this letter is to try and 
clear away a little ground that we may see more plainly what 
our exact object is and what we need to know and do in order 
to accomplish it. 

The problem of co-operative marketing of fruit involves the 
study, first, of the nature of the business and, second, of the 
limitations of human nature. Is the fruit business as con- 
ducted in California capable of being organized and controlled 
in the interest of the producers J As to this, we must con- 
sider the location and character of our markets, the availa- 
bilitj' of the product as security, the financial condition of 
growers and the details of the labor and attendant expense of 
organization. Does the residuum of mankind left after the 
natural selection of the fittest to engage in competitive mer- 
cantile business contain within itself the necessary mercan- 
tile ability to properly transact large commercial affairs, and 
has it the capacity to so organize itself as to discover and se- 
cure fit men for responsible positions and keep them there ? 

Co-operation is the organization of one class for more 
effective competition with all other classes. It is naturally 
first looked to by those least able to stand alone. It is not 
socialism but it is encouraged by socialists as a necessary pre- 
liminary to the abolishment of all competition. It has been 
for many years the resource of the ablest business men to 
rescue from ruin an overworked industry. I remember when 
' the possession of an oil well was simplv a temptation to ex- 
pense which never came back ; out of this condition came, by 
co-operation, the Standard Oil Company; the combination of 
bankrupt competing railroads into profitable railway systems 
is familiar to all; when the distillers and sugar refiners 
have lost money long enough by competition they combine 
and co-operate. Effective co-operation by capitalists we call 
trusts, and how we farmers cuss them ; we all hate trusts 
that we don't belong to. In so far as we i^o-operate, however, 
we simple imitate them, and the effectiveness of our co-opera- 
tion depends wholly on the closeness of the imitation. The 
principle involved in the sugar trust and the citrus fruit ex- 
changes and the often attempted "raisin combine" are 
identical. The object desired in each is to secure the highest 
possible price for the product involved; the operations, prop- 
erly conducted, assure the same theoretical saving; they 
differ in that the sugar trust is the combination of a few with 
the financial strength and commercial ability to reduc* the 
theoretical saving to practice, while fruit associations are the 
combination of a large number with less available flnanclai 
strength, ^ij^ g, yet wdeterraiDed mercantile capacity, Tb6 



Fhe Pacific Rural Press 



July 20, 1895 



sugar trust mav be dangerous to society, not from the princi- 
ple involved, but from its mere strength; if a strong steer 
pots a weak one in a corner he will gouge him; a hnanciaUy 
siionp man will do the same with a weaker one; co-operation 
(if fruit producers is r.ot dangerous to society because it does 
nnt deal in an essential of life, and be(^ause it can never be 
strong enough to do damage. Co-operative farmers dislike in- 
tenselv to be called membei-s of trusts, but to deny the iden- 
tiiv of principle and object is to simply befog the issue and 
make discussion protitless. We are no better than— Claus 
.Spreckels. for example, who is really a good fellow although 
he co-operates most effectively in sugar: it is my belief that 
if we could get the power to cinch mankind we should do it 
more thoroughlv than anv trust now existing. I for one say 
that the oiilv reason whv I do not exact ten cents a iwund for 
all mv fresh' fruit is because I can't get it, nor do I believe 
there is a farmer in the State who would sell for nine cents if he 
could get ten, which would be extortion, and our greater num- 
ber would render us less responsive to public opinion, just as 
a board of twelve Supervisors will do what no one of them 
would dare as Mayor. . . » 

Now with a clear understanding of what we really wish to 
do. we are prepared to discuss more intelligently our chances 
(■f doing it. To accomplish what we wish we have first to 
consider whether our product can be controlled, and here we 
have some experience to guide us. Our most successful co- 
operative societv is the Wine Makers' Corporation. They 
have created a" really solid trust actually controlling the 
greater part of our output. They attained suc<-ess easily, be- 
cause there are but two or three hundred of them with con- 
centrated capital and business ability and experience easily 
available, and hatulling a product of staple and non-perishable 
character and hence highly available as security, with no se- 
rious American competition— our wines being far better than 
Eastern wines— and with the world for a market whenever 
our protected home market is filled. The next best example 
in this State is the southern citrus organization. Oranges 
are perishable, and hence available as security only in a very 
limited degree, and the number of growers is large: but they 
are compactly situated in a few counties and along irrigation 
svstems where they can be reckoned up and got at, and the 
movement from the' start has had the support and guidance of 
able men who devoted time and money to it for the .same rea- 
son that induced San Francisco capitalists to build the valley 
railroad— because they believed that they could rent build- 
ings and collect interest better by doing so. Both these or- 
ganizations have already accomplished immense things for the 
producers interested. The raisin industry is susceptible of 
organization, but at the cost of much more preliminary work 
than was required by the wine and orange industries, and it 
has never yet secured the support of the strongest men in 
the business nor provided funds for a proper organization. 
Whenever the strong raisin growers will unite as growers 
simply, and not as packers, they can make a very good raisin 
trust. 

We now come to the organization of the deciduous fruit 
growers, which is a tenfold more difficult task than any of 
the others, and that is what your correspondent and I are 
interested in. To discuss its possibilities would make this 
letter too long. There is no more question of the value of the 
results thus far achieved than there is that serious mistakes 
have been made in practice. Few people know how much 
fruit growers have gained by the cx>-operative efifort of the 
last few years. The gain, however, has been made at the ex- 
pense of great effort by a few. This cannot continue, and we 
are now fai-e to face with the question whether mankind at 
large is a co operating animal or not. There is no doubt that 
the wi.se and able are co-operators : the undetermined matter 
is what brains and energy the rest of us have. A few men 
can start the work but the community must carry it on. 
Having begun, however, it is folly to stop now. Let us go on 
until we see just how much brains and vigor we have. If we 
have not the ability we shall at least rest more content when 
it is proven. When the good monk wanted to know his 
strength he subjected himself to temptation: when he found 
his strength not equal to the strain upon it, he settled down 
contentedly to his lot. I hope your corre.spondent will sustain 
the exchanges until he .sees what they will workout. Mistakes 
are inevitable in starting any business. Did not .vour corre- 
spondent make errors in planting his orchard J I did. 

The ix)ssibilities of co-operation is one of the subjects set 
down for si-ientitic discussion at our summer school which 
begins July 27th. 1 hope to see "Fruit Grower" there with 
others. " Edw.xrd F. Adams. 



Rainfall and Temperature. 



The followinfj data for the week ending 5 a. m., 
July 17, 1895, are from official sources, and are 
furnished by the U. S. Weather Bureau expressly 
for the Pacific Rural Peess: 



CALIFOKM A 
STATIONS. 



O 0! 

92 



Eureka 

Red Bluff 

Sacramento. . 
San Francisco 

Fresno 

Los Angeles 
San Diego 
Yuma 



►3 

S» 5 

ST il 
m CO 

B 

- h^V 



16 
.04 
.01 



.02 
.02 
T 
T 
T 
T 



.08 
.01 
T 
.01 
T 
.03 
T 
.06 



2 
•-I « 

a C 

■ tj 



■ B 

• -3 



62 
106 
98 
64 
108 
84 
72 
112 



48 
62 
54 
52 
60 
54 
60 
70 



Weather and Crops. 

Kt'port for the Week by the Director of the State Weather 
Servire. 

Director Barwick of the California Weather and 
Crop Service summarizes as follows : 

The average temperature for the week ending 
.Inly 15th was for Eureka 56°; Fresno and Red Bluff, 
Hi": Independence 80°; Los Angeles 68°; Sacramento, 
7:5°; San Francisco 58°; San Luis Obispo and San 
Diego 66° each. 

A* compared with the normal temperatures, the 
following places were found to have enjoyed normal 
weather conditions during the week, vig. , Eureka 



and Sacramento, while an excess of heat of two 
degrees at Fresno and four at Red Bluff were re- 
ported. Heat deficiencies prevailed at Los Angeles 
of three degrees and San Francisco and San Diego 
two degrees each. 

There was a trace of rain at Eureka and Los 
Angeles. 

The weather during the past seven days has been 
tjuite favorable for summer crops. 

Threshing is going on and the fact becomes more 
potent each day that the grain crop will be the 
shortest in years in quantity as well as the poorest 
in quality, it being very much shrunken from the 
excess of north winds during June. 

The fruit crop is generally short, but the quality 
is most excellent and prices are encouraging, so that 
the shortness in the fruit crop will be made up in its 
better quality and better prices. The wheat crop 
being poor in quality will tend to lessen its money 
value and thereby reduce its intrinsic worth consider- 
ably over that which will be lost by the shortness in 
the (luantity of the crop. Hops will not be an aver- 
age crop, and beans are not doing well except on 
bottom or stiff lands; those on sandy lands will be 
almost a total failure for the want of moisture 
enough to bring them to proper maturity. 

Sacruniento Valley. 

Tehama (Red Bluff )— Fruit arriving in large quantities, 
the size and quality being excellent. 

Coi.i sA (Colusa)— Complaint of short crops and poor yield 
are being heard on all sides. The season for handling early 
fruits is about over, and has been fairly good with the excep- 
tion of pears, which will be short. 

Yi iiA Cdi N'TV — Shortest crop of wheat, barley and oats in 
years; this complaint is general in Sutter, Yuba and southern 
Butte counties. The army worm has made its appearance 
along the bottom lands of the Feather river, but in most cases 
is checked. Early peaches are mostly gone, and about the 20th 
of the month will see the later varieties come in. The peach 
crop is small, and that half a crop will be harvested is the 
general opinion of most all the growers. 

Wheatland — There is disapiwintment, both as to yield and 
quality, especially wheat. Hops promise a good average. 

Sutter (Yuba City) -The cannery has begun on the plum 
pack. The run will not be long and the principal variety 
canned is the Washington plum, which is of good quality but 
not plentiful. In a week or ten days the peach pack will com- 
mence and will continue until the end of the season. A big 
pack of this fruit will be made. (Sutter City) — Grain is not 
yielding up to what was expected. (Southwest Sutter) — 
Several of our river farmers report large damage from army 
worms ; prospects for a good crop of buckwheat and beans. 

Sackame.vto (Folsom)— Grapes are ripening rapidly and the 
crop will be a good one. (Clay) — Wheat is turning out poorly; 
hay is not turning out near as well as was expected. 

Yoi.o ( Woodland)— It was not until lately that farmers ap- 
preciated to its full extent the damage done by the violent 
north winds which prevailed when the wheat was just at the 
point of turning. Thousands of acres of grain have not pro- 
duced a crop within two-thirds of the yield which was esti- 
mated. 

8an Joaquin Valley. 

San JoAQViN V^ALLEV (Lotli) — Grain output is in most cases 
disappointing, melons are ripening and a few have been put on 
the market ljut they are not yet plentiful enough to ship in 
car load lots. The army worm has made its appearance in or 
near the alfalfa fields and have done some damage to pump- 
kins and late corn. (New Hope)--Crops are full a half short in 
weight and the quality is below the average. 

Stanislai s (Oakdale)— The early wheat is turning outabout 
eight sacks, and barley about fourteen to sixteen sacks, late 
wheat is not turning out as well. 

Madeka (Madera) — Barley yield and quality is up toexpecta- 
tions in most instances, but so far wheat is falling far below 
the estimate, it is now thought that wheat crop will fall short 
from one-third to one-half of the estimated yield. Kust is 
thought to have been the cause. 

Fresno (Reedley) — Grain is not yielding as well as was ex- 
pected. ( Fresno)— Grapes from one to twelve weeks earlier 
than last season. 

Solano (Isleton)— The army worm is doing considerable 
damage to crops. 

Contra Costa (San Pablo)— Oats turning out poor. The 
squiwels are doing great damage to the barley and oat fields, 
and the ranchers say they were never known to be so nu- 
merous before. Crops in the vicinity of Sobranteare reported 
to be very good. 

Sonoma Valley. 

Sonoma (Sebastoixil)— Crops of fruit and grapes are light 
this year. Two hundred and fifty tons of Bartlett pears have 
been contracted for and will be put up at the cannery in this 
place. Over a hundred thousand cans will be filled with 
pears. (Forestville) — Fogs are beneficial to all growing crops, 
but may cause mildew on the grapes, which crop will not be 
as large as reported. Many berries have dropped from the 
vines. (Freestone)— Hay is a short crop. (Healdsburg)— The 
hop crop is growing well now, but is behind the usual growth 
at this time of the year. The stand is irregular and uneven 
in yield. The growth of the vines is generally weak, and it 
does not seem to be a hop-producing year; yield will be below 
the average. Prunes are falling some from the trees. There 
are plenty of peaches, but the prune crop will be short, though 
of a very fine quality. Grain yield is excellent and the qual- 
ity good. 

Santa Clara Valley. 

Alameda (San Leandro)- Apricot picking is in full blast. 

Santa Clara (Gilroy)- Crops better than expected, par- 
ticularly prunes. The peaches show a full crop of most excel- 
lent quality ; pears, apples and other fruits will also be good 
crops, while grapes promise excellent results. (Santa Clara) 
—A ride among the fruit orchards this weak has revealed a 
very satisfactory condition of the prune crop. Trees in many 
orchards are loaded almost to breaking down. The size of the 
fruit is very satisfactory and promises a heavy return to the 
owners of prune orchards. (Campbell) — Foster, Salway and 
Crawford peaches are looking well and there will be a full 
crop. Prunes are unusually large at this period of growth, 
and will be something immense at maturity. Moorpark apri- 
cots are ripening up slowly. 

Ti LARE (Harmony)— The hay and grain crop is a large one, 
but the grain is not as large as was expected on account of the 
rust and weeds. The fruit crop is smaller than expected. 
Peaches, pears and plums are a short crop, while grapes will 
turn out large. 

Southern California. 

Santa Barbara (Los Alamos)— Wheat will be light. Barley 
and mustard crops good. (Cat Canyon) — Mustard is harvested 
and will be a pa.ving crop. Beans looking well, but the squir- 
rels are getting away with a great many of them and are 
more numarous than ever before. 

Vbnti.'«4 (Santa Paula)— Cot drying is about flflisbed- (Fre- 



montville)— Beans on sandy land in this vicinity will be 
almost a failure. 

Orange (Orange)— The walnut trees have hitherto been ex- 
empt from insect pests or disease in any form, but a disease 
has appeared in some groves in this countv that is causing the 
growers much alarm. A black speck appears on the young 
nuts, which soon drop. 

,0]^"? Angeles ( Pomona)— The apricot crop of this district for 
189.5 is estimated at seven hundred and fiftv tons, as against 
twenty-eight hundred tons in 18'J4. (Los Angeles)— Apricot 
drying is at its height, and is a short crop, but the quality is 
excellent. 1 j 

Coast Counties. 

Mendocino (Ukiah)— Blackberries are ripe and plentiful 
along the coast. The hop-growers report the crop of the 
county this year as far below the average. (Philo)— Peaches, 
prunes and plums are nearly a failure ; apples, pears, etc., very 
fine. 

Santa Crlz (Aptos)— Foggy mornings and clear afternoons 
make fruit ripen gradually, but retards the curing of the hav 
crop and the ripening of grain, the latter being somewhat 
damaged by rust. Small fruit of all kinds is very abundant. 
Grapes do not promise a heavy yield. 

S*N Luis Obispo (San Luis'Obispo)— Beans, corn and pota- 
toes are doing as well as was expected. 

Siskiyou (Montague)— The grasshoppers are destroying the 
gardens and crops in some parts of this (Little Shasta") valley. 

Placer (Newcastle)— Crawford peaches and many kinds of 
prunes and plums are being marketed now in large quantities 
and the quality was never better. (Rocklin)— Grapes are from 
ten to twenty per cent better crop this year than last. (Rose- 
ville)— Fruit is mo\nng pretty lively, but the crop is a little 
short. Grapes still promise a good yield ; early grapes will 
be ripe in another week. 



Gleanings. 



Gilroy has organized a local improvement club after the 
plan recently adopted at Los Gatos. 

The Woolen mills at Woodland are being operated by Mr. 
Shepherd, who has taken a lease. 

Last year the almond product of the Yolo orchard was 
hulled by machinery, but this year all the work will be done 
by hand. 

The Ashurst ranch of 6119 acres in Tehama county is to be 
sold in subdivisions. This makes the fourth large Tehama 
ranch recently put on the market. 

A RURAL electric railway is soon to be built between Sac- 
ramento and Oracgevale. The distance is 30 miles, and the 
current will be supplied from the Folsom water power. 

The Plumas I ndr pendent reports that the farmers of Indian 
Valley have under discussion a project involving the forma- 
tion of a company with the object of erecting a mill for the 
production of rolled oats. 

On the 10th inst. at Marion, Indiana, Dr. W. B. Wallace 
entertained a number of veterinary surgeons with a dinner, 
the principal wurse of which was horse flesh served in var- 
ious ways. A two-year-old colt had been procured for the 
purpose. The guests were emphatic in their praise of the ar- 
ticle, and decided to have a similar feast at their next meet- 
ing in December. 

The three California sugar refineries— at Alvarado, Watson- 
ville and Chino— will draw tfiOO,000 in bounty money this 
year. Last year, of the $900,000 distributed by the Govern- 
ment to beet-sugar industries, nearly Jtit)0,000 was paid to 
Californians, as follows : To the Western Beet Sugar Refin- 
ery *30.5,000, to the Chino $'ifiO,000, and to the Alameda |iSii,000, 
the average yield being SSilS pounds to the acre. 

Supervisor Hall, of Sonoma county, reports the hop crop as 
growing well now, but is behind the usual growth at this 
time of the year. The stand is irregular and uneven in yield, 
some vines being reasonably good and some little or no yield. 
The growth of the vines is generally weak, and it does not 
seem to be a hop producing year, and from present indications 
he is forced to conclude that the yield will be below the av- 
erage. 

Santa Rosa Democrat : A. and G. Meacham, who have a 
large ranch near Fulton, had two cows die, one on Monday and 
the other on Tuesday night under rather peculiar circum- 
stances. The grasshopper pest had made a considerable 
onslaught on the vineyard, and in order to stop further damage 
Messrs. Meacham put some bran and arsenic at the root of 
ea(-h vine. This proved a successful remedy, many grass- 
hoppers being slain. Monday night some of their cattle 
broke through the vineyard fence and ate of the poisoned bran 
with fatal results. 

The Lodi watermelon crop has been injured greatly by an 
insect new in that section and thought to be the same that 
attacked the grain earlier in the season. The rootlets of the 
affected grain were incased in a wooly mesh, and from this 
fact it was supposed that the trouble had been caused by 
some ground species of the wooly aphis. The roots of the 
watermelon vines are similarly affected, and the vines are 
stunted and partly killed, as was the case with the grain. The 
disease, or whatever it is, attacks the x-ines in very much the 
same manner as stone fruits are attacked by the gum disease; 
there is an exudation of the sap on the stems, which hardens, 
and a deadening of the parts around, and the roots when cut 
show dark-colored rings. The disease affects the circulation 
of the sap. 

A LETTER from Healdsburg says : Last season many tons of 
grapes rotted on the vines in this district, growers being un- 
able to sell them at all. This year conditions have changed. 
W. D. Sink of Cloverdale is putting up a cellar of .50,000 gal- 
lons capacity ; Napa wine makers are building a cellar in 
Alexander valley of 200,000 gallons capacity; P. and G. Simi 
of Healdsburg are putting an addition to a cellar of 7.5,000 gal- 
lons ; Miller & Hotchkiss of Windsor are increasing their 
cellar capacity to 150,000 gallons ; the Wine Makers" Associa- 
tion is enlarging the Huntington-Hopkins cellar at Windsor 
300,000 gallons; G. O. B. Gunn, of the same place, is putting 
an extension to his cellar of 50.000 gallons. As will be noted 
this increase of the cooperage of northern Sonoma is nearly 
700,000 gallons. Besides this, many wineries not operated 
last season are being put in shape for a heavy season's run. 
During the past four months over 400 carloads of wine have 
been shipped out of this section. Wine makers are offering 
♦ 10 per ton for grapes, but at these figures no sales have been 
made. S. L. Osborne of Alexander valley to-day sold 500 tons 
of choice wine grapes for *15. The crop is hardly an overage 
one, ^infandels being light, 



July 20 1896. 



The Pacific Rurai Press. 



^7 



Gov. Budd on the Board of Horticulture. 



He Charges It With Gxtravagance and Denies That His 
Veto Impairs Its Usefulness. 

The following letter was addressed by Governor 
Budd to the State Board of Horticulture on Satur- 
day last : 

Executive Department, I 
Sacramento, Cal., July 13, 1895. ( 

To the Executive Committee, California State Board of Horti- 
culture, 220 Sutter Street, San Francisco, Caf.— Gentlemen : 
At the request of your late vice-president, the lamented L. 
W. Buck, I called at your office, 230 Sutter street, for the pur- 
pose of ascertaining the needs of your Board. There I was 
furnished three pupers, copies of which are attached as ex- 
hibits A, B and C. It appeai-s from these that the necessary 
expenses of conducting the work of your commission per 
annum is $5000, not including salaries, and that you criticise 
my action in vetoing your appropriation bill for 130,000. You 
say that my act will "work a practical abandonment of all 
means to protect the largest single Industry in this State 
after the 30th day of June, 189.5." 

I take issue on this proposition ; but let us examine and see 
whether your financial statement shows this dire distress, 
when viewed in connection with known facts, and if so 
whether there is a remedy. One of the items of your esti- 
mated necessary expenses is for rent at $135 per month, aggre- 
gating In two years $3010. While I concede the rooms are 
elegant, and the rent none too high therefor, I question the 
necessity of hiring rooms in the central portion of San Fran- 
cisco and in a most expensive location. The law provides for 
but two meetings per year of your Board, and two extra 
meetings of your Executive Committee. Certainly the work 
of your secretary and of your quarantine officer could hardly 
require rooms aggregating $135 per month. 

More than this, San Francisco is not a fruit-raising center. 
Sacramento is the center of the fruit-raising belt of the north- 
ern portion of our State. It is easy of access and the State 
provides there sufficient accommodations for your Board. The 
Secretary of State informs me that he will furnish your 
Board with all the room in the Capitol required ; that he will 
furnish, if necessary, if in the basement, as large and com- 
modious a cellar as the one for which you have in the past 
paid $100 per month, making your aggregate rent at times 
$235 per month. Labor Commissioner Fitzgerald will furnish 
free sufficient room in San Francisco for your quarantine 
officer. 

In your estimate, "Exhibit B," was included the sum of 
$1200 for postage for two years— a rate of $600 per year. This 
is in excess of your needs, as I find from looking over your 
past report. On April 33d of the present year, and but a few 
days after the passage of your resolution of April 17th, your 
secretary purchased $1000 worth of stamps, being 3000 two- 
cent stamps, 3000 one-cent stamps and a large number of five- 
cent stamps, which postage will undoubtedly be sufficient to 
carry you through the ensuing fiscal years, or nearly so. 

In the same estimate you have "for sketches, drawings, 
wood cuts and electrotypes, $1810." I find by looking over 
your past reports that you have expended each year consider- 
able sums of money for this purpose. This expenditure by 
your Board is unnecessary, as the law of the State contem- 
plates that such work shall be procured by the Superintendent 
of State Printing and not by yourselves. Section 538 of the 
Political Code says : " When any charter, map, drawings or 
other engravings shall be required to illustrate any document 
ordered to be printed, such charter, map, diagram or engrav- 
ing shall be furnished by the Superintendent of State Print- 
ing. No bills for engraving or lithographing, or lithograph 
printing, other than the above shall be allowed by the Board 
of Examiners," etc. 

Allowing $300 additional for postage, and not interfering 
with your other items, we find that $ti0.50 of your items may 
be omitted from the list, leaving but $3950 absolutely neces- 
sary for carrying on your work for the next two years, or 
$1875 annually. This does not include salaries, which, as you 
know, are drawn under the law. 

I have always favored horticultural work and the protection 
of our orchards in a proper manner. There is a vast difference, 
however, between quarantine remedies for the protection of 
the people or property and a special means furnished by the 
State to a private individual for the latter' s profit. 

I am in favor of maintaining a strict quarantine against the 
introduction of scale and other pests, and would be pleased to 
see the good work continued with sufficient means for that 
purpose. But I believe that the furnishing of parasites and 
like instrumentalities to fruit men ought to be paid for by 
such as can afford it. 

The State, from 1880 to June 30, 1894, made appropriations 
for your use and furnished printing to you in the sum of $297,- 
083.30. When you say in your resolution that " the failure to 
provide said funds will work a practical abandonment of all 
means to protect the largest single interest and industiy in 
this State," you are mistaken. As a Board you are charged 
with a knowledge of the laws creating and continuing in 
force your Board and the County Boards of Horticulture. 
You are also charged with knowledge of the fact that if you 
do not attend a single meeting of the State Board or expend 
one dollar of appropriations therefor, your secretary has power 
to protect the fruit interest. 

You will perceive that the county boards can cause an in- 
spection to be made of orchards, nurseries, trees, plants, veg- 
etables, vines, fruits, packing houses, salerooms, or any other 
places, whether railroad depots, shipping points or not ; and if 
they are found in any manner affected, by giving notice, they 
may cause the owner to destro.v the injurious pest, or, if he 
does not destroy it, they may cause him to destroy his trees. 
The maintenance of such places or orchards, or articles, is de- 
clared to be a public nuisance, and if the owners fail to abate 
the same the Commissioners may. The expenses of these 
protections are not made a tax upon the people who do not 
own such trees, but "any or all sum or sums (spent) shall 
become a lien upon the property." (See Exhibit D.) The 
owner thus notified is compelled to destroy these pests, which 
he must do either by spraying the same or by procuring para- 
sites such as your Board has imported and increased. 

Is there any more reason that you should furnish parasites 
without a charge to the individual specially benefited than 
that you should furnish the spraying material to the same 
end? It not, then a very small charge placed on parasites 
furnished by you, and on extra work done by you for the pro- 
tection of particular orchards, will undoubtedly raise more 
than sufficient money to meet all the expenses of your organi- 
zation. Your organization might do incalculable good and yet 
be self-sustaining. 

As I have stated, you have on hand a large number of 
stamps— some 60,000 odd. The salary of your secretary and 
clerk are both payable out of the general appropriation. Light, 
fuel, office rent and printing can be furnished at the Capitol, 
and under Section 7, Act of March 7, 1887, whether your Board 
meter not. We find " the said Board, and in case of neces- 
sity, during the recess of the Board, the said clerk of the 
Publishing and Quarantine Bureau may appoint such quar- 
antine guardians as may be needed to carry out the provisions 
of this Act, whose duties it shall be to see that the regula- 
tions of the Board and the instructions of the clerk of the 
Publishing and Quarantine Bureau are enforced and carried 
out. Said clerk may appoint, in case of emergency, a deputy. 



who shall have the same power as his own. The said quaran- 
tine guardians shall report to said clerk, or to the State 
Board, all infractions and violations of said direction, regula- 
tions and of the law in regard to quarantine disinfection and 
destruction of insects and pests injurious to fruit, fruit trees 
or vines, and precautions against the spreading of all the 
aforesaid named pests and diseases. The salary of the quar- 
antine guardian shall not exceed $3 per day and shall be paid 
by the owners of orchards and other places and localities 
under quarantine re.solutions." 

This is your own law. See, also. Section 4, Act of March 
19, 1889 (Exhibit E). From the law you will see that without 
a dollar's tax against the State there is power, notwithstand- 
ing the failure of the appropriation to fully protect the fruit 
industries of the State. You have office, you have clerks, you 
have printing, you have quarantine guardians to assist you, 
and other means to carry on the proper operations of your 
Board fully and absolutely. 

From the above I hope you will see that my veto was not so 
far unreasonable as to require criticism of it to be sent to the 
press of the State, to the members of the Legislature and to 
each county board of supervisors. 

I will be pleased to unite my efforts with yours, however. 
In any proper method to further the fruit interest. Nay, 
more, if your Board will throw off its traveling expenses of 
$600 per year, or under $70 each per member, I will contribute 
a like sum, $70, thus reducing the amount needed, according 
to your own figures, to a little more than $100 per month. If 
the fruit industry, valued at "hundreds of millions of 
dollars," does not contribute this, the same can undoubtedly 
be raised by the sale of pest destroyers. I will be pleased 
also to unite with you in an endeavor to secure free quarters 
in San Francisco if you deem the same necessary. Yours 
truly, James H. Budd. 

THE BOARD ACCEPTS THE SITUATION AND WILL jMOVE 
TO SACRAMENTO. 

With reference to the foregoing letter it is an- 
nounced that the Executive Committee has accepted 
the situation, and that, in accordance with the Gov- 
ernor's suggestions, they will move their headquar- 
ters to Sacramento. "They accept the situation," 
said Secretary Lelong," and now whenever the 
Governor says to move the headquarters to Sacra- 
ment or into cheaper rooms it will be done. The 
members of the Board are in entire accord with Gov- 
ernor Budd, and after their conference had with him 
at Sacramento Friday last the utmost good feeling 
existed between the committee and the Governor." 

Secretary Lelong further explained that in future, 
when the State Board furnished colonies of Austra- 
lian ladybugs, or other scale-destroying insects, the 
cost of procuring or propagating the insects would 
be assessed pro rata upon those directly benefited. 
In a word, everything that Governor Budd had sug- 
gested to the Executive Committee would be fol- 
lowed. 

State Labor Commissioner Fitzgerald was asked 
if he could provide the Board of Horticulture's quar- 
antine officer with office room free of cost, as sug- 
gested in Governor's Budd's letter. "Of course I 
will," responded the Commissioner. "I should be 
glad to do so if it will save them expense, and it will. " 
Then he added: "In the course of my investigation 
of the Japanese labor question in the fruit districts 
I found that some of the horticultural Directors had 
spread reports attacking Governor Budd. I found 
that many orchard and vineyard owners had gained 
the impression from these reports that the State 
administration was withholding its support from the 
horticultural interests, and that thus Governor 
Budd was placed in a false light. These matters 
were brought to his attention, and I am glad that he 
has set himself right, as I see he has by his letter in 
to-day's Ej-aminer.'^ 

Governor Budd expressed himself as highly pleased 
upon learning that the Board had so gracefully ac- 
cepted his counsel. 

"I had heard that the Board felt sore," he said, 
"and had sent copies of their April 17th resolutions 
to county boards all over the State. So when I went 
up to Klamath Hot Springs I took their annual re- 
ports and other data along with me. I wrote the 
original letter to the Executive Committee then. 
But I withheld it until last Friday, when I sent for 
Directors Frank A. K mball, EUwood Cooper and 
J. L. Mosher. When I had finished explaining mat- 
ters they agreed that I was right and they were 
wrong. Mr. Kimball, who prepared the resolution 
of April 17th, said he should take pleasure in as pub- 
licly stating that I was a friend of the horticultural 
interests of the State as he had publicly intimated 
otherwise. The State Board and the County Boards 
of Horticulture are clothed with ample power under- 
the laws to protect their interests. It is not neces- 
sary for the State Board's reports to be filled with 
costly lithographs of individual's orchards, or of the 
board rooms, and I told them so. Why, nearly 
$300,000 has been expended by the State Board 
from 1880 to June, 1895, and much of this has gone 
to preserve the property of individuals, who were 
making a profit on their investment. The State has 
no more right to furnish free insects to individual 
orchardists than it has to furnish free whitewash. 
But the County Boards have ample authority under 
the law to guard against horticultural pests, and the 
importation of such pests can be guarded against 
and made a charge upon the importer or the ware- 
houseman harboring the infected trees or vines. I 
showed the Executive Committee all this, and shook 
them up pretty lively. But I remodeled my original 
letter. I drew a pen through portions of it that 
were rather drastic, and then I sent them a copy. I 
am pleased that it has opened the eyes of the State 
Board's Executive Committee to the fact that the 
horticultural interests of the State are not doomed 
to destruction at my hands." 



5anta Clara Fruit Exchange Bulletin. 

The Santa Clara Fruit Exchange, through its man- 
ager, Col. Philo Hersey, opens the fruit drying sea- 
son with a bulletin of general advice. Col. Hersey 
says: 

Curing Fruif.—The apricot season is at hand. 
Every grower is interested in doing the best for 
himself and the industry in which he is engaged. 
Four years' experience in putting fruit on the mar- 
ket has taught your manager that it is wisdom and 
profit to fully and properly cure fruit when the pro- 
cess is once begun, and in no way to limit the time 
or process for any small percentage of gain that 
might under such conditions be possible. Well cured 
fruit of every kind will keep for one or two years 
without injury or deterioration, while partially cured 
fruit will hardly keep through the first few months 
of the selling season. We must make 90 per cent of 
our fruit first class with perfect curing, and we 
need have no fear of injury. Partially cured fruit 
will oftentimes change before it can be packed and 
sold. 

Apricot.^. — Apricots should be picked when ripe 
but firm, smoothly cut, and evenly placed on the 
tray, so that when they soften and yield in the sua 
the pieces will be round, smooth and flat, and wlieii 
dry retain shape. They should be sulphured from 
11 to li hours with the best of sulphur. The French 
sublimed has generally proved best, although the 
California sublimed oftentimes has proved etfectual, 
but contains more impure substance. An apricot 
when cured properly will not yield to a firm pressure 
of the thumb and finger. Should the pulp yield and 
the thumb and finger meet at the skin, the fruit is 
not cured and should have a little more sun. It is 
not proper, however, to make c/t/>.s, but to give your 
fruit a soft, leathery texture and a bright appear- 
ance. 

PeacJies. — Observe all the rules for curing apricots. 

Silver Prunes. — Pick when Jinn. Do not allow the 
Silver prune to become soft before picking, as it will 
be "mushy " and almost useless as a dried product. 
Dip in lye as you do the French prune, using plenty 
of clean water to rinse with. Surphur for two hours, 
or over night when possible, using sulphur freely. 
This fruit is gaining in favor, or rather its former 
prestige, lost by the mixture of egg plums with it 
when the parties manipulating had left their honor 
in their Sunday clothes and assumed their fruit sal- 
vation to be based on a few cents of present gain. 
This policy nearly destroyed the value of our Silver 
prune orchards. When honesty will pay as good a 
dividend as in this case it is well to keep it with us. 

Pruiie.f. — There are two processes in preparing 
prunes for the tray, viz: dipping and pricking. 
Prunes should be ripe. In the usual season five 
pickings are best — the first picking when but very 
few are on the ground ; the second to follow in a few 
days, picking only those which have dropped, tak- 
ing care to remove during these two pickings all 
worthless or immatured fruit that has fallen, and 
tlirtiu- it away^ or eat it yourselves if it must be eaten. 
At the third and fourth pickings the trees may be 
jarred, hut not slialcen. The fifth is simply to get the 
few scattering prunes that usually have to be taken 
off by hand shaking and the use of a light pole. If 
the process of dipping is used do not cut the fruit 
too heavily with lye, as this will give a dull, dead 
color to the dried product. A light cutting with lye 
leaves the fruit bright and smooth and in the best 
possible condition. Use water very freely in the 
rinsing tub. Do not allow it to become " syrupy," 
but keep up a constant flow of pure, clean water. 
Finally, cure the fruit thoroughly on the trays before 
it is "dumped." Fully cured fruit will not "mush" 
in the bin, and will not sugar till the following May 
or June, and then but little; and when one or two 
years old may be made to appear and actually be as 
good as when first cured. This I know from actual 
experience in using. Cured fruit is firm when taken 
from the trays, never soft. All soft, uncured prunes 
should be picked out before "dumping;" otherwise 
they will ferment and gather bugs and worms. 

Prospects. — The outlook for 1895 is much better 
than it was for 1894. We believe the market will be 
more active and confident. Sales can be made more 
promptly, and prices, while not high, will be firmer 
and less fluctuating. 

Apricots will be very scarce as a dried product. 
Good judges estimate the output of the State at 
only one-fourth of that of last year. I believe this 
estimate correct. Canners have bought very freely. 
The prices paid have tempted those who usually dry 
to sell green. 

The peach product will be about one-fourth less 
than last season, as the late varieties in many places 
are very light and the frost has injured others. 
While cots green have sold from $30 to $35, the price 
of peaches has not been established, but will vary 
from $l(j to $25, according to quality and kind. 

Prunes are the same in quantity as last year, and 
if we can be spared the hot wave of last August it is 
thought they will average one size larger. This, 
however, cannot be determined at this early date. 
As the French are reported 20,000,000 pounds short 
of last year, it is expected that our product will all 



38 



The Pacific Rural Press. 



July SJO, 1896 



be required, and if the usual conditions of trade are 
recognized we shall hope to obtain a living price for 
our product and to have a steady trade and a healthy 
consumptive demand. Offers of $25 have beem made 
for green prunes, but we have heard of no sales. 



HORTICULTURE. 



Olive Varieties in California. 



Extracts from an essay by Rev. C. F. Loop, of Pomona, at Escon- 
dido Farmers' Institute, last week. 

In the lists of California nurserymen you will find 
about fifty olives used for the press. It may be ex- 
pedient in the future to import one or two varieties 
from southern Italy, which ripen for the press early 
lu September. When our oil makers get well settled 
in their bu.siness methods in working up the crop of 
the season, they may consider it desirable to have 
the crushing season begin with the month of Octo- 
ber, and may desire another kind to work with the 
Uvaria. 

Among those already in bearing I found those 
which are highly desirable, on account of the habit of 
ripening the crop uniformly on the tree, to be the 
Morinello, Bellmonte, Piengente and Uvaria. 

In the lists of imported olives for the press you 
will find those which have yielded the oils which won 
the honors at the Columbia Exposition and the Mid- 
winter Fair. You will find the olive yielding the 
delicate light green oil, made in the foothills of the 
Alps of southern France; the rich amber-colored oil 
of Lucca, the almost colorless oil made in Italy from 
the Corregiolo and Pendulier, used by perfumers as 
a vehicle to carry the sweet perfumes of flowers in 
exportation. The oil made by Mr. Goodrich at Quito 
olive farm, near Santa Clara, from the Corregiolo 
would command a high price in the market of south- 
ern France, for that purpose. 

No doubt we shall find certain olives well adapted 
to the various locations and conditions in the olive 
belt of California, and having such a list to select 
from serious mistakes may be avoided. In our pres- 
ent conditions, when a variety has been in fruit four 
or five years and has given satisfactory results, I 
think you undergo no great risk in putting it in your 
orchards. 

The olive growers of California are highly favored 
in having Mr. A. P. Hayne in charge of the olive de- 
partment of the State University at Berkeley. His 
residence for years in southern France while pursu- 
ing his studies in horticulture; his observations in 
extensive journeys in the olive belt of southern Eu- 
rope, qualify him for the work to which he is now 
devoting his energies. The reports of the work at 
the Experiment Stations of the State University will 
show you just what he is trying to do for the olive 
grower. A part of his work is to render just such 
practical assistance as you need in selecting varieties 
for your soil and exposure in suggesting best meth- 
ods of planting, pruning, and bringing trees to 
fruition. 

In the last report of the Experiment Station (page 
331) Mr. Hayne says, in discussing the leading Italian 
varieties, that he is led to conclude that these new 
varieties will be of great importance in the future. 
Two of the varieties named, the Razza and Morinello, 
were furnished from my imported trees, and Mr. 
Hayne's report of the yield of oil is fully up to the 
Italian standard. 

You are no doubt aware of the fact that in Tus- 
cany the Razza is placed at the head of the list of 
press olives, as it yields the largest per cent of high- 
grade oil. To secure this result the Tuscan plants 
this variety on the " half hillside," which he regards 
as his very best location — not on the hilltop in the 
wind, nor at the bottom in the wash, but about half 
way up. My trees are on gravelly loam, exposed to 
a strong breeze from the west, and so far have shown 
sensitiveness to this wind by setting fruit only on the 
east side of the tree. As the trees are only five 
years old, I believe this abnormal condition will be 
corrected by the protection on the west afi'orded by 
the growth of the other trees already planted. I 
have no fear of the Razza being a shy bearer in first- 
class locations. 

According to my observation in the neighborhood 
of Pomona the Rubra, Uvaria, Oblonga, Piengente 
and Morinello come into bearing early and are noted 
for remarkable prolificness as well as high grade of 
oil which the fruit yields_^ under the press. These 
qualities are desirable when the grower wishes a re- 
turn from his orchard as early as possible. 

Olicts/or PicklliKj. — Naturally I am interested in 
the twenty varieties of the olive which I imported 
and have propagated in my greenhouse. Among 
these were six varieties of large olives for pickling. 
The Sevilliano, formerly called Hispania, I place at 
the head of the list on "account of the rare beauty 
and symmetry of the tree, the unusual size of the 
fruit, and its general distribution on all the branches. 
So far it has not shown sensitiveness to cold but ap- 
pears hardy. This tree originated in southern Spain 
and takes its name from Seville, its native province. 
This in Spain is the highest type of the olive used for 
pickling. In 1894 my imported trees and those im- 
ported by Mr, John Rock of Niles, Alameda county, 



came into bearing for the first time and we are more 
than satisfied with the fruit. 

Next in importance is the Ascolana, the white 
olive of Ascoli, in Italy, and the true Picholine of 
southern France, which takes first ptace in the mar- 
ket there. The St. Agostino, Santa Catarina and 
Regalis are desirable also. The marked features of 
these olives are the pure white pulp and the freedom 
with which the bitterness is discharged from the 
pulp in treatment. 

To the six which I have named for table use" may 
be added at least a dozen others already imported 
and available to the planter at very reasonable 
prices. The Mission, on account of its size and 
abundance, has been more extensively used than any 
other. 

As the olive oil from California has been success- 
fully introduced in the east so have our cured ripe 
olives also been sent forward but not in quantities 
corresponding to the shipment of the oil. Mr. Pack- 
ard, of Pomona, in the early part of this year 
shipped a carload of pickled olives to Chicago. 

Under the light of our experience during the last 
few years it seems reasonable to look with confidence 
upon the success of the olive, guided by intelligent 
foresight in selecting location, in selecting varieties 
to meet out highest hopes, and applying well known 
principles of vegetable physiology, we shall cause 
the tree to grow, develop and reproduce under the 
infiuence of ligiit, heat, moisture and appropriate 
food. It is not necessary to always follow the wind- 
ings of the beaten path. We live under conditions 
favorable for departures and improvements, and the 
olive grower should turn to the best account every 
opportunity to aid nature in the work of develop- 
ment and reproduction. Hints and suggestions upon 
arrangement, symmetry and utility we can glean 
from the olive belt of the old world. 



Deciduous Fruits in San Diego County. 



An essay by G. M. Hawley of El Cujon at the Fanners' Institute in 
San Diego. 

In this age of active competition the horticulturist 
to be successful must employ intensive methods. 
There is little profit in raising anything but the 
best, and in order to do this, will require thorough 
cultivation, proper pruning and thinning of the fruit 
and irrigation on most lands in this region. 

It is customary, where irrigation is not practiced, 
to cultivate during the rainy season to keep down 
the weeds and prevent the baking of the soil, and 
discontinue as soon as that season is over — "laying 
it by," is the expression used. Now I believe this is 
a mistake. The moment we stop stirring the soil it 
begins to lose its power to act as a mulch for the 
prevention of evaporation of moisture from below. 
The cultivator should be kept going during the dry 
season. Irrigation without cultivation is worse 
than cultivation without water. 

Thorough pruning is essential to prevent the trees 
from breaking, to secure a thrifty growth for next 
year's crop, and to lighten the expense of thinning 
and spraying. 

Deciduous fruits do not require the water that 
citrus fruits do, and by winter irrigation they can 
be carried through the greater part of the summer 
season by thorough cultivation, and the water in the 
early spring can be devoted to the propagation of 
small fruits. 

In small fruits I would recommend the blackberry, 
raspberry and strawberry. Of blackberries, the 
Crandalls, Kittatinny and Lawton are all good 
berries and will give a succession of fruits, each 
ripening about from one to two weeks after the pre 
ceding. The Cuthbert raspberry has given good re- 
sults this year. Of strawberries, I have had good 
results with the Wilson, Sharpless and Monarch 
mixed, but from all reports I should recommend the 
Arizona Everbearing and Australian Crimson. 

To be successful with small fruits the ground 
should be kept thoroughly moist, and for big returns 
should be watered once a week. 

On your trees the water can be used in the order 
of their ripening. By putting water on my early 
Wilder pears I was able to get them in market a 
week earlier than I otherwise would, thus securing 
a better price. My peaches along a ditch line will 
ripen from one to two weeks earlier than others do. 

One of the great mistakes planters make is in get- 
ting too great a variety of fruit. For peaches I 
i would have but about three or four varieties, ripen- 
' ing in succession, and tho.se would be Foster, Muir, 
j W^heatland and Salway, giving a long season of cut- 
ting in drying. 
I Of pears 1 would recommend principally theplant- 
; ing of Bartletts for fall, and the P. Barry and 
I Buerre Easter for winter. The Bartlett pear is 
I coming in favor very fast as a dried fruit. 
I In apples I would recommend the Red Astrachan, 
\ Red June, Early Harvest and Gravenstein for early; 
Jonathan, W. W. Pearmain, Bellflower, Skinners 
Pippin and Rhode Island Greening for late. 
The Royal apricot has been the most successful 
i with us. 

I I would not recommend planting prunes in El 

I Cajon, except on the river bottom. 

1 Of the raisin grapes I have nothing to say, they 



have used me so badly; yet I am holding on, hoping 
they will serve me better. 



Apple Growing in Southern California. 



By S. Penfold, Santa Ana, Orange county, at Farmers' Institute 
last week. 

The first things to consider in apple culture are 
the soil and climate. You must have good rich soil; 
the best with us is that chiefly formed of decomposed 
granite. Our mountain valleys and the low bottom 
lands are best, and only lands that are adapted to 
apple culture should be planted to this fruit. Also 
the climate must be cool and moist to produce a per- 
fect apple, which must be juicy, of fine flavor and 
keeping quality. 

l'l)iut!u(i aiul Pruning. — The first thing of impor- 
tance in culture is to have the land well cultivated 
and laid off perfectly square and the rows from 25 to 
30 feet apart. The trees should not be planted any 
deeper than they stood in the nursery and the hole 
should be sufficiently large to admit the roots spread 
out as they naturally grew in the nursery. I believe 
much depends upon the proper planting of the trees. 

Pruning is a most important part of apple grow- 
ing. There can be no set rule laid down for pruning, 
for I find that every variety of apple must be 
pruned according to its own habit of growth, and a 
young orchard needs more care than an older one, as 
the trees should be properly balanced and grown to a 
uniform height. I prefer more pruning in summer 
and less in winter, as you get a more thrifty growth 
and the tree is not so badly marred. 

Varieties. — I do not think it advisable to plant too 
many early and summer varieties, as we have an 
abundance of other fruit in market at the time that 
these apples are ready, which reduces values. Early 
varieties are somewhat perishable in shipping. Con- 
sequently winter varieties are most profitable, and 
we have a greater number of varieties to choose 
from. In this we have to study the wants of the 
market rather than the quality of the fruit. If you 
can produce a pretty red apple of large size it will 
sell; the flavor is a secondary consideration. 

The best early varieties are the Early Harvest, 
Strawberry and Red June. 

The best summer and fall varieties are the Spitzen- 
bergs, Belleflower, Pound Pippin, Smith's Cider, 
Lady Sweet and Gravenstein. 

The best winter varieties: W^hite Winter Pear- 
main, Yellow Newton Pippin, Vandevere, Romanite, 
and Stone's Eureka. These I consider a few of the 
best, hardiest and most profitable to grow in this 
climate. Stone's Eureka I have not fully tested, as 
it is a new variety. If they prove hardy and good 
bearers I think they will be the coming apple for the 
market. 

Gathering and Keeping. — Too much care cannot be 
used in gathering winter apples. I make bins of 
corn stalks, about two feet high and six feet wide, 
under the trees. I find apples keep best in the open 
air in this climate. They should be covered in the 
day time and uncovered in the evening, to keep them 
as cool as possible while ripening. When the dry 
north winds blow, as we generally have in the fall, I 
keep them sprinkled with water. 



Orange Conditions and Varieties. 



Extracts from an essay by Wm. C. Fuller, of Colton, at San Diego 
Farmers' Institute. 

What qualities shall we seek in an orange ? We 
must obtain the sum of qualities; several must be of 
high average; a number must be excellent. The size 
should be medium; the form pleasing to the eye; the 
color a prophecy of internal excellence. The fruit 
should be heavy. The peel should have a pleasant 
touch, with a rich, uniform bloom, firm and elastic 
when we cut it; the septa delicate and translucent; 
the grain fine, firm and compact. Above all other 
qualities the fruit must have that indescribable com- 
bination of sweetness, citrus quality' and an aroma 
that is " pronounced, pervasive and agreeable." 

Ynrieties. — What variety has the best sum of ex- 
cellent qualities to grow as a commercial proposi- 
tion ? Where can I grow an orange in its highest 
type with the least expense ? Except a few varie- 
ties grown as single trees for home use, a ranch of 
twenty acres should have but two, or at most three, 
varieties. If you have courage and strong moral 
fiber, plant only one variety. You can then give 
your trees a uniform treatment in culture, irrigation, 
pruning and marketing. Your product will be 
better; your labor will be less. 

Suppose we decide upon one of the following de- 
scribed varieties : Washington Navel, Paper-rind 
St, Michael, Mediterranean Sweet. The cultivation 
of these varieties, with climatic conditions best 
suited to each variety, has proved successful. With- 
out proper conditions they fail. 

Wiixliingttin Xnrrl. — This is the most popular and 
undoubtedly the best orange grown at this time in 
California. It matures at a time when the fruit is 
most acceptable. Seedless, it is desirable to the old 
and young. At its best it is a happy blending of 



July 20, 1895. 



The Pacific Rural Press. 



39 



sweetness and citrus qualities. A strong and rapid 
grower, and when younij it fruits evenly and yearly. 
It ships well, having good protective qualities. It 
can be marketed early and is well advertised. 

St. Michdel. — The Paper-rind St. Michael is a late 
variety. It outranks the Navel in thinness of rind, 
in acidity and the albuminoids, ranks well in sweet- 
ness, is of good flavor and has seeds galore. The 
tree, like the Navel, is a strong, rapid grower, and 
requires about the same treatment in culture and 
fertilization. It succeeds best in the same climatic 
conditions. The albuminoids are more largely dis- 
tributed in the flesh of the St. Michael than in other 
varieties. It is rich in sweetne.ss and is winning its 
way to popular favor upon its intrinsic merits. 

Mrdltcrranean Sweet. — This variety is nearly seed- 
less. The form is oval and the fruit grows to an 
even size. It is good in sugar and in citrus quality. 
The tree is less vigorous in growth than either of the 
other varieties, both in root and leaf. The position 
of the leaves and short iaternodal spaces cluster the 
fruit, which is usually evenly distributed over the 
tree. It ripens before the St. Michael and after the 
Washington Navel. 

Wliere ShaU These Oranf/ci Be Grown ? — Where can 
we grow oranges of such undoubted excellence from 
year to year as to make their culture a profit ? I 
consider the area suitable for the successful growing 
of the Washington Navel more limited than for either 
of the other varieties, as this orange matures its fruit 
early in the season and changes its acids to sugars 
earlier in the season of heat than either the other 
varieties named. It is a law of growth that an 
absolute equivalent of heat, light and actinic power 
is required to produce a given amount of sugar, 
starch and cellulose and to impart to the leaf an 
energy to build the carbon compounds in vegetable 
tissues. I am aware that the energy expended in 
producing the seed in the Paper-rind St. Michael 
and Mediterranean Sweet (to a limited extent), is 
expended in the Navel in cell addition and to hasten 
the formation of sugar, starch and allied compounds 
and the increase of sap circulation, the feeding root 
and vigorous leaf, and this activity in making avail- 
able the elements of soil and air will somewhat ex- 
tend the area of the successful culture of the Navel 
under somewhat adverse climatic conditions. 

The other varieties extend the season of maturity. 
The constructive energy of the plant has a longer 
time to perform its functions and the area of culture 
is extended. 

Where can we grow a luscious orange with the 
least expense compared with its market value ? It 
is where the long summer heat comes pouring down 
upon it at about 100° Fahr; where there is little mois- 
tuT-e in the atmosphere to obstruct the sun's rays; 
where the nights are cool to give strength and vigor 
and strong protective qualities to the rind and 
tissues; where frost touches lightly; where irriga- 
tion is scientifically applied; where the husbandman 
intelligently fertilizes his soil, and with a happy 
heart and joyous will cultivates, cares for and loves 
his trees. 



FRUIT riARKETINQ. 



Who 5toIe the Onions? 

To THE Editor: — The story of the darkey boy who 
thought to clear his name of unjust suspicion by pro- 
ducing a skunk as the real culprit, suggests a few 
thoughts on the wide margin existing between pro- 
ducer and consumer of farm products. Efforts of 
San Jose Board of Trade to inaugurate a common- 
sense method of co-operative advertising and mar- 
ket-seeking mark this as an appropriate time for 
such discussion. 

Years ago the writer's attention was drawn to 
this subject, when he was charged a quarter for 
three pounds of Bartlett pears and found better 
fruit rotting under the trees at Santa Rosa, only a 
few days after, because they would not pay to ship. 
We are accustomed to charge every such thing to 
monopoly in transportation. 

In the good Old Testament days the goat was 
probably as full of mischief as he is to-day, and so 
was made to bear the sins of the whole caravan 
under the title of the scapegoat. The Octopus is 
our scapegoat. At Upper Lake a merchant charged 
me ten cents for a pencil, usually retailing at a 
nickel and wholesaling at twenty cents per dozen, 
because freight was so high. It amounted to about 
one-quarter of a cent per dozen and he added sixty 
cents to a profit already large. 

In the files of the Rural Press will be found a 
statement where I interviewed many San Francisco 
retail fruit dealers and compared their prices with 
the wholesale prices paid the same day for similar 
goods, and found the lowest profit at which any- 
thing was offered was 75 per cent and the highest 
566 per cent. The reason for this profit was that 
not less than four establishments were being kept 
up to do the business that should easily be done by 
one, and rent, service, bad bills and decayed fruit 
absorbed most of the receipts. If farmers should 



deliver fruit free to the dealers the chances are that 
enough more would go into the business so that 
many would starve out at it. 

Probably there is no market in America where the 
margin between what the consumer pays and what 
the producer gets is so great as in San Francisco, 
and yet a great share of the supply is brought on 
river boats from the ranch to the city at a cost of 
about a dollar a ton. 

It is all very well to say that every man should 
follow his own trade and that competition can be de- 
pended on for a proper adjustment of profits, but we 
have been waiting for them to adjust these twenty 
years and they seem to be getting no better very 
fast. Indeed, there is no apparent rea.son why they 
should until producers take the matter into their 
own hands. Then they would have to fight the com- 
bined forces of those already in the trade. It seems 
that they might do that successfully by forming a 
company in which producers and consumers should 
be interested in proportion to their trade, buy out 
some well-established retail trade, supply the con- 
sumers who owned stock at a price about half way 
between wholesale and retail, and interest each of 
them to extend the trade of the company. They 
should retain the services of employes of good 
acquaintance and experience, and one of the pro- 
ducers most largely interested should devote his 
time to seeing that consumers were served to best 
advantage. 

It could be so well managed that little stock would 
become stale, and that employes would be comforta- 
bly busy, instead of waiting an hour for a minute's 
work They would live at prices that the present 
system could not compete with and still realize 
more satisfactory returns than from the present 
system of taking what is left after all others are 
satisfied. Producer. 

Bakersfield. 



FRUIT PRESERVATION. 



Best Methods -of Drying Fruits. 



By Maurice Reidy of Escondido, and read before the Farmers' In- 
stitute held at Escondido last week. 

Now that the dried-fruit products of California are 
assuming such large proportions, any discussion of 
methods of curing is both timely and profitable. 

Care must be taken to gather the fruit when full, 
ripe, but not over-ripe, and above all, not green. 
Green fruit dries to nothing — dark little chips with- 
out value or weight — yet vile enough in appearance 
to lower the grade and lessen the value of the pack. 
Over-ripe fruit spreads out and presents an untidy 
appearance; and while not unwholesome like the un- 
ripe fruit, yet like it, it injures the selling value of 
the whole. 

I have not seen what I consider a perfect pitting 
machine yet, and recourse must still be had to hand 
pitting. The fruit should be cut entirely around and 
the pit lifted out, not squeezed out nor pushed 
through the end. Careless pitters sometimes adopt 
this method and injure the fruit in appearance, so 
treated. 

Drying grounds should be kept clean and free from 
dust and strips 1x3 laid on the ground and the trays 
laid on them. I have found this gives better satis- 
faction than laying the trays on the ground. 

Proper thinning of the fruit should be done so as 
to produce fair-sized fruit, as I consider it more 
profitable for drying purposes than over-large or 
small fruit. 

Probably the most important item in drying is the 
bleaching. The trade demands a bleached fruit, and 
the producer must furnish it or he will soon go to the 
wall; but he should certainly furnish it in the least 
objectionable form. Any more sulphur than is re- 
quired to properly bleach the fruit is useless and 
probably injurious. 

After several experiments, I concluded that one 
pound of sulphur to seventy fruit trays, two and one- 
half and three feet and holding about twenty pounds 
of fruit each, was amply sufficient, and I have not 
used more than that amount for the past four years, 
and I leave the fruit in the sulphur box from three to 
four hours, or until it shows signs of sweating. 

Properly ripe fruit requires less time to bleach 
than over-ripe or green fruit. Thoroughly ripe fruit 
sulphured in this way immediately after it is cut is 
not strong acid; it retains its strength, it looks 
better, and I think is better than unsulphured fruit. 

Time required for drying varies according to the 
fruit and condition of the weather. Apricots dry in 
three to four days; peaches from four to six days. 
When the fruit is about two-thirds dry, it should be 
stacked up and allowed to cure in the shade from 
two to three days. The fruit should be taken from 
the trays in the middle of the day, as worms are less 
Uable to bother than when taken from the trays in 
the morning or evening. 

The fruit should be put in the sweat boxes and al- 
lowed to remain for about ten days; then it is ready 
for packing. 



THE FIELD. 

Barnyard flanure, Green ilanuring and 
Commercial Fertilizers. 

Read at Southern California Farmers' Institute at San Diego, 
last week. 

Farmers' Bulletin, No. 21, issued by the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, entitled "Barnyard 
Manure," is authority for the estimate that if all the 
horses, cattle, sheep and swine in the United States 
were kept in stables or pens throughout the year, 
and the manure carefully saved, the approximate 
value of the fertilizing constituents thereof would 
amount to more than two thousand millions 
(2,000,000,000) of dollars, this estimate being based 
on the values usually assigned to phosphoric acid, 
potash and nitrogen in commercial fertilizers. The 
same bulletin is also authority for the statement that 
no other fertilizer has so great a power to give last- 
ing fertility to the soil or to increase its water- 
absorbing and water-holding capacity. This latter 
quality makes barnyard manure particularly valu- 
able in this land, where " water is king." 

Investigations made at the Cornell University Ex- 
periment Station showed that the value of manure 
produced by horses and cows, fed liberally and given 
sufficient bedding to keep them clean, amounted to 
nearly thirty (.30) dollars per annum for each thou- 
sand (1000) pounds weight of animal. Combining the 
results of these Cornell investigations with data 
given in Report of California Experiment Station 
work for year 1894, I find that the manure produced 
in one year by two horses and one cow of medium 
size, cared for as above indicated, contains .as much 
nitrogen as is taken from the soil in the growing of 
2400 boxes of seedless oranges and as much phos- 
phoric acid as is taken from the soil in the growing 
of 5000 boxes of such oranges. Dr. Hilgard has told 
us that usually these two elements — nitrogen and 
phosphoric acid — are all that need be at present 
supplied to California soils. 

Cerrc of Manure. — Bulletin No. 21, above referred 
to, says that from 75% to 90% of the value of barn- 
yard manure can be and should be utilized. That 
the results above indicated are not even approxi- 
mated by our orange growers is, in large measure, 
due to wasteful methods in the care and use of barn- 
yard manure. Much can be done toward improving 
such methods by using absorbents, such as straw, 
peat, sawdust, dry earth, gypsum, etc. Wheat 
straw ranks high as an absorbent of liquids and dry 
earth as an absorbent of ammonia; a mixture of 
these two materials as litter is therefore of much 
advantage. It may be estimated that each ton of 
straw so used should, by absorbing the liquids, add 
from seven to ten dollars to the value of the manure 
saved. 

Some writers recommend that barnyard manure be 
applied at frequent intervals and at once plowed 
under. Its fermentation will then assist in render- 
ing soluble the hitherto insoluble constituents of the 
soil, and the earth will absorb the ammonia as it is 
evolved. 

In many cases the frequent application and plow- 
ing under would be impracticable. Such would be 
the case during the dry season with the fruit growers 
of this region. Another way is to have the manure 
from the horse stable and that from the cow stable 
thrown into one common pile, and let the whole be 
trodden down by the feet of the animals, at the same 
time keeping it sheltered from rain and hot sun. The 
treading down limits access of air, thus retarding 
decomposition and the resulting loss of ammonia. It 
is also well to keep it moist without leaching. 

ApjiUcotion of Manure. — Much loss results from ap- 
plying decomposed manure to porous soils at times 
when the trees or other crops are not hungry— that 
is, not growing. Thus, when it is applied at the be- 
ginning of the rainy season, should a large rainfall 
ensue, no growing crops being on the ground, more 
or less of the soluble portions of the manure will be 
carried down through the porous soil and subsoil and 
beyond reach of the plant roots. Hence it is very 
desirable to apply manure during the growing 
season. 

As to how deep the manure should be covered by 
the plow, opinions of practical men differ widely. In 
any compact soils a deep manure may, by excluding 
the air, unduly retard decomposition. On the other 
hand, it is contended that shallow covering of the 
manure in orchards encourages growth of feeding 
roots too near the surface, where they are likely to 
perish during our long, dry summers. If there be no 
hardpan to make deep plowing necessary, I should 
favor shallow plowing, rather than destroy many 
tree roots. It can hardly injure the tree more to 
let some surface roots form, to perish in August by 
drying out, than to destroy many more of them by 
the plow early in the growing season. 

Distrilmtinr) Mamire hy Irrigation. — On some farms 
in England and Scotland, marked success has been 
achieved by applying barnvard manure and other 
fertilizers by means of irrigation, even where large 
suras of money have been expended for pipes, en- 
gines, pumps, etc. We are told that plants can 



40 



July 20, 1895. 



make use of food only when diluted with water, and 
they can absorb it much more readily when largely 
diluted. Take, for example, the enormous growth of 
fibrous roots which often obstruct the water pipes 
of this region, a striking instance of the capacity 
which plants have for making use of such food as is 
largely diluted with water. In this connection the 
question arises, why may not the fruit growers of 
this region profitably adopt some method of apply- 
ing barnyard manure by irrigation ? The stable 
floors might be of cement, or well-joined plank, 
made to drain into a small, cement-lined tank. The 
manure pile might be underlaid with a floor of 
cement, also made to drain into the tank. A limited 
quantity of water run on the pile at frequent inter- 
vals would leach the soluble portions into the tank. 
The residue would be carted out at the proper sea- 
son to be plowed under. Then, when crops are to 
be irrigated, a gate at the outlet of the tank would 
])crmit the contents to flow out at the desired rate, 
to be largely diluted with water in the head-ditch, 
and to he carried by gravity to the roots of the 
growing plants. Such a method, properly applied, 
should be made to sas'c labor, as well as to utilize a 
much larger percentage of the fertilizing elements of 
the manure. I hope that some of our practical fruit 
growers will think of this matter. 

(iREEN MANPRINO. 

By this is meant plowing under green crops to en- 
rich the soil. It is said to have been advocated by 
Roman writers more than two thousand years ago, 
and has been extensively practiced ever since that 
time. It not only adds to the fertility of the soil, 
but improves its physical condition as well. By 
means of green manuring very poor soils may be 
brought up to produce good crops. Fifty years ago 
it was believed that leguminous plants possessed a 
superior power of reliance upon the atmosphere for 
their nitrogen; and recent discoveries prove that 
they can take up the nitrogen of the air, and can 
grow without receiving any other supply of this ele- 
ment, if supplied with other elements necessary to 
their growth. Nitrogen, bought in the form of com- 
mercial fertilizers, is paid for at the rate of 10 to 20 
cents per pound, and is by far the most expensive of 
the fertilizing elements which it is necessary to 
supply. 

Some of our orchardlsts are hoping to find some- 
thing which can be grown among the trees during 
the rainy season, when water is plenty, to be plowed 
under before the irrigating season begins. Among 
the plants which have been suggested for this pur- 
pose are: cow peas, bur clover, crimson clover, 
peas and vetch. The writer has tried cow peas and 
finds that they arc killed by a slight frost. Crimson 
clover has been tried by several Claremont people, 
and has so far proven a failure. A serious objection 
to peas is the great expense of seed. Bur clover 
grows well in the neighborhood of Claremont, even 
on land that is quite dry and stony; it is said, how- 
ever, to be of little value for hay. 

During the last five years the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture has tested 28 varieties of vetches, as 
forage plants for the South, and in Bulletin No. 18 
recommend the hairy vetch as being by far the best, 
and as being the most valuable winter forage plant 
which the Department has imported, and unhesitat- 
ingly recommend it for cultivation on all rich soils. 
It also bears the heaviest winter frosts (of the 
South) without injury, and is one of the few plants 
which can be grown during the winter for green 
manuring. It should be sown in August or Septem- 
ber in the South, and here should probably be sown 
early enough to become well established before the 
end of the warm season. 

Green Mnnttn'ug vs. Ihirin/nrd Mnnure. — The author 
of Bulletin No. 16 says: "Green manuring on good 
soils can only be recommended when the conditions 
of farming do not admit of the careful preservation 
of manure. The crops should be fed to animals, and 
the manure carefully returned to the soil." He 
further says that " leguminous plants do not draw 
their nitrogen from the air, so long as there is an 
ample supply in the soil itself. They must first be- 
come hungry for nitrogen before they acquire the 
power to make use of the nitrogen of the air; hence 
in medium rich soils green manuring has much less 
to recommend it than on poor soils." It is found to 
be sometimes necessary, in growing a leguminous 
crop on a piece of land for the first time in several 
years, to "inoculate" the soil before the plants can 
make use of the nitrogen of the air. This is done by 
applying a light dressing of soil in which the kind 
of plants it is wished to grow have been previously 
grown. This is for the purpose of stocking the soil 
with the bacteria, or microbes, whose presence en- 
ables the plants to make use of the nitrogen of the 
air. 

There are some objections to plowing under green 
crops among orchard trees, because of the difficulty 
experienced in cultivating the ground for some time 
afterward. If the ground be plowed no more than 
six to eight inches in depth, some of the vines or 
stalks are apt to be dragged out by the cultivator. 

The author of Bulletin No. 18 says: "While 
leguminous crops are restorative in the highest de- 
gree for a few years, their long continued cultiva- 
tion on the same ground finally renders the soil in- 
capable of reproducing them profitably." This might 



lead us to infer that these microbes, like most other 
living things, need sometimes to rest, or a change of 
scene. 

COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS. 

While these must, generally speaking, rank in im- 
portance after barnyard manure and green manur- 
ing, they may be, in many cases, recommended. 
They may often be used with advantage to promote 
the growth of a green manure crop where the soil is 
deficient in phosphoric acid or potash, and also where 
the supply of barnyard manure is not sufficient and 
green manuring, for any reason, impracticable. Re- 
cently we have been warned that the use of nitrate 
of soda, in connection with barnyard manure, is 
likely to result in great loss of nitrogen. I do not 
quite understand why that need take place if the 
two materials be not mixed before being plowed 
under the soil. Many farmers have concluded that 
it does not pay to buy commercial fertilizers with 
which to grow wheat. We will be likely to come to 
the same conclusion when we consider that each 
bushel of wheat removes, from the soil, nitrogen, 
phosphoric acid and potash that cost about 27 cents 
to replace by means of commercial fertilizers; and if 
the straw be not utilized, the cost of commercial fer- 
tilizers necessary to replace these three elements 
would be about 57 cents for each bushel of wheat 
produced. It does not, however, necessarily follow 
from this that it will not pay to buy commercial fer- 
tilizers with which to grow some other crops. Chem- 
ical analyses of seedless oranges indicate that the 
growing of one box of such oranges removes from 
the soil nitrogen and phosphoric acid to the value of 
about 2J cents only. 

If one decides to use commercial fertilizers to any 
considerable extent, it becomes then quite important 
to know what elements are lacking in his particular 
soil. Authorities agree that phosphoric acid is, in 
most soils, likely to be needed as soon, at least, as 
any element. This may be supplied by ground bone. 
Some experiments made during the present season 
in the growing of mangel wurzel beets lead the 
writer to conclude that nitrogen is needed in our 
Claremont soil, and also that potash is not needed at 
present. The application of'iron to orange orchards 
has been tried and advocated for the purpose of giv- 
ing the fruit better color. The magnet shows that 
our Claremont soil contains large quantities of iron 
already. 

It has been found that, in using nitrate of soda for 
the growing of wheat and other grain crops, it should 
be applied at an early stage of the growth of the 
plant, also that it should be used sparingly, espe- 
cially on light soils, otherwise there is apt to be a 
fine growth of straw with little grain. 

Applied to fruit trees, nitrate of soda in excessive 
quantities stimulates a large growth of wood and 
leaves, with but little fruit. This is said to be the 
case with citrus fruits esiiecially. The use of com- 
mercial fertilizers alone for a number of years on 
porous soils, no barnyard manure nor green manure 
crops being applied, would probably leave those soils 
in poor condition to hold water. 

SUMMARY. 

First — Barnyard manure is decidedly the most im- 
portant of fertilizing materials, and most farmers, in 
this region at least, are very wasteful in their man- 
agement of it. If practicable, it should be applied 
to the soil during the early part of the growing sea- 
son, and by means of irrigation. The soluble por- 
tions will then be carried most quickly to the roots 
of the plants, and at a time when they are ready to 
make use of plant food. Applied at the end of the 
growing season, as is largely the practice here, 
much of it is likely to stray beyond the reach of the 
feeding roots before they are again in condition to 
use it. Especially is this the case in porous plants. 

Second — If the supply of barnyard manure is not 
sufficient, then green manuring is probably the next 
best thing, where the conditions allow of plowing 
under, so as not to interfere with cultivation. Bur 
clover seems to be the best thing for that purpose 
so far tested here; but I think we should look for 
something better, something that will make good 
hay if desired. 

Third — Where commercial fertilizers are to be used 
ground bone, together with limited quantities of 
nitrate of soda, will probably be sufficient at present 
for our Claremont soils. The nitrate of soda should 
be used carefully, and may be wasted, or worse than 
wasted, on some soils. E. Squire. 

Claremont, Los Angeles Co. 



THE VINEYARD. 



Late Pruning of Grape Vines. 



To the Editor: — It may be that others have dis- 
covered that, in pruning grape vines, conditions are 
not the same everywhere. What is right in one sec- 
tion does not prove so in all. I was told when I 
came to California that vines should be pruned be- 
fore the buds began to swell. I followed the advice 
until I found out that it did not prove to be the best 
time in my case. Three years ago I left four rows of 
vines that I intended to graft, and when the time 
came to graft I was sick. Before I was well enough 



to get around, the vines that I intended to graft had 
put out leaves about one inch broad. Then I pruned 
the four rows, not caring whether they lived or died, 
as I thought I would dig out part of the vines and 
sow alfalfa next year. Judge of my surprise when 
the four rows began to set fruit and I found there 
were more grapes on the four rows than on the vines 
pruned earlier, and, when picking time came, the 
four rows that were pruned after the leaves had 
grown to one inch in diameter had three times more 
grapes than any other four rows in the two acres of 
vines. The reason for it was, I think, that, in prun- 
ing early, the buds started before the last frost 
came; and when the frost struck the vines, the buds 
were all killed, and it took a long time before the 
vines set new buds. When the new buds came, they 
were not healthy and could not set as much fruit as 
the vines that were pruned after the leaves were 
grown, as stated before. 

The next year I waited for the leaves to grow be- 
fore pruning and will do so hereafter, as I find it 
pays with my vines to do so. Others can make the 
experiment on a small scale to prove the statement. 
I would advise not to prune or cut the vines after 
3 p. M nor before 9 a. .m., neither would I prune 
during cloudy weather. Between these hours the 
vines do not bleed; before and after these hours the 
sap will run and may do harm to the vines. Any 
one can soon learn the proper time of day for this 
work. Can others give information or experience ? 

Riverside, Cal. A. H. Free.man. 



THE DAIRY. 



Weight of Butter Rolls. 



To THE Editor: — In your paper lately you are devoting a 
good deal of space to the wrongs and rights of the dairymen— 
a very good subject verily. The dairymen have our sympathy, 
but from a butter consumer's point of view we have some- 
thing against the dairymen. 

In time past, when we first came to this Golden State, we 
were informed that butter was sold in two-pound rolls — " not 
exactly two-pounds, you know ; they really weigh about two 
ounces short of that.'' That seemed to us a little queer, but 
as it was the custom we accepted it, only remembering our 
old objection when we were called upon to explain it to new- 
comers, who in their turn thought it "a little queer." The 
valley rolls we would get from neighbors often weighed full 
two pounds. 

This season dairy butter has been very low — 30 to 35 cents a 
roll for some time. But how light and* small the rolls are 
getting to be. And where will it end, and why is it so ? The 
last roll I got weighed one pound ten ounces. 

If there is no standard for a " roll" of butter the next may 
be two ounces shorter, and they may, in their competition, 
get it down to one pound. Is there no real standard, and, if 
not, why not ! There should be, surely. Won't you agitate 
the subject ! All of your patrons do not live on the dairy side 
of the fence. We believe in the fight for pure butter. We 
believe in fighting fraud of all kinds. Butter selling by the 
"roll" with no standard weight is a fraud. What is the 
remedj- ; Kay. 

Santa Clara. 

COMMENTS BY THE .MANAGER OF THE DAIRYMEN's 
UNIO.N. 

To THE Editor : — The above communication, which 
was handed to u.'i a few days ago by a representative 
of your paper, has been given careful consideration, 
and we wish to offer a few words of explanation in 
reference to the same. 

The communication in question refers to the man- 
ner in which butter is put up at the present time, 
being put up short weight by the different individual 
creamerymen an dairymen throughout the State. It 
seems that certain consumers find fault with this, 
and the communication which you handed us was 
evidently received from one of the said parties. In 
reference to this we would state that we find the 
consumers themselves are directly re.«ponsible for 
the short weight in butter, owing to the following 
facts : 

The dairyman does not care how he puts up his 
butter so long as it is marketable, and so that it is 
put up in shape to satisfy the retailer and the con- 
sumer. The general make-up and the general ap- 
pearance are the first points to be considered. If 
the dairyman makes his butter in two-pound squares 
for the San Francisco market, for instance, and 
ships it to this market, the retailer purchases this at 
the market price, say 14 cents per pound. He in 
turn, finding the butter costs him 28 cents per 
square, has to sell it at 35 cents per square at least 
to make a reasonable amount of profit, but when he 
finds that his next-door neighbor is selling the same 
grade of butter for 30 cents per square, irrespective 
of the fact that his neighbor's butter weighs only 
1} pounds, and that the consumers will patronize 
his neighbors in preference to him, thinking they are 
getting their goods cheaper, it becomes necessary 
for the said groceryman to purchase butter weighing 
1;1 pounds or less, so as to enable him to sell his 
butter at the same price as his neighbor and make 
a reasonable profit. Thus it is easily seen that the 
consumer himself, by insisting upon getting two 
pounds of butter, or as near two pounds to the 
square as possible, and by paying the groceryman 
for what he gets only, can force the dairymen into 
making two-pound squares. 

The dairyman, on the other hand, is just as willing 
to put up his butter in this manner, owing to the 
fact that his butter /.v Kohl hi/ the pound to the whole- 
saler, and it makes no difference to him whether it 
is full weight or short weight, for if the box contains 



July 20, 1896. 



The Pacific Rural Press. 



4] 



only 20 rolls weighing 80 pounds, or 50 rolls weigh- 
ing 100 pounds, he gets his price per pound, and in 
some cases he saves cotsiderable in freight by having 
the butter weigh two pounds to the square, because 
the rate is often made by the box. 

It is simply through the competition in the retail 
grocery business and the inability of the consumer 
to see where he would be benefited by insisting upon 
receiving two pounds of butter for his money that 
the dairyman is forced to make his butter light 
weight. We think the party writing the communica- 
tion had better begin at home to remedy matters 
and not throw rocks at the dairymen when they are 
not at fault. 

A great number of the dairymen throughout the 
State for several years after light-weight butter 
was being sold upon this market insisted upon mak- 
ing their butter full weight, but when they found 
retailers would pay from one to two cents per 
pound more for light-weight butter than they would 
for the heavy weight, it was necessary for the dairy- 
men to act accordingly. 

Consumers, as a rule, look for goods where they 
can get them cheapest, the grocerymen in turn look 
for goods that they can sell cheapest, and the mer- 
chants have goods made up by the respective dairy- 
men to suit the trade. The dairymen in turn manu- 
facture their goods to suit the merchants, but re- 
ceive no more money for their stock. In other 
words, the dairyman is paid for nothing but what he 
ships. Dairymen's Union of California, 

San Francisco. per L. Tomasini, Manager. 



Alfiierilla. 



To THE Editor:— In the Press of May 18th, under 
the heading " Dairy, " your description of the plant 
was substantially correct, but am inclined to think 
the spelling is wrong. 

The Standard Dictionary gives the spelling thus ; 
al-fi-le-ril-la (alfiierilla), and denominates it as a 
Spanish-American word. I do not know how other 
dictionaries spell it, and it may seem a small matter, 
but as we look to the Press always to be right it 
might be well for all the many readers of the Press 
to know the right way to spell a word that not one 
person in a thousand in California or elsewhere can 
write or spell correctly. M. C. Winchester. 

Williamsville, Vt. 



FORESTRY. 



Forestry in California. 

To THE Editor: — Have we systematic forestry in 
California? I am fully aware that our Legislature 
established a Board of Forestry years ago, and after- 
ward the Legislature turned over the grounds and 
part of the funds to the care of the Agricultural Col- 
lege of the State University, and since Prof. Hilgard 
has taken hold of it with his characteristic energy 
we may expect some valuable results. But, valuable 
as this may be, it can hardly be more than experi- 
mental work, showing our farmers the way and 
what they should plant, and how to take care of 
what they have already. 

But if we have no peally systematic forest culture, 
controlled by the government, every farmer can do a 
great deal to further it on his own grounds. If he is 
fortunate enough to own a piece of forest, especially 
of redwood, he should take care of it as the apple of 
his eye, cut down the old trees, if he needs them for 
fence posts, grape stakes or anything else, but care- 
fully foster the young growth from the roots, which 
will not only be a delight to the eye, in its symmet- 
rical and vigorous growth, but also give him useful 
timber again in the next ten or twenty years. I 
know of no other resinous tree which has the same 
quality of reproducing itself from the roots, and it 
would seem as if the Almighty had given it to our 
people as an everlasting inheritance, if rafi'onalJi/ 
used. But, instead of this, what do we see, gener- 
ally? The veterans, which it may have taken a thou- 
sand years to assume their present dimensions of 12 
to 15 feet in diameter and 250 feet in height, are 
ruthlessly cut down. Their timber alone should be 
enough to satisfy the most greedy. But if he can 
realize an extra sum from the stumps and roots for I 
veneering they are dug up and sold across the 
waters, to furnish the finest furniture the world 
knows. The branches and twigs are pulled up and 
burnt, with very little care whether the first spread 
any further, and thus the young growth of thou- 
sands of acres is often destroved in a few hours. 

These forest fires are one of the greatest draw- 
backs to a healthy aftergrowth of young trees, and 
it should be the duty of every good citizen to prevent 
their too frequent occurrence. Most of them are 
caused by negligence. Either a campfire is not fully 
extinguished when left, or a match, used in lighting 
a cigar or pipe, is carelessly dropped, and fires the 
grass and dry leaves. If our young men must make 
smokestacks of themselves, they should at least take 
care how they kindle them for others. 

In any of our woodlands much could be done to fur- 



ther the growth of young timber by thinning out, 
cutting down the old, decaying trees first, and leav- 
ing only the most promising of the young growth, 
which will grow twice as fast, if they have room to 
develop. The oaks of California are not of much 
utility, except for firewood, and some of the species 
for tanbark, but if the old, decaying trees are cut 
out in midsummer they make good firewood, and the 
black oak, live oak, and chestnut oak can be peeled 
of their bark, which gives valuable tanning mate- 
rial, always brings a high price at the tanneries. 
Everything can be utilized, and better growth en- 
couraged in the young trees. The same will apply 
to any of our native woods, our magnificent spruces, 
firs and pines, madronas, mountain laurels, etc. All 
of them are available for some useful purpose, and 
will be benefited greatly by judicious thinning and 
systematic treatment. If the area is too large to 
handle in one year, divide it into districts and take 
part every year. You will thus have the full benefit 
of the timber, and encourage the growth and beauty 
of all, as it will give them a chance to develop. 

But there are immense tracts in the State which 
are bare of trees, and which could be made im- 
mensely more valuable, attractive and healthy by 
judicious planting. For this purpose I know of no 
better tree than the blue gum, or Eiicalyptm glohn- 
lus, which is entirely at home here. How much bet- 
ter would the vast plains of the San Joaquin and 
other valleys look if the fields were divided off by 
lines of these trees, which can be planted from the 
seed boxes when one year old, and in a few years 
would be large enough to serve as fence posts, be- 
sides furnishing all the firewood needed on the ranch, 
if topped say 15 feet from the ground. One of the 
best instances of such culture I know of is on the 
magnificent ranch of Judge Stanley, near Napa. All 
the fields, vineyards, orchards, etc., are divided off 
by double lines of eucalyptus, some of them 15 years 
old, of which part is topped every year. Besides 
these, the judge has several lots planted for forest 
culture, 6 to 8 feet apart, from which he cut one 
tree among many, 12 years old, which measured 120 
feet from bottom to top, and made one of the 
straightest and handsomest sticks of timber I ever 
saw. From these every other tree could be cut out 
and used ; they would sprout again from the roots, 
and yield the same amount again in a few years. By 
thus alternating every few years an inexhaustible 
supply of firewood and fencing could be realized, and 
yield, perhaps, a greater income than many a grain 
and fruit farm produces. 

I know of a tract of eucalyptus, planted on the 
Nadeau farm, not far from Los Angeles, which was 
cut when 8 years old and yielded, sold as firewood, 
over $300 per acre net, and would realize the same 
amount again in a very few years. That these great 
valleys would also become much healthier, if the 
eucalyptus was planted more frequently, has been 
proven by experience. Judge Stanley also contends 
that they are a great preventive of late frosts, as 
his vineyards do not suffer, when those of his neigh- 
bors, not similarly protected, are damaged by frost. 

This is but one of the many useful trees we could 
plant. Prof. Hilgard has already called attention 
repeatedly to the value of the black wattle (Acarttt 
clcoirrens) as tanning material. This tree is almost as 
rapid a grower as the eucalyptus, and highly orna- 
mental besides, and plantations of it would no doubt 
pay well. It is in this direction that we may expect 
the largest benefit from the Experiment Stations, 
to show us what we should plant ; and while these 
experiments will hardly apply to every part of the 
State, which has a different climate in almost every 
little valley, and such a variety of soils, yet they will 
indicate which we should try, and awaken the love 
of trees and tree planting so much needed. 

George Husmann. 

Napa, July 9, 1895. 



Young Oalcs for Ornament. 



To THE Editor: — The people of California would do 
well to give more attention to native California 
trees and shrubs for ornament. Some of them re- 
quire but little attention and trouble in order to ob- 
tain very satisfactory results. The California wal- 
nut, in some sections at least, grows very thriftily 
and becomes a beautiful tree. The maple does well. 
The Monterey pine and Monterey cypress are both 
native trees, and their merits are extensively recog- 
nized. The madrone and manzanita may be more 
difficult to establish, but are well worth the effort. 
The toyone thrives well under cultivation and is a 
beautiful evergreen plant even when the berries are 
not in color, but when they are ! They are then 
things of great beauty for two or three months. 

The California oaks have scarcely been thought of 
as cultivated ornamental plants or trees. "They 
grow so slowly '. " Of course they do, but, like all 
life — both animal and plant life — they are beautiful 
and enjoyable during the time of their immaturity. 

While some of them will germinate and grow if no 
care is bestowed upon them, cultivation and care 
will be appreciated and shown by them as much as 
any kind of a plant. Notice the small growth they 
make in the forest or field where they stand on the 
hard, dry, uncultivated ground, and notice the dif- 



ference where one has escaped the plow and culti 
vator m the orchard. While the tops show but little 
activity, the roots are following the retreating 
moisture into the depths below and are preparing to 
live, thrive and grow during the long dry California 
summers without any attention whatever. Out of 
curiosity, one having a top of about thirteen inches 
in the orchard was partly dug and partly pulled out 
and the root was found to be some four feet long and 
extending almost directly downwards. 

The oaks will hardly bear transplanting at any 
stage. Plant the acorns where you want the tree 
to stand. Prepare the ground by digging deeply 
and fertilizing and pulverizing and mixing the soil 
well. Plant the acorns about two inches deep in the 
rich, mellow soil— a lot of them; they will not all 
make trees. Give them about the same care and 
cultivation at first that you would your roses and 
they will show an appreciation of it. As they grow 
and crowd each other, it is very little work to thin 
them out, and in the meantime you have had the en- 
joyment of them. The foliage of the black oak is a 
rich, deep color, which is retained during the entire 
summer. They can be cut back, not like a Cyprus 
hedge, but more like a fruit tree, and can be shaped 
up and controlled to a considerable extent and can 
be made useful as a shelter or to hide unsightly 
objects. 

It will soon be time to gather the acorns if this 
suggestion is to be acted upon. Gather all the 
kinds within reach and send to your friends at a dis- 
tance for others or offer to exchange with others. 
Try all the kinds obtainable; and, while at it, try 
other forest tree seeds as well. The principal kinds 
of oaks are white oak, black oak, chestnut or tan- 
bark oak, live oak, besides others of less prominence. 

Pomagadel. 



Coast Industrial Notes. 



—A prune crop of 10,000,000 pounds is the estimate for Ore- 
gon, Washington and Idaho this season. 

—Seven ostrich farmers in southern California have sold 
$90,000 worth of feathers during the last year. 

—The Golden Gate Woolen Mills have a government con- 
tract for 6000 blankets, to be sent to Philadelphia. 

— The Columbia river salmon pack Is reported in the usual 
state of collapse ; still, at the close of the season, the aggre- 
gate will probably be about as in former years. 

— In about a month one of the largest blasts ever fired in 
California will be exploded at the Otay dam, where a 
granite cliff over 100 feet high and several hundred feet 
long will be removed by five tons of giant powder. Workmen 
are sinking a shaft eighty feet deep 100 feet back from the 
face of the cliff. At the bottom of the shaft tunnels will be 
run the required length, the powder planted and fired by 
electricity. 

— Prom a source deemed reliable it is learned that the Cuya- 
maca and Eastern railroad in San Diego Co. has been secured 
by the Southern Pacific. The plans, so far as ascertained, 
are that the Cuyamaca will be made the terminus of the 
Southern Pacific in San Diego city, the road traversing the 
most fertile portions of the county. The point of connection 
with the Southern Pacific system is not yet known, whether 
the line will extend southward from Tustin or from Riverside. 

— The importance of the China and Japan trade, and the im- 
mense amount of money it annually brings into the country, is 
shown by the value of the cargo of the last Northern Pacific 
steamer, the Tacoma. The value of the dutiable merchan- 
dise which passed through Tacoma to its various destinations 
was $290,084, while the goods consigned to parties in that city, 
upon which duty will be paid, was $129,87.5.84. The total 
value of the cargo upon which duty is collectable was $419,- 
959.84. 

—A big $.30,000 dredger is being finished at Hay & Wrights 
yard, in Alameda, for use on the San Joaquin levees. The 
bucket weighs five and a half tons; the flexible steel cables 
have each a tensile strength of sixty tons ; the boom on which 
the bucket swings is 20 inches square, 1.30 feet long, and was 
hewn out of one piece of timber. It has a 400-foot swing and 
will work in 60 feet of water. The dredger is 110 feet 
over all, 50 feet beam, 10 feet deep. Its capacity is calculated 
at 4000 yards per day. 

—The Railway Age, being duly sworn, doth solemnly aver 
that " out in San Francisco they are laughing at one of the 
amateur directors of the company of merchants that has re- 
solved to build a competing railway into the San Joaquin val- 
ley. The story is that at a meeting of the board to discuss 
the question of buying material, one director inquired, 'How 
much will fish plates cost?' Whereupon he was rebuked by a 
brother director for irrelevancy, because the time had not 
come to discuss 'the cost of dining car equipment !' " The rail- 
way journals published east of the Rockies have pooh-poohed the 
Valley Road right along, and have pretended to consider it a 
good joke. 

— The oldest olive tree in the United States is at the Mis- 
sion of San Juan Capistrano in San Diego county. The seed 
of this tree was brought from Barcelona, Spain, 126 years ago. 
The purpose of the Franciscan friars in planting olive trees in 
southern California was to pi'ovide food for the priests who 
came from the olive-growing districts of Europe. This vet- 
eran olive tree is fifty feet high, with a trunk five feet in 
diameter. Since the first planting of olive trees in California 
the industry has extended so that it to-day embraces 700,000 
trees, of which 400,000 were planted in 18913. Six years ago 
there were only 700 acres of olive groves in California. To- 
day there are 21,000 acres, .5000 of which arc in bearing. 

— The Tehuantepec railroad is an important factor in 
isthmuslan transportation. Transportation from San Fran- 
cisco by fast freight line to New York via Southern Pacific to 
New Orleans, and thence by water to New York, covering a 
distance of about 4600 miles, is accomplished in fourteen days. 
It takes 140 days to cover by sail the distance of 15,420 miles 
around Cape Horn, 60 days by steam along a route of 1:3,000 
miles via the Straits of Magellan, 25 days via transcontinental 
line, fast freight, over a distance of 'S.m miles, and only 20 
days via the Tehuantepec railroad, a distance of 4280 miles. 
A comparison in respect to time and distance of all-rail routes 
with the half rail and half ocean routes via New Orleans at 
once demonstrates the importance of this new Tehuantepec 
route as a competitor for a large class of traffic, and suggests 
why the Southern Pacific and Morgan line via New Orleans 
have been able to obtain from 75 to 90 per cent of the entire 
transcontinental traftic and dictate their own terms to com- 
peting lines. 



42 



July 20. 1895. 



THE HOME CIRCLE. 



An 



Old Favorite- 
Breeches." 



Little 



(A Ptkc county view of Special Providence.) 

I don't go much on religion, 

I never ain't had no show ; 
But I've got a middlin' tight grip, sir, 

On the handful of things I know. 
1 don't pan out on the prophets 

And free-will, and that sort of thing— 
But I believe in God and the angels, 

Ever since one night last spring. 

I come into town with some turnips. 

And mv little Gabe came along— 
No four-year-old in the country 

Could beat him for pretty and strong. 
Pert and chippy and sassy, 

Alwavs readv to swear and fight — 
And I'd" larnt him to chaw tobacker, 

.Just to keep his milk teeth white. 

The snow came down like a blanket 

As I passed by Taggart's store ; 
I went in for a jug of molasses 

And left the team at the door. 
They scared at something and started— 

I heard one little squall. 
And hell-to-split over the prairie 

Went team. Little Breeches and all. 

Hell-to-split over the prairie ! 

I was almost froze with skeer ; 
But we roused up some torches. 

And searched for them far and near, 
At last we struck bosses and wagon, 

Snowed under a soft white mound, 
Upsot, dead beat— but of little Gabe 

No hide nor hair was found. 

And here all hope soured on me, 

Of mv fellow critter.s' aid— 
I jest flopped down on my marrow bones. 

Crotch deep in the snow, and prayed. 
*»»»*• 
By this, the torches was played out. 

And me and Isrul Parr 
Went off for some wood to a sheep fold 

That he said was somewhar thar. 

We found it at last, and a little shed 

Where thev shut up the lambs at night. 
We looked in, and seen them huddled thar. 

So warm and sleepy and white. 
And thar sot Little Breeches and chirped 

As peart as ever you see, 
" I want a chaw of tobacker. 

And that's wat's the matter of me." 

How did he git thar ; Angels. 

He could never hare walked in that storm : 
They jest stoopsd down and toted him 

To whar it was safe and warm. 
And I think that saving a little child, 

And bringing him to his own, 
Is a derned sight better business 

Than loafing around the Throne. 

—John Ha J'. 



Harry ncDougall's Conversion. 



By Belle Field. 

"What!" 

The astonishment in the word was 
simply indescribable, as Harry Mc- 
Dougall dropped his paper and regard- 
ed his cousin in dignified amazement. 

A prettier cousin than usual she was 
just then, her blue eyes and pink cheeks 
a little bluer and pinker, as she viewed 
her surprised relative, who soon found 
voice to remonstrate: 

"Do you mean to say that you, 
whose sole ambition should be the en- 
hancing of woman's chief virtue, retir- 
ing modesty, are really proposing to 
enter my mill as bookkeeper ? If so, 
you are either very ignorant of what 
would be expected of you in that cap- 
acity or you are forgetting what is due 
your own womanhood. Henrietta Mc- 
Dougall, I am ashamed of you 1 " 

The subject of this tirade merely gave 
her decided chin a lift, and made answer: 

" You need not flatter yourself that 
are going to extinguish me with your 
heroics, Harry, for I most certainly do 
intend to go into an office, even if the 
shock should prove serious to your con- 
servative organization. As you refuse 
my offer, I shall take a position with 
the Big Salt Lumber Company; but 1 
thought it would be pleasant to work 
with you." 

The young man cleared his throat 
two or three times before he found voice 
for expostulation. 

" But, Henrietta, it is not a woman's 
place. Contact with men in business 
life disarms woman of her best weapon, 
and withal her greatest charm. She 
wrecks her own matrimonial chances; 
for, you see, when men marry, they do 
not choose the girls who have thrust 
themselves forward, but tie for life to 
the home girl. Then, too," continued 
he, with a touch of pomposity, "woman's 
brain is of such different calibre that 
she is never a success in the business 
world. While I esteem you very highly 
as a friend and cousin, I could not give 
you a place in my ofiBce, I must have 



the broader outlook of a man, and do 
not feel that I could trust any woman 
with such a responsible position as that 
held by my bookkeeper. ' 

This time there was no mistaking the 
real indignation in the girl's face and 
voice. 

" Harry I xhonld be very angry with 
your insinuations, but I really only pity 
one who holds such warped views. I 
want you to understand that girls now- 
adays are not compelled to go about on 
tiptoe and with bated breath for fear 
of spoiling their matrimonial chances. 
Talk about trustworthiness ! Who 
absconds with the employer s money ? 
Not the woman. Talk about the 
'broader outlook!' Wait until your 
crosseyed bookkeeper goes to South 
America with the contents of your safe, 
and you will wish you had one of the 
untrustworthy women in his place." 

"Don't let us quarrel, my dear." 
patronized Harry, " for I did not wish 
to offend you. I was shocked that you, 
so young, so pretty, wished to do man's 
work." 

" It is not man's work, Harry," said 
the girl, quickly. " Work is classified 
according to its excellence, and not the 
sex of the worker. But there is no 
arguing with you," turning to leave 
the room. " On second thought," and 
she paused on the threshold, "let me 
predict that you will fall hopelessly in 
love with one of this class of women, 
marry her, and become a thorough con- 
vert to the idea of women in business." 

"Marry a creature of that stamp ? 
Not until I become an imbecile, /shall 
marry for a companion; a woman who 
will know her sphere and keep it." 

"Ah, it will certainly happen, my 
sapient cousin, and how I will gloat 
over you and remind you of these spicy 
conversations of ours ! " 

With a merry laugh the girl closed 
the door and ran lightly down the hall, 
leaving behind her a much beruffled 
young man. 

Harry McDougisll was not at heart 
an intolerant man, but his whole life 
environment has been conservative in 
the highest degree. 

His residence in the West had been 
but short, and he was daily surprised 
at the freedom accorded women about 
him. He marveled at the unconscious- 
ness with which business men accepted 
into their precincts the entrance of 
businesswomen, and abhorred, through 
ignorance of the thought of the times, 
their "intrusion," as he called it. 

His disposal of " the superfluous 
woman " had been by matrimony, or 
relegation to her own roof-tree, not 
considering that the superfluous woman 
had no one to marry her, nor some- 
times a male relative to provide a roof- 
tree, or support it beneath its shelter, 
even did the bread of dependence taste 
sweet to her. 

But a few months before young Mc- 
Dougall had come to Kansas from Con- 
necticut, to take charge of a flouring 
mill lately purchased by his father, a 
properity situated in a small town some 
thirty miles west of EUiston, Henriet- 
ta's home. 

The business was prospering, and 
prosperity does not make an intolerant 
man tolerant; so upon his visits to El- 
liston his altercations with Henrietta 
had become more spirited, culminating 
in the application by the girl for posi- 
tion as bookeeper in his mill, and his 
pompous refusal of it. 

The next morning, before breakfast, 
a telegram informed Harry that his 
father had been the victim of an acci- 
dent in the old mill at home, and desired 
the immediate presence of his son. He 
had barely time to write instructions 
to his bookkeeper, placing necessary 
funds at his disposal, before the next 
train for the East. 

"What a pity you did not accept my 
offer of yesterday," said Henrietta, 
jokingly, as they stood beside the wait- 
ing train. "Just think how well I 
could have taken care of your interests 
during your absence." 

" Pouf ! " ejaculated Harry, with ex- 
aggerated contempt. "When I want 
a shortage in my accounts, I will em- 
women to manage my affairs." 

And he swung himself aboard in time 
to escape his cousin's just wrath. 

But DO sooner had he taken up the 



familiar duties at home than the dis- 
tracting news came from the West 
that his trusted bookkeeper (Henriet- 
ta's detestation), had left suddenly, 
with the contents of the safe. 

The young man's state of mind can 
be imagined. His father was not yet 
out of danger, and, even had he been, 
the business required him to stay in the 
East. His money — a considerable sum 
was gone; the mill was not running, 
and orders already in could not be filled. 
It meant ruin for him. 

After several days of distracted 
writing and telegraphing, he received 
a letter from Elliston, which ran: 

" Mr. Henry McD<)L-o.m.l— 

" Dear Sir: I have Wsitedyour mill, looked 
over the premises, examined the books, and, if 
satisfactory to you, am willing to take charge 
of the business during your absence, advanc- 
ing the necessary money. This, providing 
you will sell me a one-half interest in the prop- 
erty, at the price asked by the former owner, 
and will accej)t the money I shall advance as 
part purchase money. 

" Awaiting your decision, I am 

"Very truly yours, D. P. Boaruman." 

His first sense was one of relief, fol- 
lowed by wonderment. David Board- 
man was senior member of the firm 
owning one the largest mills in Elliston, 
and his check could be drawn for a 
larger amount than that of any other 
man in the city. What could he want, 
Harry asked himself, with an interest 
in a mill in a little country town, where 
such a financial disaster had occurred 
as had happened to his own business ? 

But the letter was evidently in good 
faith, and Harry telegraphed his ac- 
ceptance immediately, knowing that a 
partnership with Mr. Boardman would 
insure his future. 

Three months later, Harry alighted 
from the train at his Western home. 

In the intervening time, his partner 
had not only made up the loss the busi- 
ness had sustained, but had brought 
profits higher than ever before. Mr. 
Boardman had remained constantly on 
the ground, however, but had signified 
his intention of returning to Elliston 
as soon as Harry returned. 

A farmer drove past Harry, as he 
walked to the mill. He could not stop 
his loaded wagon on the river bank, 
but he called out cheerily: 

"Glad ter see yer back, Mr. Mc- 
Dougall. Mighty fine partner o'yours 
in thar ! " 

With a light heart, Harry pushed 
open the office door, then stopped, 
aghast. He saw, busily writing at the 
desk, not the bent form of David Board- 
man, but a young lady. For a moment 
he stood staring at the trimly-attired 
figure and sleek, dark head. Then a 
low, yet decisive voice said: 

" Were there any letters for us to- 
night, John ? " 

Before Harry could frame a reply, 
the young woman, turning, met his 
gaze. She rose and advanced, a trifle 
of color coming to her cheek, yet her 
demeanor cool and unruffled, and asked: 

" I beg your pardon, sir. I thought 
it was the janitor. Is there anything 
I can do for you ? " 

Harry pulled himself together, and 
replied: 

"I should like to see Mr. Board- 
man." 

The girl looked puzzled for a moment, 
then answered: 

" I fear you have made a mistake. 
Mr. Boardman lives in Elliston, the 
next town east." 

"I certainly have made no mistake," 
returned Harry, decidedly. ' ' I have 
letters in my pocket dated at this 
place, and settling the details of a 
transaction by which he becomes part 
owner of this property." 

" Mr. Boardman certainly has no in- 
terest here," stated his informant. " I 
am Miss Boardman, and have bought 
half this mill, which I am managing 
until Mr. McDougall arrives from the 
East." 

For an instant Harry felt as though 
he were on a toboggan slope several 
miles long, not knowing where the end 
might be; but he pulled himself together 
and handed the young lady one of his 
cards. 

At sight of the piece of pasteboard, 
the young lady looked wonderstruck, 
and again flushed a trifle. Then she 
looked up, and ventured: 

" And you thought — " 



"Yes, I thought so," he answered 
comprehensively. " But I am so be- 
wildered now that I am past all think- 
ing. Will you please explain some 
things that I cannot understand ? " 

Within a few moments Harry dis- 
covered that instead of selling an in- 
terest in his mill to Mr. David B. Board- 
man, he delivered it over to a Philistine 
in the person of Dorothy P. Boardman, 
the aforesaid gentleman's niece and 
junior partner; that she, having extra 
funds on her hands, and hearing of Mc- 
Dougall's trouble, had felt sorry for 
him, investigated, found that the in- 
vestment would be a good one, and 
made him an offer. 

She had an idea, from what her uncle 
had told her of Harry's being a woman- 
hater, that he was an elderly, cross- 
grained old bachelor, and found him to 
be a young Adonis, over six feet tall, 
with an expression in his blue eyes as 
he looked on her that belied the name 
of woman-hater. 

She had not intended to deceive him, 
but had merely signed her name as she 
was in the habit of doing in her busi- 
ness relations, without dreaming of 
being confused with her uncle, not 
taking into account Harry's short resi- 
dence in the State. 

It was astonishing to see how readily 
the young man reconciled himself to 
having for a partner this young, busi- 
ness-like woman, with the bright, gray 
eyes and quiet voice. 

Miss Boardman went back to Elliston 
at once, and Harry took up his work 
alone. His bookkeeper was never found, 
perhaps because the amount of his em- 
bezzlement was not large enough to 
make much stir, but Henrietta said it 
was because of his "broader outlook." 

That young lady also made frequent 
remarks about the number of times 
that Harry found it necessary to seek 
his partner's advice, and her triumph 
was complete when, a few months after 
the first partnership was consummat- 
ed, Dorothy Boardman, upon much 
persuasion, consented to enter into 
another partnership with the house of 
McDougall, the papers to be made out 
for life. 

All this was five years ago. Now 
the little country station threatens to 
be quite a town, and Harry's prosper- 
ity has grown along with it. He gives 
his wife credit for his prosperity, as 
for his happiness, and has come to glory 
in having married one of the class once 
so obnoxious to him. 

David Boardman McDougall, aged 
three, is, in spite of his long name, 
quite the most intelligent child in ex- 
istence, so his parents aver, and Hen- 
rietta McDougall is head bookkeeper 
in her cousin's mill, having come to 
see the working out not only of her 
hopes but of her prophecy. 

Summer Dresses. 



Ginghams of the best Scotch qualities 
are now advertised as zephyrs, but are 
to some extent replaced by other 
fabrics. Those who still prize their 
fineness and durability make them up in 
the simplest manner, with the belted 
waist shirred around the neck, or else 
quite plain at the top, and buy one of 
the large yoke collars of white nainsook 
embroidery in open designs to wear with 



Awarded 
dlghest Honors— World's Fall 
Gold Medal, Midwinter Fair. 

•DR; 
^ CREAM 

BAKING 
MWDBt 

Most Perfect Made. 
40 Years the Standard. 



July 20, 1895, 



The Pacific Rural Press. 



48 



them. The plan is a good one, as the 
collarette soils soonest, and when kept 
separate can be sent to the laundry 
without the dress. Others prefer a 
stock of ribbon to match the belt, and 
add to this the little Paquin points of 
creamy batiste bordered with narrow 
yellow Valenciennes that are now sold 
in the shops — one pair of points for 
turning down on the collar, another for 
turning up from the wrist on the mut- 
ton-leg sleeves. The skirt, five yards 
wide, deeply hemmed, has a gored front 
and side breadth and straight gathered 
back breadths. This skirt should hang 
separate from the belt of a closely gored 
foundation skirt of the same gingham, 
or one of a solid color to correspond. 
— Harper's Bazaar. 



Gems of Thought. 



Of all combats the sorest is to conquer 
ourselves. — Thomas a Kempis. 

A friend may well be reckoned the 
masterpiece of nature. — Emerson. 

If hours did not hang heavy, what 
would become of scandal ?— Bancroft. 

Faith is the root of, all good works. 
A root that produces nothing is dead. — 
Bishop Wilson. 

Simplicity is that grace which frees 
the soul from all unnecessary reflections 
upon itself. — Fenelon. 

Habits, soft and pliant at first, are 
like some coral stones, which are easily 
cut when first quarried, t^ut soon become 
hard as adamant. — Spurgeon. 

Habit is the deepest law of human 
nature. It is our supreme strength, if 
also, in certain circumstances, our 
miserablest weakness. Let me go once, 
scanning my way with any earnestness 
of outlook, and successfully arriving, my 
footsteps are an invitation to me a 
second time to go by the same way; it 
is easier than any other way. Habit is 
our primal fundamental law; habit and 
imitation, there is nothing more peren- 
nial in us than these two. They are the 
source of all working and all appren- 
ticeship, of all practice and all learning 
in the world. — Carlyle. 

I have always preferred cheerfulness 
to mirth. The latter I consider as an 
act, the former as a habit of the mind. 
Mirth is short and transient, cheerful- 
ness fixed and permanent. Those are 
often raised into the greatest trans- 
ports of mirth who are subject to the 
greatest depressions of melancholy. 
On the contrary, cheerfulness, though 
it does not give the mind such an 
exquisite gladness, prevents us from 
falling into any depth of sorrow. Mirth 
is like a flash of lightning, that breaks 
through a gloom of clouds, and glitters 
for a moment ; cheerfulness keeps up a 
kind of daylight in the mind, and fills it 
with a steady and perpetual serenity. — 
Addison. 

Infidelity gives nothing in return for 
what it takes away. What, then, is it 
worth? Everything to be valued has 
a compensating power. Not a blade of 
grass that withers, or the ugliest weed 
that is flung away to rot and die, but 
reproduces something. Nothing in 
nature is barren. Therefore, every- 
thing that is or seems opposed to 
nature cannot be true ; it can only exist 
in the shape that a diseased mind im- 
parts to one of its coinages, — a mass 
of base money that won't pass current 
with any heart that loves truly, or any 
head that thinks correctly. And in- 
fidels are poor, sad creatures ; they 
carry about them a load of dejection 
and desolation, not the less heavy that 
it is invisible. It is the fearful blind- 
ness of the soul. — Chalmers. 



Popular Science. 

The planet Saturn has eight moons. 
One of these, Titan, is bigger than our 
own moon. 

Farthest of all the planets from the 
sun, save only Neptune, is Uranus. 
This is another gigantic orb, its mass 
being equal to sixty earths like ours. 

Ninety-nine of every hundred human 
beings, says Dr. Cyrus Edson, are un- 
conscious for several hours before death 
comes to them. All the majesty of 
intellect, the tender beauty of thoughts 
or sympathy, or charity, the very love 



of those for whom love has filled all 
waking thoughts, disappear. As a 
little baby just born into the world is 
but a little animal, so the sage, the 
philosopher, the hero, the statesman, 
becomes but a dying animal at the last. 
A merciful unconsciousness sets in, as 
the mysterious force we call life lowly 
takes leave of its last citadel, the 
heart, and what is has become what 
was. This is death. 



Curious Facts. 



Diamonds so small that 1500 go to 
the karat have been cut in Holland. 

There is something like forty thou- 
sand public schools in Japan. The 
buildings are comfortable and educa- 
tion is compulsory. 

Charles Dudley Warner says that 
the difference between faith cure and 
mind cure is that mind cure requires no 
faith and faith cure requires no mind. 

A newspaper has just been started in 
London, which is printed on a postal 
card. 'The first number has four illus- 
trations, a comic tragedy, a few jokes 
and puzzles and some advertisements. 

The healthiest spot in the world ap- 
pears to be a little hamlet in France, 
named Aumone. There are only forty 
inhabitants, twenty-three of whom are 
eighty years of age and one is over 
one hundred. 

Farmers in Mexico use oxen of one 
color in the morning and of another 
color in the afternoon. They have no 
reason for doing so beyond the fact 
that their forefathers did it, and they 
conclude it must be the right thing to 
do. 

The use of alcoholic stimulants is not 
confined to man. Col. Spohr, in a 
German military newspaper, points out 
how frequent is the case in his country 
of horse trainers forcing their animals 
to indulge in alcoholic "pick-me-ups." 
The writer declares that the effect of 
alcohol on horses is of a highly injurious 
nature. 

Condensed milk is exported from 
Switzerland to all countries of the world. 
South America and India take large 
quantities, and among the Chinese the 
milk is becoming popular as a jam, and 
eaten with bread. Since the commence- 
ment of 1890 an enormous impetus has 
been given to the Swiss condensed-milk 
industry by the allowance of drawback 
of the duty on the sugar used in its 
manufacture. The immediate effect of 
this concession was an increase in 
the exports of over twenty per cent. 

Facts About Precious Stones. 



The emerald is now one of the rarest 
of precious stones. 

'The black diamond is so hard that it 
cannot be polished. 

An uncut diamond looks very much 
like a bit of the best gum arabic. 

The diamond, in a sufficient heat will 
burn like a piece of charcoal. 

The Island of Ceylon is the most re- 
markable gem deposit in the world. 

Every gem known to the lapidary has 
been found in the United States. 

The carat, used in estimating the 
weight of gems, is a grain of Indian 
wheat. 

The Orloff diamond is believed to have 
been responsible for sixty-seven mur- 
ders. 

The diamond, if laid in the sun and 
then carried into a dark room, shows 
distinct phosphorescence. 

When a fine ruby is found in Burmah, 
a procession of elephants, grandees, and 
soldiers escort it to the king's palace. 

The sapphire which adorns the sum- 
mit of the English crown is the same 
that Edward the Confessor wore in his 
ring. 

When Pizzaro sacked Puru many 
gems were obtained, but a monstrous 
emerald, as large as an ostrich egg, 
called the " Great Mother " was hidden 
by the natives and has never been 
found 

It is said that if two tuning forks of 
the same pitch are placed facing each 
other, the one sounding, the other 
silent, in a few seconds the the silent 
one will be giving out a distintly audible 
tone. 



DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 



Household Hints. 



Matting should not be washed with 
soap and water. Lift it from the floor, 
dust well on both sides, and wipe it 
carefully with a fairly strong solution 
of salt water. 

To drive away flies: Brush over the 
windows every morning with a little 
oil of sassafras, and provide a way of 
escape for the flies, who dislike sassafras 
and will not settle on or even near it. 

If a fruit jar cover will not readily 
come off, invert the jar and put the 
top in hot water for a minute or two, 
and you will be surprized to find how 
easily the cover yields to a very slight 
effort. 

A simple remedy for neuralgia is to 
apply grated horseradish, prepared the 
same as for table, to the temple, when 
the face or head is affected, or to the 
wrist when the pain is in the arm or 
shoulder. 

Before a woolen garment is put away 
it should be quickly pressed with a hot 
iron. Heat will destroy the egg. Then 
the odoriferous moth ball and the 
penetrating camphor will do their work 
of keeping out more moths. 

Bags which are in frequent demand 
should be made in circular form and 
hemmed around the edge, to which cur- 
tain rings should be attached every 
two inches. They are to be hung from 
a tape run through the rings, and it is 
only the work of a moment to spread 
open the bag. 

In cooking green vegetables, such as 
peas, beans and asparagus, it will be 
found that by soaking them for an hour 
or two in cold water they will regain 
much of that fresh, delicious flavor 
vv hich is the principal charm of conn try 
vegetables. Also a spoonful of salt in 
the boiling water in which they are 
cooked will preserve their green color. 

A very simple, safe, and useful tonic 
to be used in cases of indigestion is an 
infusion of rhubarb, gentian, carbonate 
of iron, and Spanish licorice. This is 
prepared by pouring a pint of boiling 
water upon twenty grains of each of 
the ingredients, mixed. Allow it to 
cool, and of this infusion take two or 
three teaspoonfuls three times everv 
day. ^ 

To take stains of acids from black 
woollen garments apply to the place a 
sponge dipped in strong hartshorn, 
wetting the stain thoroughly. If the 
color is not then restored, repeat the 
operation in twenty-four hours. Should 
that fail, dip the sponge in black ink 
and thoroughly saturate the stain or 
discoloration, twice on successive days. 
This never fails. 

An Easy Way to Take Castor OU.— 
Pour water into a glass to the height 
of about half an inch; then add the 
castor oil, which will float on the top 
of the water, and drop into the oil a 
teaspoonful of any home-made wine. 
This causes the oil to run together in 
the middle in a compact globe, which 
is poured quickly down the throat, and 
goes down as easily as an oyster. 

Every article of food should be kept 
covered until it appears on the table. 
Milk and butter should be kept in air- 
tight covered vessels. They take up 
every odor flying in the air, and are 
positively harmful to the stomach after 
standing uncovered for an hour or two. 
Not only odors, but the animalcula; 
that fill the air are attracted to butter 
and milk. Uncovered jelly is a menace 
to family health, yet in iwo-thirds of the 
pantries in the city will be found half- 
used dishes of jelly standing uncovered. 



Domestic Recipes. 



Graham Gems. — Two cupfuls gra- 
ham flour, one cup of white flour, one 
teaspoonful of salt, one heaping tea- 
spoonful of soda, one and one-half cup- 
fuls of sour milk or cream, and one egcr 
beaten light. Beat hard for five min- 
utes. Bake in a moderately hot oven. 
One teaspoonful of sugar may be added 
if desired. 

Pearl Barley and Apples. —Pick 
and wash four ounces of pearl barley, 
and let it stand in water twelve hour.s| 
drain and put it into a pan with three 
pints of water; add a little salt and 
boil for two hours; pour this into a pie- 
dish which has been well buttered; 
add half a pound of peeled and cored 
apples and two ounces of sugar. Bake 
in a moderate oven for one hour. Serve 
with sugar and cream. 

Dre.ssed Potatoes.- Take some 
large, smooth potatoes, wash thorough- 
ly and roast in the oven. When done, 
cut off the tops, and carefully scoop 
out the inside. Rub this through a fine 
sieve and add a teaspoonful of grated 
cheese, a dash of cayenne and salt. 
Melt two ounces of fresh butter in a 
stew pan, put in the potato and make 
it hot, fill the skins of the potatoes with 
this mixture. Set them in the oven for 
a few minutes and serve. 

Almond Filling.— Pour a gill of wa- 
ter over half a pound of granulated 
sugar, mix together aud heat in a 
saucepan. Boil until the syrup forms 
a thread from the tine of a fork when 
you dip it in and out quickly. Have 
the whites of two eggs beaten to a 
stiff' froth, pour the boiling syrup slow- 
ly over the eggs, and beat 'until cold 
and stiff'. Have two dozen Jordan al- 
monds blanched and grated, and stir 
them into the mixture. Spread this 
between the layers of cake, ice the top 
and cover with blanched almonds. 

Curried Eggs.- First boil hard the 
number of eggs you intend to curry, 
and cut each when cold into four pieces 
lengthwise. Slice an apple and an 
onion finely, and fry in butter; stir in 
a desertspoonful of curry powder, ditto 
flour, and one gill of stock, or more if 
the curry is too thick, and stir till the 
whole is well mixed, simmer slowly for 
ten minutes. Take half the pieces of 
eggs and warm in the curry, and warm 
the other pieces in the oven. To serve, 
arrange the curry on a silver dish, place 
a border of nicely boiled rice round it, 
and garnish the dish prettily with the 
plain pieces of egg. 



"Maudy," said Farmer Corntossel, 
as he set down a bucket of spring 
water and leaned against the door- 
post, "ain't the Goddess of Liberty a 
female?" "'Course." "Ain't Queen 
Victoria a lady ? ' " Certainly. " 
"Ain't all our ships called she?" 
"Invariably." "Ain't the statoo of 
freedom in the feminine gender ? " 
"It is." "Well, what do you 'manci- 
pated women want, anyhow — the 
earth ? " 



There were whole streets in Tyre 
entirely occupied by glass works, and 
it is stated that the first glass houses 
were erected in Tyre. The glass 
houses of Alexandria were highly cele- 
brated for the ingenuity and skill of 
their workmen and the extent of their 
manufactures. 



Pans, umbrellas, kites, spectacles, 
gongs, bank notes, postage stamps are 
all the inventions of the Chinese. 
Hanway was the first to introduce the 
umbrella into England, and he bor- 
rowed the idea from China. 



Highest of all in Leavening Power. — Latest U. S. Gov't Report 



Powder 



4^ 



The Pacific Rural Press. 



July 20, 1896, 




HERCUL ES 

GEARED WINDMILL 
mPROVED DAVIS 

WIN DM ILL. 

Patent Non-Shrinkable Tanks, 
Deep-Well Pumps, 

All Kinds of Pumps. 

Do not buy an Eastern machine when you can 
get a better article made at home 
for less money. 

The Board of Supervisors of San Joaquin county 
are using about twenty of my windmills for road 
sprinkling. „ . 

Write for Prices. 

R. F. WILSON— Dear Sir:— You sold me in 1892 
two windmills (the Hercules): one at Fowler, 
Fresno Co.. and one at Antelope Valley, Tulare Co. 
They have been in constant use ever since and not 
a dollar of expense thus far. When a mechanic 
builds ii meritorious machine, I think it proper he 
should receive credit. Yours truly. 

•JUDGE S. J. NYE, Oakland. 

R. E. WILSOIN, 

STOCKTON, CAL. 

■Vforks Cor. VV. Main and Lincoln Sts. 

OfBce N. Commerce St. 



MONARCH CAR PRESS 

10 TONS BOX CAR SaOO t 

I MONARCH JR.o.o,.u,Yiiu.SJ» 

"HC ^lUCW 

AR PRESS limiB 

.WORLD. 




Monarch and 

Junior Monarch 

HAY F»RESS. 

Patented by Jacob Price. 

ALSO 

Double-End HURRICANE Press 

(Two Sizes). 
FOR SALE BY 

L. C. nOREHOUSE, 

S.\N I.EANDRO, « AL, 
Wn. H. QRAV (ieneral Agent. 



li&HTNING HAY RRESS 

FULL CIRCLE. 
TWO FEEDS l^-'l^M TO CIRCLE 




STEEL. MOST RAPID AND POWERFUL.: 
K C HAY PRESS CO. 

*<ys KANSAS 9ITV MO. 



VEHICLES 

ALL KINDS. 



HARNESS 

ALL KINDS. 




No. 600. Fr ce. $65. 

Top Buggies ®75 to »136 

Koad AVagons 4B to 60 

Two .Seat Wagons 45 to llO 

Phaetons lOOto 150 

Snrries and Carriages 12Sto 200 

Harness 8 to 35 

WE SHIP EVERYWHERE. 

Scrd -if stamp for Catalogue or call. 

CALIFORNIA W4G0N AND CARRIAGE CO., 

3(>!/j I'HK.MONT ST.. SAN l'K.\ N f I SCO 



1/ I$8tl8 DRUMMST S.F.V/ 



AT • FOLKS • 

nslD? "AyTT-rORPd.KNR PILLa"Ux« ISlbi. 8 
mrinih. Two HP no ■!■)< n.'^s. contain n.i i.rti«oii »n>\ n#vcr 
fftll. Rnld hv Driieel»tf» f-v^rvwhpre r-r •••nt >.t wr\\). P«r- 
tioaUra(8eklc<i)4c. WIIXoX SPECIFIC CO. Pbila. Pk 

FRUIT^VAPORATOR 

I II V I I "^^^ ZIMMERMAN 
Th«. Htandnrd MMblne 
Dllferent slzei *nd pricei. Xllnstrated Catalogue free, 
THE BLYMTCU IltON WORKS OU., CIucIbbMI, O. 





Fertilizers containing a high percentage of potash pro- 
duce the largest yields and best quality of 

Wheat, Rye, Barley, Oats, 

and all winter crops. 

Send for our pamphlets on the use of potash on the farm. They are sent Iree. 
It will cost you nothing to read ihem, and they will save you dollars. Address, 

GERMAN KALI WORKS. 93 Nassau Street, New Yorl;. 



Prune Dipping Machine, 






VAOP C/A I_ I FOR rM I « 

SAN FKANCI.SCO, CAL. 
iNCORPOHATEi) April. 1874 




F'alciited December Hth, IWi. 

A Machine lor Scalding In Hot Lye Water and Rinsing in Cold Water, Plums, Prunes aud Qrapes ol 

ail l(lnds. 

We also mauufacture and deal in 

CUNNINGHAM PRUNE SPREADERS, GALVANIZED IRON GRADER 
ELEVATORS AND FRUIT CONVEYORS 

For both Green and Dried Fruit. 

DIPPER CAl'LURONS, GALVANIZED COLD WATER CAULDRONS, FURNACE IRONS, 
DIPPING BASKKTS. FLOl>R TRUCKS. FIELD CAR8, TRANSFER CARS, 
TURN TABLES, and a General Line of 

F^RUIT DRYERS* SUF»F»LIES. -♦-f-M-^-f 

L. CUNNINGHAM, 

44« West Santa Clara St SAN JOSE. CAL. 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue of Fruit Dryers' Supplies. 

ALEXANDER & HMMON, 

RIO BONITO NURSERIES, Biggs, Butte Co., Cal. 



DECIDUOUS RRUIT TREES 

OUR SF'ECIrtLT'V. 

Tbe most Complete Assortment of General Nursery Stock grown on the Pacific Coast 



1,000,000 Trees for the Season of 1894-95 In Stock. 

49" Acknowledged everywhere to be equal to the best. Guaranteed to t>e beultlij and free from 
cale or other pests. 

Send for Calalogue and Prices. Correspondence solicited. Address: 

Alexander & Hammon, 

BISSS, Butte Countv, Cal. 




VV R I T K 
F O 1{ 
CATALOGUE 
NO. 1.5. 



Jackson's 

Cross -Compound Engines anS'^^^Whirlpoor' Centrifugal Pumps 

FOR EVERY DUTY AND CAPACI f Y. 

BYROIN JMCK-SOIN mMCHIINE \A/ORKS. 

625 Sixth Street ^an Francisco. 




When you buy a Water Tank get one that will not 
dry out and shrink. 



THE 



PaJPJJ Non-Shrinking Water Tank, 

The only one suitable for dry, hot climates, 
COSTS NO MORE THAN COMMON. 
Ask your dealer, or write to 

PACIFIC TANK CO., 

(Sole Manufacturers), 

City Omcet 33 HEALB STREET, 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



^^^^ 

Capital i'alil U|> Vl.UOW.UUO 

Reoervf FuucI Hiiil llnillvlilcct l'roHt>, 130,000 
DIvldeufU Paid tu Storkliulilem H3a,OO0 

OFFICE Its 

II. M. L.*RUE Presideni. 

1. C. STEELE Vice-Prestdeni 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER.... Cashier and Manairer. 
C. H. Mccormick Secretary. 

General Banklni; Deposits Received. Gold and 
Silver. Bills of Exohanfre Boutrht aud Sold. Lohuh 
on Wheat and Country Product? a Specially. 

January 1. I8»4 A MONTPKLLIRR Mauairer 

Price's Traction 
Engine. 




We have one of these engines that was used 
about one month last season aud was taken back 
by us by reason of illness of purchaser. Engine is 
in perfect order, and in better working order than 
when Orst sent from the factory. A BARGAIN. 
Indicated power, 80-horse; Cylinders, 8x8; Wheels, 
8 ft. high, 28 in. wide; weight, less than 10 tons. 
Price when new, I45U0. 

HOOKER & CO., 

16 and IH Uramm Stret-t. Shu Francisco. 





The Williams Standard Typewriter 

Is a great improvement over the old " lift and 
peek" machines. You see your writing while 
writing it. No lifting of platen. No dirty ribbon. 
Perfect alignment. Weighs but 10 ix)unds Does 
the finest work. Easiest learned. No experiment. 
In use 3 years. Adopted by British War Depart- 
ment over all the old-fasbioned " blind " machines. 
Write for sample work and illustrated catalogue 
aud testimonials. 

PACIFIC STATES TYPE FOUNDRY, 

409 WaslilnKtun St S»u ITancisco. 

Sole Agents for California. 



the "smalley" 
"feed""§aVers" 




KnNilaKP >V Fodder Cult IT-., fMrhsndund power. 
Rool CiitliTH A- Vl-K'Iblr Slii iTK, hand 4 power. 
Farm Feed .»llll.<, f r conr ..r pulley drive. Ear 
Corn <;rind<Tf., &: .•<li<-lli.r!,. . ^, , 

tj*'-"llow to Kent ii Dr..utli," our 'Oo band book 
r<ir Slock Fordern Price l.ii>t mniUJ/rer. 
.'«>.>IAI,I.EV .IIFIJ. !'«»., .»laiiltowoc. Win. 



TREE - WASH. 

011\/» Dip. 

"Greenbank" Powdered Caustic 
Soda and Pure Potasli. 

T. lA/. JrtCK-SOIN «fc CO. 
8ole Agents. - - No. 226 Market Stre* t. 

SAN FRANCISCO. CAL 

LEE D. CRAIG, 

Notary Public and Commissioner of Deeds, 

316 MONTGOMERY STREET. 
Bet. Callforoia and Pine. SAN FRANCISCO, CaL. 



45 



S. F. MARKET REPORT. 

Market Review. 

San Francisco. July 17, 1895. 

FLOUR— We quote: Net cash prices for Family 
Extras, $.3 SOfi'S (Mi bbl ; Bakers' Extras, $3 40® 
83 50; Superfine, «2 35(2)2 (30 bbl. 

WHEAT— No. 1 Shipping Wheat is quotable at 
WJ^c per ctl for No. 1 and 90c for choice. Mill- 
ing Wheat, 97i4c@$l per ctl. 

BARLEY— Feed, fair to good, 60c; choice, &\Mc\ 
Brewing, 67i4(a72!/2C. 

OATS — We quote; Milling, $l(ai 05; Sur- 
prise, $1®1 10; fancy |feed, 95c(a$l 05; good to 
choice, 85ffl92Hc: poor to fair, 80(a'85c; Black, 
nominal ; Gray, 80@85c * ctl. 

CORN— We quot-^: Laree Yellow, »1 10@1 15; 
small Yellow, $1 15011 20 ¥ ctl; White, %\@ 
$1 10. 

RYE— Quotable at 81 '/ic ^ ctl for New, and 90c 
for Old. 

BUCKWHEAT— Quotable at 87!4(o 90c £tl. 

CRACKED CORN— Quotable at $25 f, ton. 

OILCAKE MEAL— Quotable at $25 per ton from 
the mill. Jobbing lots, $27 .50. 

COTTON SEED OILCAKE— Quotable at $24 
per ton. 

MIDDLINGS— Quotable at $16 50(Sil8 ,50 1? ton. 

BRAN— Quotable at $12 50(®13 50 f. ton. 

GROUND BARLEY— Quotable at $14 ton. 

HAY— New Wild Oat selling at $6 00(?,8; 
Wheat. $8@10; Alfalfa, $6(S 8 per ton. We quote 
old: Wheat, $8 00(2)10 50; Wheat and Oat, $7 .50® 
n .50; Oat,$7®9 50; Alfalfa, $6@8 00; Barley, 15 .50® 
7 .50; Clover, $7@8; Compressed, $7@9 50; Stock, *5 
@6 f( ton. 

STRAW— Quotable at 45®60o 14 bale. 

BEANS— We quote as follows : Bayos, $1 25 
(SI .50; Butter, $2® 2 25 for small and $2 2.5® 
2 50 for large; Pink, $1 2.5® 1 50: Red, $1 
®1 25; Lima, $.5® 5 50; Pea, $2 6()®2 80; Small 
White, $2 75@2 90; Large White, «2 79@$2 80; 
Blackeye, $.S®3 25; Horse, $1 25®1 40 If* ctl. 

SEEDS— We quote: Mustard seeds, nominal; 
Canary, 3<4@3'Ao: Hemp, S'/^c; Rape, \%@ilHc\ 
Alfalfa, 7c |4 tb; Flax, $2 2.5®2 5f»@ * ctl. 

POTATOES— Early Rose, 55®65c ctl in boxes 
and 40ft'50c ctl in sacks. Burbanks, 50®75c f, 
ctl in boxes and .5(lfti70c i? ctl in sacks. 

GREEN CORN— Berkeley, small crates, 75@85c ; 
Alameda, large crates, $1 5U@I 75. 

ONIONS— Quotable at 50@60c ctl. for Red, 
and .t(I®7.5c for Silver Skin. 

VARIOUS — We quote: Bay Squash, large 
box, 2.5(<'n40c; Cucumbers, Bay, 2.5rni40c ¥ box; 
Tomatoes, 40®65c; Bay, large boxes. $1 50@2; 
String Beans, 2®4c ^ lb; Green Peas, 2rrA214c 1* 
tt) for garden; Green Peppers, 1.5®20c * small 
box and 25®40c for large boxes; Green Okra, $1® 
$1 25 f( box; Turnips, 50c * ctl; Beets, .50c * sack; 
Carrots, 50c; Cabbage, 75c * ctl; Garlic, 2@3c f, 
It); Cauliflower, 50@75c ^ dozen; Dried Peppers, 
1.3®15c * ft. 

FRESH FRUIT— Apples— Quotable at 25®40c V 
large box for Green and .3.5(;/ 75c ^ oox for Red. 

Apricots— Quotable at 35®50c per box. 

Berries— Strawberries, Sharpless, $2®3 f, chest; 
Longworth, $3®4; Raspberries, $1 75®3 'S* chest; 
Blackberries, $1 50®2 50 f, chest. 

Crab Apples— Quotable at .35®50c box. 

Canteloupes— Quotable at $2@3 50 'it* crate. 

Cherries— Quotable at 65@75c ^ box. 

Currants— Quotable at $3 50®5 00 f, chest. 

Figs— Black, single layers, 40®Wc ^ box; double 
layers $1®1 25 per box. White, single layers, 
.30@40c; double layers, a5@50c. 

Grapes— Quotable at 50@65c ^ box for Foutaine- 
bleau and 65®75c a box for Muscat. 

Nectarines— Quotable at 40£/'50c box for white 
and ,50(a'75c for red. 

Plums— Quotable at 25@.50c. Prunes, 35@60c Tft 
box. 

Pears— Quotable at .35®60c in baskets and 35®40c 
in boxes. Bartlett, $1(" 1 25 a box. 

Peaches— Quotable at 30(g!.50c in boxes and 25@50c 
in baskets. 

Watermelons— Quotable at $10® 15 if* hundred. 

CITRUS FRUIT— We quote: California Navels, 
$1 2.5® 2; Seedlings, 75c@$l; Mexican Limes, 
$3 50® 4 ^ box; California Lemons, $2@3 for com- 
mon and $4(g 5 50 per box for good to choice. 

HONEY— We quote: Comb,10@Ilc; water-white, 
extracted, 5(a5'/4c; light amber, extracted, 5c; 
dark amber, 4@4Vic f. ft. 

BEESWAX— Quotable at 26®27c f. lb. 

BUTTER— Creamery— Fancy, 1.5@16c; seconds, 
14®14'/ic ft. Dairy- Fancy, 13!^@14c; fair to 
choice, ll@12i/jc; store lots, nominal. 

CHEESE— We quote : Choice to fancy, 5H®6c; 
fair to good, 4®5c; Eastern. ll@12!4c^ft. 

EGGS— tiuotal)le at 12@14c f, dozen for store 
and 17®18c for ranch; Eastern, 13^® 1.5c. 

POULTRY— We quote as follows : Live Turkeys 
— Gobblers, 13@14c; Hens, 12®13c f, ft; Roosters, 
$4 50® 5 for old, and $5 .5()@7 for young; Broilers, 
$1 hi)Cw2 50 for small and $.3@3 .50 for large; Fryers, 
J3 .50(0)4; Hens, $4 .50@5 50; Ducks, $3@3 .50 for old 
and $2 .50(rt5for young; Geese, 75c®$I pair; Gos- 
lings, $1®1 25; Pigeons, $1 12!4®1 25 Tf* dozen for 
old and for young. 

WOOL— We quote spring : 

Year's fleece, San Joaquin, ^ ft 6@6Hc 

6 to 8 months do 6@8c 

6 to 8 months Calaveras and foothill, free — 8@10c 

Do, detective 6@8c 

Northern, good toohoice 12@13!4c 

Do. defective 8@10c 

We quote Nevada spring: 

Light and choice 9@llc 

Heavy 6@8o 

Thomas Dcnigan, Son & Co.'s wool report is as 
follows ; 

While the wool trade of the past week has been 
fairly good, it was mostly confined to one or two 
large transactions in Northern wool. There is no 
continued inclination to purchase wool— merely to 
have some stock on hand, as was the desire a 
couple of weeks ago. Operators have arrived at 
the conclusion that prices are as high as they will 
reach for the present, therefore the tone of the 
local business has quieted down. Our quotations 
are full, and it would take extra choice wool to 
reach outside flgures. The bulk of spring business 
has been done, therefore increased values are not 
hoped for in our local market. 

HOPS— ©.uotable at 4®6c f. ft. 



Heavy Steers, 56 lbs up, 1* lb 



Review of tlie Dried Fruit 
Market. 



Light Cows, 30 to 50 lbs 

Stags 

Kips, 17 to 30 lbs 

Veal Skins, 10 to 17 lbs 

Calf skins, 5 to 10 lbs 

Dry Hides, over 16 lbs 

Dry Kips and Veal, 11 to 16 lbs. 
Dry Calf, uoder 4 lbs , 



Sound. 


Culls. 


10!4@llc 


9!/2@10 


. 9H@I0 


— @9 


fl ®— 


— @8 




— @8 


9 @— 


-®8 


— @7 


— @5 


. — ®7 


— @8 


— @8 


— @7 


-@10 


— @9 


19 ®i9H 14 miy% 


.14 ®\5 


10 @— 


. -»|!» 


14 @>13 



S. F., July 17th, mo. 

In the local dried fruit market interest has 
been chiefly centered during the last few 
days upon apricots. As the reports of a short 
crop have been confirmed, there has been a 
stead.y upward tendency in prices. The fall- 
ing off for this season, as compared with the 
season of 1894, is even greater than has been 
reported. Whereas last year the total prod- 
uct was approximatel.v 1200 carloads, it will 
this year not exceed 800 carloads. Half of 
this quantit.y — or from 135 to 175 carloads- 
will come from the southern California coun- 
ties, including Ventura. The market opened 
a month ago at seven cents, and has ad- 
vanced to nine, the last-named figure hav- 
ing been paid on Tuesday of this week at 
Vacaville for a strictly choice stock. The 
ideas of man.y well-informed persons are in 
advance even of this latter figure, and predic- 
tions of 10 cents and upward are freely made. 
The Eastern market opened at 10 cents, de- 
clined to 9'4, and has again advanced, to-day's 
figures being 9^4 to 10. 

The market for green stock for canning has 
weakened under pressure to realize on the 
part of growers in the Haywards-Niles dis- 
trict. The quantity thus forcing itself upon 
canners and still unsold is estimated at 1500 
tons, available for canning purposes onl.v as 
the growers have no facilities for drying. For 
some of this fruit $30 per ton has been refused, 
but sales could not now be made at 125. Pur- 
chases at $35 and $40, recentl.y made (presum- 
ably for Moorparks), were only warranted 
where the fruit was of such quality that 
" extra " grade goods could be made from it. 
Canners this year are carrying large lots of 
"standards" and "seconds," and have had 
in instances to pay high for green stock to 
even out their pack with "extras" in order 
to make their "standards" and "seconds" 
salable. This demand has reduced the antici- 
pated dried product of the bay counties to 
below the requirements of the trade when the 
actual demand sets in. The situation appears 
to warrant the confidence placed in it by local 
dealers and by holders of dried stock. At the 
advanced prices sales arc likely to be slow and 
demand small, since the Eastern trade is as 
yet unwilling to accept as true the reports of 
our short crop. As soon, however, as they can 
be convinced of the truth, there is not a doubt 
that they will la.v in their requirements at 
the best terms available. 

Prunes. 

We hear of a .sale of prunes— the four sizes, 
Santa Clara stock— at 4% cts. for September 
shipment. The crop now on the trees is of 
extra fine quality, and in tons will, in the 
judgment of well-informed persons, about 
equal the product of last year. 

Peaches. 

There is a fair demand for canning peaches 
at about $20 per ton for the best varieties. 
There will be a large quantity of this fruit 
dried. Growers cannot too often be urged to 
spare no pains or labor to make this fruit at- 
tractive and desirable. They should dry 
thoroughly and use sulphur freely in order 
that their product will be in proper condition 
! to carry. The peach, especially, is menaced 
I by loss of reputation from the Chinese ele- 
ment, which has recently been intruded 
largely into the dried-fruit business. From 
now on their influence is likely to be mani- 
fest in serious injury. Their method is to 
handle fruit in the cheapest and quickest way 
possible and to take what they can get. Our 
observation is that they ruin trees left to 
their care, owing to slovenly methods of cul- 
tivation. Their drying methods are so nasty 
that whoever has seen them is likely to swear 
off permanently from the practice of eating 
California dried fruit. 

Pears. 

As previously reported pears are a short 
crop and prices realized for green fruit ship- 
ment up to the present time are, generally 
speaking, satisfactory. It looks now as if this 
crop would net growers handsome returns. 
Canners are practicall.y out of pear stock and 
■sales of blocks of this fruit can be made at 
about $25 per ton, though for green shipment 
we have heard of .sales at 2 cts. per lb., of 
course, from favored localities. 

Aliiif>ii<ls. 

In marketing this season's almond crop 
growers should remember the lesson taught 
by the experience of last year, namely, that 
the early market must always be the best 
market. If California goes into the eastern 
market early this year it will be easier sailing 
bgreafter. The competition wljjcli our al- 



monds meet is that of the Terragona almond 
of Spain. This Spanish nut has already been 
sold in the New York market for future de- 
livery at a price equivalent to Sy^c per lb. 
The New York spot market for from 5 to 25 lb. 
lots is 9 to 9^4C. The almond is a seasonable 
product and the heavy demand begins before 
Thanksgiving and declines after New Year. 
After the holida.ys there is practically no 
trade for other than confectioner's purpose, — 
hence the necessity of getting in early in the 
season. Our growers last year accepted lower 
prices than ever before for the reason that 
their knowledge of the selling part of the nut 
business did not permit them to place them- 
selves in a position to meet foreign competi- 
tion. The eastern trade was stocked with 
foreign nuts by the time ours was ready for 
sale. Under a more intelligent plan of opera- 
tion California can easily take the market for 
standard varieties. The views of the local 
San Francisco trade at this time is 8 to 8%c 
for Languedocs f. o. b. in carload lots and 9 to 
10c for I. X. L., and the fancy varieties. The 
large acreage of this fruit now coming into 
bearing will of necessity compel California 
growers to adopt a radical selling policy in 
order to get the market. The crop for this 
season will be rather less than for the season 
of 1894. 

The Qutta Percha Supply. 



Whatever electricity may eventually 
prove to be, it has some qualities about 
which there is little doubt. One of 
these is its readiness to take a short 
cut, and run to ground at the slightest 
opportunity, instead of continuing 
along the conducting wire and finish- 
ing the work intended for it. The 
greatest care has, therefore, to be 
taken in insulating wire — that is, cov- 
ering it with some material which is a 
bad conductor of electricity, and will 
prevent its escape. As water is some- 
times used under very high pressure, 
so electricity is now employed, espe- 
cially for transmission over long dis- 
tances, and with the consequent heavy 
strain comes the need for insulating 
material of the highest efficiency. 
Gutta percha has been one of the in- 
sulating mainstays of the electric engi- 
neer, but disquieting rumors have been 
for some time prevalent as to the com- 
ing failure of the supply. Mons. 
Hourant, a French cutch merchant 
of Sarawak, has discovered that gutta 
percha can be extracted from the 
dried leaves of the gutta tree. The 
old native plan, which threatened to 
ruin the industry, was to cut down a 
tree to get the sap. A tree of thirty 
years of age would give only one catty 
of pure dry gutta; the same cjuantity 
is now obtained from two pluckings of 
the leaves. These pluckings are said 
not to injure the tree, which goes on 
s'eeding and reproducing its species. 
The millions of trees already cut down, 
and apparently destroyed by the native 
gutta hunters, will now come into 
service, as their stumps have sprouted 
out, much as an osier does, and 
although the shoots are too small to 
produce gutta, their leaves are as good 
for the purpose as those of an adult 
tree. 

Statistics show that an inch of rain 
falling upon an area of one square mile 
is equivalent to nearly 16,000,000 
gallc)ns, weighing 145,200,000 pounds, 
or 72,000 tons. Assuming this water 
to have fallen from clouds about half a 
mile, or say BOOO feet above the earth, 
we have for the energy represented by 
it about 28,000 horse power. With 
pumping machinery working at the 
low rate of consumption of two pounds 
of coal per horse power per hour, it 
would take 200 gross tons of coal to 
raise the water represented by an inch 
of rain on a square mile to the assumed 
height of 3000 feet. 

miOO Reward, «100. 

The readers of this paper will be pleased to 
learn that there is at least one dreaded disease 
that science has been able to cure in all its stages 
and that is Catarrh. Hall's Catarrh Cure is the 
only positive cure now known to the medical 
fraternity. Catarrh being a constitutional dis- 
ease, n^q'uires a constitutional treatment. Hall's 
Catarrh Cure is taken internally, acting directly 
upon the blood and mucous surfaces of the system, 
theretiy destroying the foundation of the disease, 
and giving the patient strength by building up 
the couKlitution and assisting nature in doing its 
work. The proprietors have so much faith in its 
curative powc^rs that thev offer Ope Hundred 
DoUarK for any case that it fails to cure. Bend 
for Ilsi of Testimonials. 

Address F. J. CHENEY & CO., Toleap, 0, 

4W"6oW by Prugglsts, 76c. 




n'acks 



The farmer who comes froin the 
barn, from the field, from the stock- 
yard, can't help making tracks, and 
his wife must make the best of it. 
The way to do this is to wash them 
away with 

dOlDDUST 

This fatnotis preparation will make 
the steps, the porch, and the kitchen 
floor as white as it was when the 
house was built. It makes every- 
thing clean. The grocer will sell 
you a large package for 25 cents. 

Gold Dust Washing Powder hasl 
an additional value to the farmer fori 
destroying insect's. Send us yourname I 
and urtdress, and we will mail you an 1 
important booklet containing recipcsl 
for making kerosene emulsions, fori 
spraying crops and treesand live stock. | 

THE N. K. FAIRBANK COMPANY, 

Chicago. St. Lotns. New York 
Boston. Philadelphia. 




FREE G0INA6E-I6t0l. 

It is claimed by some that this would give 
us a double selt-rcgulatiiig standard, while 
others believcit would simply change the 
standard from one metal to another. There 
is no such uncertaint y iiircgiird to the fence 
standard. The Coiled Spring remains the 
universal unapproachablesolf-rcgulator for 
farm, railroad, and p:irk purpost^s. IfEliAS- 
TiriT"* can do for the currency what it has 
done for The Page, there'll bo no opposition. 

PAGE WOVEN IVIRE FENCE CO., Adrian, Mich. 

One Man P P P 
30 Tons. 

In addition to the regular drying-ground force 
one man can, with the Pacific Prune Perforator, 
clean and perforate the skins of thirty tons of 
fresh prunes or any other fruit in a day, the work 
all being done on the drying ground or in the 
orchard. No fuel; no fire; no lye; no hot water; 
but little cold water; no bloaters. It is by far the 
cheapest machine on the market and equal to the 
best. Pour sizes. Send for circular to 

Sperry Wire Works, 

71s nission Street San Francisco. 



MOORE, FERGUSON & CO. 

WOOL, GRAIN, FLOUR 

AND 

4i General Commission Merchants, if) 

.310 CALIFORNIA ST., S. F. 
Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange. 

49~Personal attention given to sales and liberal 
advances made on consignments at low rates of 
Interest. 



FARMERS, AnENTION ! 



DO m WSKT TO EMPLOY AKTODY? 

If SO, we furnish Farm Hands, Teamsters, Men 
and Wives, etc.. promptly. No charges to 
employers. Send in your orders to 

J. F. CROSETT & CO., 

Employment Agency, 

628 Sacramento Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

NiLKS' manual and reference book on subjects 
connected with successful Poultry and Stock Kais- 
Insr on the Pacific Coast. Over 100 papres, profuBely 
Illustrated with handsome, lifelike lUustrations of 
the different varieties of Poultry and Live Stock. 
Price, postpaid. 60 centa. Address PACIFIC RURAL 
PBRSS QlBpe, Francisco, Cai. 



46 



The Pacific Rural Press 



July 20, 1895. 



California Fruit Sales. 



Chicago, 111.,. July IB— The Earl Fruit Company 
sold California fruit at open auction to day realiz- 
ing tlie following prices: Prunes— Tragedy. $1 
(SI a5; German, $1 .30(<> 1 40. Plums— Purple Du- 
ane. Jl 2U(" I .5(1; liurbank, $1 ."a: Mystery, |l -M; 
Bradshaw. *1 ^i. Hartlett pears, ii 30m.2 4.t: iou- 
tainebleau grapes, $1 40. Peaches— Early Craw- 
ford, 90c; St. JohneSfSSSic: Hale's Early, 55®60c: 
Foster. 85c; Pansy Pabor, "5@80c; Gaister, $1 15(« 

1 25. 

Porter Hros. Co. sold at open auction today : Bart- 
lett pears, $•,• 40; half Iwxes, 1 25; Mikado 

and peach plums, *1 55; Burbauks, *1 .50(8)1 55; 
Tragedys. $1 1.5(3)1 55: Bradshaws, $1 45; egg 
plums, .Jl 45; Purple Duane plums, $1 1.5(S 1 35; 
Washlngtons. $1 25; C^olumbia and Norman plums, 
$1 10; other plums, 80c(i..*l 15; single crates, 
grapes, 60c<ffi$l 20: peaches, 40c@$l 10; nectarlniis, 
45@90c. 

The National Fruit Association sold California 
fruit at open auction to-day as follows: Craw- 
fords, 6.5(a)!>5c : Hales. 4.5(" Side; Strawberry, 40(a70c: 
St. Johns, 5()(ni)0c: Fosters, fi,5c: McKivitts, 55(n 75c; 
Nectarines, 75c(nJI 45: Washiugtons, <i5c(n$l 15; 
Silver prunes, $1 25; Egg prunes. *! 25; Burbanks, 
*1 25; Peach plums, .Jl 4.5(<i 1 50; (ierman prunes, 
$1 ,■»: Purple Duane plums, $1 .lOoa*! 35; other 
plums, 80cfn$l 10; Grapes, TOcfoJl 15; Apricots, 
$1 40; Bartletts, $2(<i2 35. 

MiNNEAroLrs, Minn.. July 16.— Porter Bros. Com- 
pany .sold at open auction to-day Tragedy prunes 
at SI 70(S2»»5; peach plums, $1 95: Hale's Early 
peaches, 7.5(a85c. 

Boston, Mass., July 16.— Porter Bros Company 
sold at open auction to-day a ventilated car of Sac- 
ramento River Bartletts at $2 80(a,S; Tragedy 
prunes, II 62H(er'2 12^; Hale's Early peaches, 8Uc@ 
II 25: figs, 62c@$l I2Vs. 

New York, N. Y., July 16.— The Earl Fruit Com- 
pany sold California fruit at open auction at the 
West Shore dock, realizing the following prices: 
Ogou prunes. *3: Gross, $1 85; Tragedy, $1 6.56.195; 
Royal Anne cherries, 12 :)5: Bartlett pears, $1 75# 

2 75: Beurre Giftord, JI 25; Washington plums, 
$2 20(n2 35; Peach plums, 60: some in bad 
condition, 87c : Purple Uuane, $1 10@1 55; Abun- 
dance, $1 9.5(S,2 30: Royal Hatlves, $1; Hale's 
Early peaches, 75c. 

Porter Bros. Company sold at open auction to- 
day: Bartlett pears, *2fr>3 20: Japan plums,$l 10<gi 
3; Burbanks, $1 .'i.5<'i 2 .■■ii); Tragedys, $1 I0(a2 05: 
Abundance, $1 85; Washlngtons, $1 50; Ger- 
mans, $1 2.5r'i 1 50: Purpli^ Duane plum.-?, $1 asw 
1 50; peach pluius, $1 15@1 6(1; Barry prunes. 
$1 45; Magnum Bonum plums, $1 25: Royal na- 
tives, $1 115; Early Crawford and Foster peaches, 
$1 25; St. Johns, 7(lc(tti$l 25: Hales's Early, ,5.5c(a; 
$1 ft5: single crates grapes, 4.5c; half boxes sum- 
mer pears, 50c. 

The National Fruit Association sold California 
fruit at open auction to-day as follows: Hales, 
55c@$1.18: Tragedy, $1.40(5.1.60; Peach Plums, $1.15 
(S 1..35; St. Johns, 9Uc; Royal Apricots, $115fa l.25; 
other Apricots, $1.25: Royal Hatives, 85cfo.|1.05: 
Burbanks, $1.70((i 1.85; Figs (in ten-pound boxes), 
25cfn$1.05. 

List of U. S. Patents for Pacific 
Coast Inventors. 



Reported by I>ewey & Co., Pioneer Patent 
.Solicitors for Pacific Coast. 



KOK THE WEEK ENDING JULY 2, 1895. 
541,913.— Piano— A. N. Adams, Stockton, Cal. 
.Ml,828.— Tike Reg0latok— W. A. Beebe, King 
City, Cal. 

54I,a32.— Camera— Max Boelte, Los Angeles, Cal. 

.5-11,920.— Horseshoeing Machine- S. Cunning- 
ham, Sacramento, Cal. 

.541,926.— Call BELi^Evans & Tomkin, S. F. 

542,0H7.— Crushing Mill— Lightner & Ncwsom, 
S. F. 

512,088.— Brake Lever— W. H. Masterman, Oak- 
land, Cal. 

.542,089.— Car Brake— W. H. Masterman, Oakland, 
Cal 

541,872.— Cot Bottom— B. F. Noely, Colton, Cal. 

542,099.— Grinding apparatus— Nichols & Bloom- 
heart, S. F. 

.542,'203 — BuiLDiNG.s— -J. C. Pelton Jr., S. F. 

.542,204.— BuiLDiNG.s— J. C Pelton Jr., S. F. 

542,1(6.— Electric Railway— L. C. Pressley, S. F. 

543,029.— Sprinkler Stand— N. L. Rigby, Los 
Angeles, Cal. 

Note.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign p,Ttents fur- 
nished by Dewey & Co. in the shortest time possible 
by mail or telegraphic order). American and For- 
eign patents obtained, and general patent business 
for Pacific Coast inventors trans-icted with perfect 
security, at reasonable rates, and In the shortest 
possible time. 



For five years Michigan has been 
under the rule of farmer Governors 
who have attentJed to the business in- 
terests of the State instead of delegat- 
ing the work to clerks and using their 
position for show and the display of 
wealth as some of their predecessors 
had done. The people like the change. 

In many European countries the prac- 
tice has been adopted of planting nut 
and fruit trees in place of merely shade 
trees along the highways. 

Michigan capitalists, headed by 
Congressman Linton, have bought 
300,000 acres of Florida land to form a 
coUmv. 



Horse Owners! Try 

GOMBAULT'S 

'Caustic 
Balsam 

A Safe Spf fdy and Poiltive Cure 
The Saf-eat, BeKt BLISTER ever used. Takes 
tne place or all liniments for mild or severe action 
Removes all Bunches or Blemishes from Ilomeii 
oiSiiUilfA SUPERSEDES ALL CAUTERY 
OR FIRING. Impossible to produce sair or hlemUh. 

Every bottle pold Is warrantetl to give satisfaction 
Price f I.SO per bottle, gold by druggists, or 
sent by express, chaPKes paid, with full directions 
lor Ita use. Send for dcscriptlvo circulars.* 
THE LAWRBNCE-WILLIAMS CO., Cleveland O 




Breeders' Directory. 



six lines or less in this directory at 50c per line per 
month. 



Horses and Cattle. 



F. H. ISURKE, K2B Market St.. S. F. Al Prize Hol- 
steins: Grade Milch Cows. Fine Pigs. 

BULLS— Devons and Shorthorns. All pure bred 
and registered. Fine individuals. At prices to 
suit the times either singly or in carload lots. 
Oakwood Park Stock Farm. Danville. Cal. 



P. H. MURTHY, Perkins. Sae. Co.. Cal. Breeder of 
Shorthorn Cattle, Poland-China ii Berkshire Hogs. 



M. D. HOPKINS, Petaluma. Registered Shorthorn 
Cattle. Both sexes for sale. 



PETER S.-\XE & SON, Lick House. S, F.. Cal. Im- 
porters and Breeders, for past 21 years, of every 
variety of Cattle. Horses. Sheep and Hogs. Cor- 
respondence solicited. 



JEKSEY8— The best A. J. C. C. registered prize herd 
is owned by Henry Pierce. S. F. Aniuials for sale. 



Poultry. 



A. mTS<;HKE, Tracy. Cal.. breeder of Thorough- 
bred White Leghorns, Barred Plymouth Rocks; 
.')()() head .voinig stock to select from: single birds 
from J2 up; trios from J.i up; eggs $1.5(1 pi'r setting. 



WELLINOTON'S IMPROVKI) KGG FOOI> 

for poultry. Every grocer and merchant keeps It. 



CALIFORNIA POULTRY FARM, Stockton, Cal. 
Send for Illustrated and descri ptive catalogue, free. 



Swine. 



F. H. BURKE, 62t! Market St., S. P.— BERKSHIRES. 



CHAS. A. STOWE, Stockton, Berkshire and 
Poland-China Hogs. 



M. MILLER, Elisio, Cal. Registered Berkshires. 



J. P. ASHLEY, Linden, San Joaquin Co., Cal. 
Breeds Poland-China, Essex and Yorkshire Swine. 



TYLER BEACH, San Jose. Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 



Sheep and Goats. 



J. B. m)YT, Bird's Landing, Cal. Importer and 
."Breeder of Shropshire Sheep; also breeds Cross- 
bred Merino and Shropshire Sheep. R<ams for sale, 
n Prices to suit the times. Correspondence solicited. 



J. II. GLIDE, Sacramento. Very l.irge choice Sp.an- 
ish. French and Shropshire r;im8. Bedrock prices. 



R. H. CRANE, Petaluma. Cal. Southdown Sheep. 



Short-Horn BULLS 



ROBERT ASHBURNER, 

Baden Station, San Mateo Co., Cal. 

The Baden Farm Herd was established in 1867, 
with cows from then recent importations of the 
best English Milking Shorthorns, since which 
time improvement in dairy qualities has been 
steadily kept in view. 



1000 SHROPSHIRES. 

Larsrest Mutton Ram 
Breeding Farm in 
America. 

Range trade a specialty. 
Also fitted show stock 
in season. 
Come or write — 

A. O. FOX, Owner. 
Oregon, Dane Co., Wig. 




SAMPLE American Bee Journal. 

FREE 



All about Bees and Honey 

G.W.YORK&CO. 

.50 Fifth Ave. 
CHICAGO, IliUNOIS, 



(Established 1«()1). 
Weekly, *1 a year. 7 Editors. 
160 -page 
Bee-Book 
Free! 




SENDYOUHNAMEaADDHESS ON POSTAL CARDs" 
LE GRAN D POULTRY PAN CH,W£ 5T Rl VE RS I DE CAL 

■aaaaB'-THEY will send you sohethino useful 




IN THESE TIMES 

You Can Larf;eiy Increase 

Your Income by buying an Incu- 
bator and eng,aglng in the chicken 
business. Send stamp for our 
catalogue of Incubators, Wire 
Netting. Blooded Fowls and Poul 
try Appliances generally. Knnnn- 
her the Re.il in the Cheapent. PACIFIC 
INCUBATOR CO.. i:fl7 Castro St.. 
(mkland. Cal. 



THE 

OWEN 

ELECTRIC 

BELT 




"INDURINE" COLD WATER PAINTS. 

A Most Remarkable M;uerial is the 
OUTSIDE I IN O U F? I IN E . 

It stands rain and exposure as well as oil paint 
and costs only a fraction as much. 

It is just the thing for fences, outbuildings, fac- 
tories, etc., being cheap, durable and easily ap- 
plied by anyone. 

It has no equal as a light reflector for light- 
shafts and court-yards of large buildings. It is 
supplied in a thick paste, to be diluted with cold 
w^ater. It is made in white and several colors 

IINSIDE I IN D U Ft I IN E 
Is designed especially for factories, stables, and 
general inside work, as a substitute for white- 
wash, kalsomine or oil paint. 

It will not rub or scale, soften or darken with 
age, and works well over old whitewash. A dry 
powder to be mixed with cold water. 

Both Indurines are perfectly fire proof. 

Send for circular and prices to 

WM. BURl), MANUFACTURER, 
Mills Building;, - - ,San Francisco, Cal. 



At i Price 



r,„U\ and NlUrr tVnlrliri. RltnlM, 
■IrWjtin. l.uiKaud |-|>lol>, ( •ntt 



Trade Mark— Or. A. Ower 




FOR MEN AND WOMEN 

The latest and only scieutlOc and practical 
Blectrle Belt made, for general use, producing 
agenuiiie current of Blcctrlcity, for the cure 
or disease, that can bo readily felt and regu- 
lated both in quautity and power, and applied 
to any part of the body . It can be worn at any 
time during working hours or sleep, and 

WILL POSITIVELY CURE 

RHEIJMATIS.TI 
LfmBAGO 

CENEHAL DEBILITY 
liAItlE BACK 
NERVOUS IIISEASES 

CHRONIC niSE.VSE.S 
AND FUNCTIONAL 
DERANGEMENTS 

WITHOUT MEDICINE 

Electricity, properly Applied, is fast taking 
the place of drugs for ail Nervous, Rheumatic, 
Kidney and Urinal Troubles, and will efifect 
cures in Beemingly hopelcFS cases where every 
other known means has failed. 

Any sluggish, weak or diseased organ may 
by this moans be roused to healthy activity 
before It is too late. 

Leading medical men use and Tecommend the 
Owen Belt lu their practice. 

OUR LARGE ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE 

Contains fullejst information regarding the cure 
of acute, chronic and nervous diseases, prices, 
and how to order, in English, German, Swedish 
and Norwegian languages, will be mailed, upon 
application, to any address for G cents postage. 

The Owen Electric Belt and Appliance Co. 

MAIS OPFK E .\SD ONLY KACTOEY, 

The Owen Electric Belt CIdg., 201 to 211 State Street, 

CHICAGO. ILL. 
he Largest Electric Bell rstablishmentin the WorM 




fi«wlnv nurtilnei* .ArfoM 
C»«ll l)riiwrr», 
Lettfr rrr*»(.«, 
Prei* stands. 

Corn Shrll—j, 
Fanning Mi:i^ 
CmlD nnmp*. 
Bar, Stnfk, KI«t») 



, Omni, Pianoq, Clii^r nill«, 
K'M Jlllli, SIxTM, K'MUi, Bnnp nillt, 
JnrkS.r'-f, T-"rl«, y(n»1l«, Hnrl nllFn, 
Inpi llnnV., Vi..^ prilK Fnad I'lowl, 
•'offre ,llill«, lj,ih^ |{rnd«>r«, piimp('art% 
Ilmd r.irti, F'lrc.-s, Straiten, t^Irr Vtnrtf 
y\rine^r*^ Knirini>8, S.iw^, S'fel Slnkly 
irnn P^rtf Bi>il>-rs T.'ola, pil BrarMy 
■ nil. PLiirnm and Cnnntpr SCALES. 



fir fr.-* rjtal'ifii.. and wn bnw l.i r,, 

UlBo. JeHeraoaBc., L^ICAOO 6CAI.E CO., CtiicagD, lU. 



Olive Trees. 

ALL KINDS OF NURSERY STOCK. Send for 
our Book on Olive Culture. 

Hovi/land Bros., 

POMONA, CAL. 




CABLED POULTRY and GARDEN FENCE. 

AlsoCiilili-l I'l. l'l :lim1 11"^ F.iiciiju;, .-^l.rl Wfl. I'icket 
Lawn K. Tic c, si^ il \\ ire I'Vuie Hoard, .'^H-i l (iates, Steel 
Post.s, Steel Rail, Tree, Flower and Tomato Guards. 
Catalogue Free. 

DeKalb Fence Co. ,33 High St., DeKalb, III. 

JOHN WOODLOCK, General Agent, 

36 Beule Street San Francisco, Cal. 



WACON AND 
PLATFORM 



SCALES 

HOOKER & CO. Ift-ia OBUHM STREET. S.r 



Olive Trees for Sale 

GEO. H. mi, Sacramento. 

I Mission, 3 years 5 to 8 feet. 

I Mission, 2 years 3 to 4 feet. 

I Manzanillo, 2 years 2 to 3 feet. 

Nevadillo, 2 and 3 years 4 to 6 feet. 

Plchollne, 2 years 2to3 feet. 



Business Oolle>ge, 

I 84 Post Street, ... San Francisco. 

j FOR SEVENTY-FIVE DOLLARS 

This College instructs in Shorthand, Type-Writing 
; Bookkeeping. Telegraphy. Penmanship. Drawing, 
all the English branches, and ever.vthing pertaining 
to business, for full six months. We have sixteen 
teachers and give individual Instruction to all our 
pupils. 

A Department of Electrical Engfineering 

Has been established under a thoroughly qualified 
Instructor. The course Is thoroughly practical. 
Send for Circular. C. S. HALEY, Sec. 



School of Practical, Civil, Mechanical, 
Electrical and l*Iining Engfineering, 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing and Assaying 

723 /Vl/\RK.ET STREET, 

San Francisco, Cal. 
Open All Year. : A. VAN DER HAILLEN, Pres't. 

Assaying of Ores, t2S: Bullion and Chlorinatlon 
Assay, $25; Blowpipe Assay, 110. Pull course of 
assaying, 150. Established i"«4. Send tor Circular. 




SESSIONS <& CO., 

Lynwood Dairy and Stock Farm 

p. O Box 686, Los Angeles, Cal. 

We have Berkshires of the most fashionable strains. 
They are from Prize Winners and are Prize Win- 
ners themselves. We can furnish pigs three to six 
months old. Correspondence solicited. 




JOHNSON 

t'OBNBB P/ILIFOBMA ANP FRONT ^TBKIiiTM 



LOCKE MERCANTILE CO. 



, SAN FBANCISCO, QAl. 



47 




W. C. ANDERSON, 



-DEALER IN- 



Horticultural 




Supplies. 



Dippers, 

Prooe-sse-rs, 
Cars, 

Xrciolcs, 



Anderson Prune Dipper No. 1 

Dips, washes and spreads the fruit upon the trays with a mini- 
mum amount of labor and expense, besides doing the 
work more thoroughly than any other dipper. 



Transfer Cars, 
Xurntafc>les, 

F'rijit F^resses, 
Lye, Eto., Etc. 




Anderson Prune Dipper No. 3 



Is the only successf 
manufactured. It i 
by all the unions 
the country. 



ul processer or redipper 
s the machine adopted 
nd packers throughout 



Speaking of Dippers — Did you know that three=fourths of the prunes raised on 

the Coast pass through Anderson Dippers? it is a fact, easily demonstrated. 



Send for Our New Catalogue 

CONTAINING 

WHYS AND WHEREFORES 

OF PRUNE CURING, 

BY W. C. ANDERSON. 




Anderson Field and Transfer Cars. 



Write for Prices and Terms. 



W. C. ANDERSON, 

Factory 455 West Santa Clara St 

P. O. Box 970. 

SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA. 



Patented 
Feb. 5, 
18^5. 



2^ 



THE "AC/WE.'' 



Oh 

0U 




Golden Gate 

Gas jDT^asoline 
Engine. 



The cheapest and simplest to operate of any. For irrigation pur- 
poses has no equal. 

Start it and oil it; then go about your other work and it will 
attend strictly to business without any other attention. 

Is adapted to any work where motive power from 1 to 50 H. P. is 
required. 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE. 

Adam Schilling & Sons, 

211-213 Main Street, San Francisco, 



PRUNES. 



f\ /WftCHIINE FOR PERFORATING 
rtIND GRADllNG 

FACTORY AND SALESROOM; 
573 SOUTH FIRST STREET SAN JOSE, CAL. 

H. M. BARNGROVER, Proprietor. (Write for Circulars.) 




4C A.T.DEWEY. 



W. B. EWER. 



O. H, STRONG. |ir 



DEWEY & CO. 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN 

Patent Solicitors. 

220 IVIARKET ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 

Elevator, 12 Front St. 




P. & B. FRUIT DRYING PAPER. 

FIFTH SEASON. ★★★★ 



UNEQUALED FOR DRYING RAISINS AND PRUNES! 

If you have not used it, XRV" IX ! 



SAMPLES AND CIRCULARS FURNISHED ON APPLICATION. 

PARAFFINE PAINT CO. 

116 Battery Street San Francisco. 



AT IMftNn HTTT T PR^ u«aEr[WELLMACHINERYworks 

rtl /flllllll OIJLLCIVlI AUkln.lsortool,. Fortu„erortlledrillerbyu»iD?ou, 

± JLM^ 1. ' M. \^ A. ^ M-^M-^M^M.^K^ , AdamHntine orocfss: can take acorp. Hprf^ptprt F...onom, 



■ -For Sale by 

A. O. RIX, Irvington, Alameda Coonty, Cal. 



ilOHTNINQ I 

lARQEST 

All kinils or tools. ForturieTor tlie driller by urId? out 
Adamantine process; can take acorp. Pprfected Econom. 
loal Artesian Pumping RIes to work bv Steam, Air, etc. 
LetuBhelpyou. THE AMERICAN WELL WOBK8. 
Aurora, tll.| Ohlcaco, Ill.i DalUa, Tex. 



48 




There is Money in Butter. 

Oleomargarine has been knockctl 
out all over the country and butter is 
high priced this summer. Creamery- 
men who are situated to take adv.m- 
tage of the market are making money 
— more of it than ever before. But 
in the creamery business you have to 
stop the small wastes. One way to 
stop them, and the best way, is to use 
a Sharples Russian Separator The additional saving that a 
Russian makes over an ordinary separator will amount to a living 
for a family. It cuts down the oil bill, it cuts down the labor bill, 
it wipes out the small two-tenths of butter fat other separators 
waste under the name of a trace. It repairs the bills for a Rus- 
sian amount to cents, where with other machines they are dollars. 
There is money in butter; get a Russian and be ready to make 
your share of it. Don't be deceived by glib tongued experts; use 
your common sense. 

P. M. SHARPLES, 

West Chester, Pa., 
Elgin, 111. 
Rutland, Vt. 



TREES Of GOLD '^^-EM^'^N^S'^X^r^^^^ j fnlifArni^ 

linrl.aiiU'-; 2" IMillion ••iicwori-atioiis.-' STARK I \ j/llll\JI lllil 
Trees PREPAID < vi rywli( n'. SAFE ARRIVAL guar. ' ■«-' 
anteed. 'I lie"j;re;itu"ur.sMri('s"s;iVL' you over HALF. 
Millions of Hie host trees 70 years' exppricnce can 
grow; thev "live longer and bear better."- Sec. 
MurOm. STARK. B u. Louisiana. Mo.. Rockport. III. 



If you want to know 
about California and tlie 
Pacific States, send for 
Pacific Kural l*re««. 
the Best Ilhislrali-'d ami Leadliiir Farming and Hort- 
icultural Wpfkly of the Far West. Trial, 50 cents 
for a mos. Two saniijle copies. lUc. The Ueirey 
Puljlisliing: Co.. 220 Market St.. San Fr.anciscc 



POWDER 




«N PEflTH »ALUY- 



^20 MULE HELP ""KlTCHEHAx-LAimr 



pAciri: Coast Soi^ax Ca. SAfi.f«AHv'!ico.OHic>Kio-HEWyoF(^. 



THE BURRELL PRUNE MACHINE. 



A New Process for 
Cutting the Skins 
of Prunes. 

NO FIRE; NO HOT WATER; NO LYE. 

Cleans, Cuts and Spreads the 
fruit at one operation. 

SIMPLE, STRONG, DURABLE. 
CHEAPER AND BETTER. 

Letters from Persons who 
have used the Burrel l 
Prune Machine : 

Mr. I. A. Wii-cox of Santa Clara says: I purchased the Burrell machine last season (1H93) after 
experimenting with it, and should not like to do without it. I find it economical in several respects 
besides doing better work than lye does. It saves the expense of lye, and does away with the extra 
labor of sorting out the " bloats," or " frogs," as they are commonly called. After the machine process- 
ed fruit is dried it can be turned out of the trays, leaving them almost as clean as new The fruit as 
it comes from the needle machine, is not only clean to look at, but it is free from any foreign sub- 
stance that might detract from its natural flavor and purity." 




Nov. 13, 1894. 

J. B. BUKKELL, Esg., Wrights, Dear Sir: I used one of your Prune Pricking Machines at my or- 
chard, Geyserville, Sonoma Co., this season. I ran prunes and raisin grapes over it, and am entirely 
satisfied with its work. I think it cheaper and more convenient than the lye process. 

Yours truly, JOHN MARKLEY. 

lOther letters in next week's RriiAI. PUKSS.] 

The Burrell Prune Machine is niaimfactun-<l .-uiil sold by 

J. B. BURRELL, 449 West 5anta Clara St., San Jose, Cal. 



BUGGIES, ROAD WAGONS, CARTS ™ HARNESS 



J\ F-ULL /VIND COmPLEXE STOCK. * * * 



WRITE 

FOR 

CATALOGUE 

AND 

PRICES. 




NO. 103 ROAD WA'^ 



NO. 8 ROAD WAQON. 



Deere Implement Company, 

305 AND 30T mARKLEX SX SAN F'RANCISCO, CAL. 



AND CALIFORNIA FRUIT BULLETIN. 



Vol. L. No. 4. 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 27, 1895. 



TWENTY-FIFTH TEAR. 

OfBce, 220 Market Street. 



Santa Clara Orchards. 



It will be entertaining and instructive to many 
Rural readers to have a glimpse at the orchards in 
so famous a fruit region as that tributary to San 
Jose. To the ordinary viewer these pictures will 
suggest the vigor and thrift of the trees and the 
perfect condition of clean culture which is an essen- 
tial of the California system of fruit growing. To 
those who are themselves starting young orchards 
in distant regions the views will comprise a good ob- 
ject lesson in shaping trees as it is done in this old 
and successful fruit region. This is perhaps most 



is a necessary treatment of the peach tree to pre- 
serve new bearing wood low down in the tree. The 
peach does not behave as well under long pruning as 
the prune does, and there is a wide difference in the 
proper handling of the two trees after the low 
head is secured in each. 

The view of the apricot trees is between the rows, 
and is intended to show the heavy bearing rather 
than the general shape of the trees. The apricot 
needs constant cutting back to keep it within due 
range and to preserve strength enough to carry 
such a crop of fruit as this picture shows. 

The Santa Clara orchards are just now in the best 



the other house itself was worth $7000. The other 
plant cost $8500, and was occupied by F. Brooks for 
a honey depot. The stock of honey, valued at $5000, 
was destroyed as well as hundreds of dollars worth 
of honey cases. The destruction of the honey depot 
and stock of cases is greatly felt, as the honey crop 
is being gathered and will be delayed. 



The arrival at New York a few weeks ago of a 
steamer from the Argentine Republic with a cargo 
of 120,000 bushels of flaxseed has brought to light 
some interesting facts. It seems that ciuite a trade 
has been going on in seed from that far-away coun- 




GLIMPSES OP ORCHARDS OP DECIDUOUS FRUIT TREES IN SANTA CLARA VALLEY. 



striking in the case of the young cherry orchard i 
which is shown. The rapid ascent which is charac- ] 
teristic of an unpruned cherry tree is here seen to | 
be quite overcome, and in its place are a host of | 
fruit-bearing branches of a moderate height which | 
will set fruit from spurs along their whole length and j 
when heavy with ripening fruit will droop so that | 
much picking can be done from the ground and fin- j 
ished with a low step ladder. Contrast this with the i 
work of gathering cherries from trees which are al- 
lowed to run up like masts of ships; requiring long 
ladders resting against the trees in fruit picking. 
Note also the growth of foliage almost to the ground 
surface and the oblique rise of the branches which 
allows cultivation quite as near to the base of the 
tree as it is desirable to go with horse tools. 

The young prune orchard also has a special lesson, 
showing the longer growth of the branches after the 
head is formed, which is characteristic of our latest 
treatment of the prune tree. Owing to the strength 
and toughness of the prune wood, these branches 
are able to carry much fruit without breaking. The 
peach trees show a difterent growth — a more com- 
pact growth, caused by constant cutting back which 



possible condition to show their form and fruitage to 
any one who desires to study California orcharding 
on the spot. It is true that it is not a year of the 
greatest yields, but for fine fruit and enough of it 
to pay well probably the visitor could not choose a 
better time for inspection than the present. 



Fresno fruit and raisin growers al a meeting held 
last Saturday, declared very positively in favor of 
the action taken by the Fruit-growers and Shippers' 
Association in establishing union auction-houses, 
open to all buyers in the principle Eastern markets, 
and call upon the producers to give their undivided 
support to the union houses. They also denounce the 
rival houses as being operated in the interest of job- 
bers and against the interests of producers, and 
pledge the support of the growers of Fresno region 
to the open auction-houses now being operated under 
sanction of the Growers and Shippers' Association. 



At Riverside on Tuesday of this week two large 
packing houses with their contents were totally de- 
stroyed by fire. One house contained orange-grading 
machinery and other property valued at $2000, while 



try for some time past, about 50l),.000 bushels of the 
Argentine seed having already been sold here. The 
flaxseed, although dirty, is reported to be very good 
in quality, and the price is equal to $1.28 per bushel, 
duty paid, the latter amounting to twenty cents per 
bushel. Crushers get a rebate on oil-cake exported, 
which makes the net price about $1.20 paid for the 
South American article. American flaxseed is 
quoted at $1.50 to $1.55, nominally. It is interesting 
to note that two years ago America exported large 
quantities of flaxseed; now she is importing. 



At a meeting of San Jose Grange on Saturday 
afternoon, under the discussion of fruit crops and 
prices, Col. McGlincy said ho had been in five school 
districts and more than IJO orchards recently. From 
close observation he said he was convinced the fruit 
crop was much smaller 'than generally believed. 
Several members present said tiieik. orchards would 
not yield more than two tons per acre. The highest 
figures named by any one reporting was by one lady 
who said her prune crop was abjut five tons to the 
acre. The average of all reporting was just one and 
one-half tons per acre. 



50 



The Pacific Rural Press. 



July 27, 1896 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 

Office. yo.rio Market a't.; Bteoalui; .\o. 12 FroiU SL.iiun Fianrcscu. 'Jul 

All BubBcrlbers paying J3 In ?<iv!inee will receive 15 months' (one 
year and ifw^ks) credit For In advance, 10 months. For tl In 
advance, five mouths. 

AdvertUinij rates made kiwwn on appHcatUin. 

Anv HQbserlber sending an Inquiry ou any subject to the RrKAL 
PUKS8 with a postlle stanip, wih ru'eive a reply, either ihrouph the 
couimnrof tL'^paper or by personal letter. The answer will be given 

as promptly as practicable. 

Registered at S. P. Postofflce as second-class m all matter. 



Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening. 

ALFRED HOLMAN V i ' " " " f.""'"'- 

K. J. WICKSOJi Special Contributor. 



San Francisco, July 27, 1895. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

ILLUSTRATION.— ijlimpses of Orchard.s of Uetiduous Fruit Trees 

Fn°ITOR\ALS-San\'rciara Orchards; Meeting of Fresno Fruit 
un™ a .sin Growers; Packing Houses Destroyed by Fire at Rner- 
sid"r Miscellaneous. 49. The Week, 50. From an Independent 

CORR'STONukNCE.-The Marketing Problem. 51. California 

AGmCULTURkl'''sC^^^^ of Salts in Alkali 

THE'^'liRI^ATOR.-A Decision Against the Wright Irrigation 

METFt^ROLOGICAL.—Siinshine in California. 55. ■ ^ ,■ 

FLtmisT AND GARDKNER.— Tuberous Rooted Begonias m Cali- 

AGRICuLtURAL ENGINEER.-Tbc Grwd Roads Movement, iS. 

THE SWINE YARD.— Prolit from l».g Pork, .i6. 

HORTICULTURE.— English GooselH-rries, SB. 

THE DAIRY.-Weight of Mutter Rolls Again,.-*. 

THE POULTRY YARD — E.vpcriments with Green Bone; liatten- 
inj Fowls; Mr. Presscy ou liroilfr Raising. •'>«. ^, . „ 

THE FIELD— The Ramii- Fiber Proljlriu; I'rison Grain Hags Re- 
duced- rsountv on Last Year s He.-t Sugar; The Game Laws, 57 

THi"h6mE C'lRL'LE.-New Every Morning; A Whaleman's Ad- 
venture 58 Fashion Notes; P.-ileslrianism in Germany ; Curious 
Faels- Geins of Thoughi ; One Point of Difference, .W. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— Domestic Hints, 59. 

MA'RKETS-Ri view of the Dried Fruit Market, 61. 

HA-TRONS OF HUSBANDRY.-Observations by Mr. Ohleyer; 
Next Week s Farmers' Camp— Crops Wanted, M. Now for Camp 

MISCELLANEOUS.-Rainfall and Temperature; Weather and 
Crops; Gleanings; How We Go to Sleep; Pacitic Coast Hop Re- 
port, 5'2. 

BUSIIfESS Ai«nOUnCEMERTS. 
{Xfw this igfiie.) 

California State Fair, Sacramento, Cal 

Prune Dipper— W. C. Anders..!] San, lose. 

Monarch Wiudniill— I'aeilU- Manufacturing Co 

Farming implemenls— .Tames Liiiforth ....... ^ . . 

Situation Wanted— Max A. Theilig, Novate, Cal. . ...... 

Holstein-Friesian Bull.<!— M. D. Eshleman, Fresno, Cal,. 



Our Fruit 



iu London. 



Page. 
.... 63 
.... 64 
.... M 
.... 64 
. ... 63 
. 63 



The Week. 



IrriBation 



Decision. 



We print upon another paf,'e an 
outline of a decision rendered on 
Monday of this week against the 
constitutionality of the Wright irrigation law, under 
which districts are formed and water acquired and 
distributed at the cxpen.se of all the property in- 
cluded. In the same connection we give a state- 
ment by an attorney who has given much attention 
to the subject, showing that the law points involved 
are still to be passed upon by a higher court, and a 
reversal of Judge Ross' decision is hoped for. Un- 
questionably this adverse decision, coming, as it 
does, after numerous favorable decisions have been 
rendered by lower courts, .s a most severe shock to 
all interested in recent irrigation progress, both as 
projectors and as bond buyers. From all financial 
and industrial points of view- the decision is unfortu- 
nate, and seems to furnish another illustration of 
the hardships resulting from applying the law and 
standards of right and justice which have grown up 
among the people of a humid region to the condi- 
tions and needs of development of an arid region. 
This seems the primal curse under which all our 
water questions have existed since the beginnings 
in California. The great issue, the irrepressible 
conflict, seems to He in what constitutes a public 
use, and it is natural that this should be different in 
a humid from what it is an arid region. 

Judge Ross" decision holds that a public use is a 
very restricted institution. Those who oppose him 
hope that the highest court will take a broader view 
of it. It is clear that the present condition of the 
proposition will work great embarrassment and 
hardship. It will stop work ; it will discourage all 
concerned ; it will impair our credit seriously for the 
time being at least, in some cases it means a longer 
sojourn in the desert down which they thought they 
saw refreshing streams about to How. It will 
weaken confidence and arrest progress in what 
seemed a most promising direction. It is important, 
however, that even those most interested in the pro- 
jected enterprises are not wholly cast down. Even 
if the decision is not reversed, the lawyers see a new 
field of litigation opened in the effort to secure for 
the bond buyers their (jiimititm nn niit, and the bond 
holders hope thereby to get their value and interest 
by some other ])lan of operation. The burden will 
unfortunately come a1 last, perhaps, upon those who 
have the land to be benelitefl, and they may have to 
carry not only their own but their neighbors' bur- 
dens — a point which the Wright law was especially 
designed to prevent. Some financiers are disposed 
to regard the decision as a valuable check to the 
wildcat element which has intruded in this as it 



always -does in progressivfi_Enterprise9. There re- 
main, then, two lines of hope for the sanguine : one 
that the higher court will take a higher view of the 
matter and approve its harmony with the constitu- 
tion ; the other, that the decision, even if it holds, 
will point the way to more conservative progress. 
This seems to be the best that can be made out of 
it ; and still it remains a bad affair for California 
progress, and suggests that if Judge Koss' decision 
is law our peculiar conditions demand some higher 
law with reference to public rights and uses. 

This year's experiments in ship- 
ping fruit to London are beginning 
well. We have a note from G. H. 
Appel, agent of the C. F. T. Company at Sacra- 
mento, as follows : 

I am in reeoipt of telegraphic advices confirming cables from 
W. N. White & Co., London, Eng., aunounciug the arrival 
and sale of the first shipment of California deciduous fruit, 
which left Sacramento July M. connecting in New York with 
the steamship Paris. Notwithstanding the fact that this 
fruit was among the first shipmoiils from tlie Sacramento 
Kiver .section, the results are such as to warrant continuous 
shipments, as can only infer from the prices received that the 
demand is good and that fruit will sell at good prices right 
through the season. VV" ith the rate of per hundred pounds, 
which includes freight and refrigeration from initial point of 
loading to London, it will be shown that the prices received 
of ib.M per whole box for pears, per half-box pears, •*"2.40 per 
crate for Tragedy prunes and $:1 to #3 per crate for assorted 
plums, will leave a very nice balance fur the grower. Figur- 
ing that the cost ou a box of pears will be *1. .">(), on half-boxes 
j 75 cents, on crates of plums 7;') cents, and on '30-iX)und boxes of 
peaches 00 cents, with commission at five per cent, should 
surely prove entirely .satisfactory to the shippers. When j'ou 
consider that the rate for freight and refrigeration to Boston 
is about $1. 1.5 ou pears and profxjrtionatcly on other fruits, it 
will be seen that the slight ditTerence is much in favor of the 
London shipments, considering the distance. The California 
Fruit Transportation Company is not operating this i)lan with 
a view of actual profit, but is endeavoring to open up the 
English markets, which will allow quantities of delicious Cali- 
fornia deciduous fruit to be distributed through Great 
Britain, and perhaps the whole continent, and at the same 
time relieves the domestic markets .so that prices are belter, 
and we feel that this will be shown. 

Cable advices say the fruit ofTered consists of 245 
boxes of Bartlett pears, 'Ml boxes of plums and 206 
half-boxes of pears. There was a large crowd of 
buyers, and when the auctioneer said, "'Now place 
the California fruit in market," there was a mad 
rush for all available places. So eager were bidders 
there were frequent disputes and the fruit brought 
extraordinary ])rices. The fruit was in excellent 
condition — hard and firm. Only one case was dam- 
aged, and that was not sound when placed on board. 
On the whole, the fruit was pronounced to be much 
better than any of the 1894 shipments. 



Slii|)s 



That Fair wheat still haunts our 
commerce. It is now said that 
s<ar<e. ^j^^ heirs propose to overhaul the 
transaction. Fortunately, they cannot stop the 
wheat, for it is going. The trouble is that, while it 
is going, there are no ships for any other purpose. 
Last year at this time the harbor was full of unem- 
ployed vessels. This year there are no vessels to be 
obtained. The cause is the unloading of the Fair 
wheat upon the European market. There was no 
apprehension of a lack of tonnage before that. But 
the shipping of the wheat took every vessel in port 
and even then only three-quarters of the grain was 
disposed of. The dearth of tonnage is especially an- 
noying because of the high rate of freights. This 
year the rate is 10 shillings a ton more than last 
year — a raise of 40 per cent. The scarcity of ton- 
nage will not last niori^ than a fortnight. iShips are 
en route in large numbers from Liverpool and Aus- 
tralia. It will be nearly two months before all the 
Fair wheat gets away. The people who are sulTei'- 
ing most from lack of shi[)S are the canning com- 
panies. These have large English orders to fill. The 
lack of ships forced them to store their goods and has 
prevented them from drawing on the English cus- 
tomers, as they had antici|jated. The iticrease in 
the English demand for California canned goods is 
something phenomenal. It is fully four times what 
it was last year. 

„, , Lambs wool is now coming into 

Wool " 

this market and the fall clip will 
Aetue. follow, as shearing is now going on 
at the south. San Francisco dealers report prices 
well sustained and believe that fall wools will bring 
a better price than last fall and many will be encour- 
aged to shear who did not shear a year ago. The 
outlook is more encouraging for the sheep man, the 
price of wool being higher, and if the mutton market 
would improve, sheep raising would still be profit- 
able. At the I..ondon wool sales, July 2Hrd, there 
was a large attendance and the demand strong from 
everywhere. In Boston wool continues active, al- 
though immense amounts have been disposed of dur- 
ing the last month. The sheep is looking up. 

The Southern Pacific is showing 
its good faith in urging the venti- 
iraiiiR. lated fruit cars on fast time as a 
means of escape from cost of refrigerators by run- 
ning a fast train of ventilators out of Sacramento 
every night this week. Heretofore the departure of 
the ventilated trains has been so uncertain that 



Fruit 



shippers could not rely on the service, and as a re- 
sult, up to a week ago the Southern Pacific has han- 
dled only twenty-three carloads of fruit to Chicago, 
against about 850 loandled by the refrigerator com 
panics. Mr. Smurr attributes the poor patronage 
I of the ventilator lines to the timidity of the shippers 
) and the fact that early fruit will not stand trans- 
] portation in ventilator cars as well as it will in re- 
frigerators, lie thinks the company has now dem- 
onstrated that the ventilated trains land the fruit in 
Chicago in good condition, and expects shippers will 
be more liberal in their patronage from now until the 
close of the green fruit season. The company ex- 
pects to handle between 1500 and 2000 carloads of 
I fruit in ventilator cars this season. 



I'ork I'ackiiiK 
Prospect. 



We have often urged more alfalfa, 
more hogs, more hominy and 
more self reliance upon local food 
supplies for the great valley. We are interested to 
read that at Fresno a plan to organize a pork -pack- 
ing company is being enthusiastically followed up. 
Leading business men have subscribed for stock, and 
the money will be ready when needed. It is the in- 
tention of the projectors to raise the full amount re- 
quired for building a packing-house and putting in a 
plant in time to begin work for this year. A large 
number of hogs are raised in Fresno county. Here- 
tofore they have been shipped .several hundred 
miles, and the cured meat has been shipjied back. 
Alfalfa grows abundantly, and corn can be raised 
cheaply. Raisin and fruit men are looking around for 
new enterprises in which to invest, and if a market 
for hogs is opened the farmers will raise a greater 
number of them. This would relieve the raisin mar- 
ket, as many vineyards would be abandoned. This 
is all in the right direction. Diversify, produce 
more, and buy less. 

RaiiHav Really, these great companies are 
reaching down to these days of 
small things. It is telegraphed 
from San Jose as follows : 

A new inetliiid of handling through freight from California 
to the Easteiii market has been inaugurated over the Atlan- 
tic and Pacific and Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe railroads. 
The essential feature ot the plan is to have the cars put 
through from starting ^>oint to destination iu as quick time as 
possible, and to keep track of the shipincnl every day while 
it is eii itiiiti', so that in case the shipper should desire lo have 
the consignment diverted to another point it will simply be 
necessary for him to notify the Santa Fe agent of lii.s city, 
who will know exactly at what point on tlu; line the car 
should be on that date, and will then take the necessary 
steps to have the diversion made. 

This is nice. It is really encouraging to lind that 
a railway man is able to find out where anything is 
while it is rmifi-. Usually it is neither here nor 
there until it turns up somewhere. About this diver- 
sion proposed, perhaps other roads are also doing 
that. If the Santa Fe wants to do something new, 
let it arrange to deliver fractional parts of carloads, 
as has often been proposed, but pronounced not 
feasible by the managers. It ought to be found 
practicable to auction out of a car as much as can 
be sold at fair prices at every considerable town as 
it is reached. 

caierpiiiar If jt were not for the diseases and 
Disease. confiict in the insect world the 
earth would not continue in its present course. Foi'- 
tunately nature has provided for that. William 
Ingalls, who farms one of the largest tracts of land 
in the Russian River Valley, brings the encouraging 
report that army worms are drying up by the tiiou- 
sands, and tlial tlie danger from the pest is past in 
the region between Healdsburg and (Jueriieville. 
'"I never saw anything like the manner in which 
those pests are disappearing," said Ingalls. ' In 
looking over my potato patch this luorning 1 noticed 
that the worms have disappeared. Closer investiga- 
tion showed that thousands were lying on the ground 
dead." Of course, larvte disappear as though by 
magic when the time comes for their transformation, 
and people who think them gone, are deceived there- 
by. But if one finds the true corpus ililit ti, it means 
disease and death. 



Of the 11,()21,.")30 square miles that Africa com- 
prises, England now holds 2,194,880. France has 
H,H2(),790 square miles, including Algeria, Tunis, and 
a large part of the Sahara; Germany, 884.S10, the 
greater part acquired since 1884; Portugal, which at 
one time had almost a monopoly of Africa, now owns 
only 826,780 S(|uare miles; Spain holds 158,834, 
chiefly on the Sahara coast, and Italy 548,880. The 
Congo Free State contains 905,09(1 s(|uare miles, and 
the Boer Republic 177,750. Europe has already 
seized upon more than three-fourths of the conti- 
nent. 

The beet crop of the Pajaro and Salinas valleys 
says the P<ij<intiilait never looked better. It is a 
beauty and promises to be a record breaker. If the 
favorable aspect continues to the close of the sea- 
son the Watsonville sugarie will stack up some 
figures for its cotnpetitors at home and abroad to 
shy at. 



July 27, 1895. 



51 



From an Independent Standpoint. 



The directors of the Valley road decided very wise- 
ly that it would be time enough to celebrate when 
the work was done ; and so, the beginning of 
constructive operations last Friday was without 
fuss or feathers. Melville Clark, grade con- 
tractor for the first section, just loaded up his wagon 
with earth and emptied it in the place designated by 
the engineers ; three hundred other wagons fell into 
line — and that was all there was to it. Naturally 
enough the occasion was made a good deal of by the 
people of Stockton. They as.sembled in large num- 
bers to see the first blow struck, and later let off 
steam in a torch-light procession, explosions of fire- 
works and speech-making. Throughout the San 
Joaquin valley and in this city the event, while un- 
marked by special ceremonies, was felt to be one of 
profound importance. From this time on progress 
will be rapid. All the men who can profitably be 
employed will be put on, and as fast as the roadbed 
is made ready, rails will be laid. A vast quantity of 
materials — tools, rails, timber, etc. — has been massed 
at Stockton. 



The range of Democratic Presidential gossip is 
limited by circumstances which keep the candidates 
out of sight. There is a good deal of talk about Mr. 
Cleveland's ambitions for another term, but it all 
seems to us very idle. In the first place, the tradi- 
tions which oppose a third term are so strong that 
nobody could reasonably hope to overcome them. 
Again, Mr. Cleveland is so out of accord with his 
party that he could not, probably, be nominated even 
if the third -term bugbear were out of the way. 
After Mr. Cleveland, nobody is so much talked about 
in connection with next year's chances as Ex- 
Secretary Whitney, who has both strong and weak 
points. His standing in the party is unsurpassed 
and his abilities are unquestioned; but he is un- 
fortunately associated with the Standard Oil 
monopoly and with Wall street, and is fairly repre- 
sentative of those interests against which Demo- 
cratic traditions stand opposed. He is as staunch 
for the gold standard as Mr. Cleveland. Secretary 
Carlisle is scarcely more available. Prior to his 
recent efforts in advocacy of the gold standard he 
was esteemed a very probable compromise candi 
date; but now he is almost as cordially hated by free- 
coinage advocates as Cleveland or John Sherman. 
There are several strong free-coinage leaders in the 
Democratic party, but they are from the South, and 
therefore hardly available as Presidential timber. 
As yet no name has been brought forth which 
inspires any assurances of success before the Demo- 
cratic convention. 



Those Republican statesmen whose names have 
become associated with next year's Presidential 
chances are singularly forward in letting the people 
know where they stand on the money issue. Major 
McKinley, Mr. Allison and Mr. Hariison have each 
announced himself in plain terms as an advocate of 
bimetallism, subject to international agreement. 
Mr. Reed has not recently dealt publicly with finan- 
cial subjects, but from his somewhat sensational 
outgivings last year, he is assumed to be a more rad- 
ical friend of the white metal, though still falling 
short of the free coinage ideal. Mr. Morton is for 
the gold standard, as is Mr. Depew. Up to this time 
no Republican aspirant of open and decided free 
silver views has been named ; and it is questionable 
if there is in the ranks of the party a man who com- 
bines with such views other qualities calculated to 
command notice in the nominating convention. On 
the whole it appears very unlikely that free coinage 
Republicans will have the chance to vote for a Pres- 
idential candidate just to their liking, for they will 
probably have to go either against their silver 
notions or against their party. 



With reference to what was said in this column 
last week concerning Mr. Harrison's possible election 
to the Senate, the case of John Quincy Adams is 
very much in point. Following his service in the 
Presidential ofRce, Mr. Adams entered the House of 
Representatives— choosing the lower chamber in- 
stead of the Senate because it was more congenial to 
his temperawput — a^nd served for seventeen years. 



or until his death. It was in this long congressional 
career that he did his most notable work and made 
the better part of his fame. His experience in public 
life at home and abroad, coupled with the distinction of 
his Presidential service, made him at once the best 
equipped and most considered member of Congress; 
and these advantages he put to admirable account. 
The judgment of his fellow-countrymen has approved 
his course as one of eminent value and of real dig- 
nity. Mr. Adams was too earnest and too genuine 
a man to allow small vanities based on past political 
rank to send him into a picturesque but unprofitable 
retirement while he had still good work in him. If, 
as it is reported, Mr. Harrison feels the same way, 
it appears to us a fact highly creditable to his 
common sense and to his patriotic instinct. He is 
still in full vigor of life, splendidly equipped for 
public service; and if the people of his State would 
like him to serve them in the Senate there is no 
reason why he should not do it. 



There is in progress at Chicago as we write, an 
eight-day joint discussion of the currency question 
between Mr. Harvey, author ofi;" Coin's Financial 
School," and Mr. Horr, a widely known ex-member 
of Congress. Mr. Horr's undertaking is to break 
do wn the statements and reasonings of the "Finan- 
cial School," and Mr. Harvey, of course, is on the de- 
fensive. The discussion is attracting wide atten- 
tion, and the daily papers print long columns of 
more or less tedious dialogue. In this connection it 
is interesting to note the effects of partisan bias. 
All the gold papers declare that Horr is beating 
Harvey at every point, while the free silver papers 
are just as positive that Harvey is driving Horr to 
the wall. This is always the way with such discus- 
sions. They never convince anybody — never do any- 
thing more, in fact, than to illustrate the forensic 
qualities of the disputants, and promote the spirit of 
controversy. So far as practiiial results are con- 
corned, Messrs. Harvey and Horr might as well put 
their personal qualities to the test of a foot race or a 
boxing bout. 

Great preparations are being made on both sides 
of the Atlantic for a series of yacht races to again 
determine the ownership of the famous "America" 
cup which for so many years has been held in this 
country against British efforts to reclaim it. Lord 
Dunraven, who in 1893 sailed his yacht, the Val- 
kyrie, unsuccessfully against the American Vigilant, 
is again the challenger and will sail a new boat 
named for the original Valkyrie which was sunk in a 
collision shortly after her return home two years 
ago. The American interest will be represented by 
a new boat especially built for the purpose and ap- 
propriately called the Defender. Of this boat great 
work is expected. As a test of her (juality, she was 
! sailed last week against the Vigilant — the winner of 
1893 — and fairly beat her twice. The great contest 
is to come off in October over a course just outside 
New York harbor, and it is bound to excite the 
wildest enthusiasm on both sides of the ocean. The 
facts connected with the "America" cup — the cir- 
cumstance of its gift by Queen Victoria and the long 
series of contests by which its possession has been 
maintained — appeals to patriotic sentiment both 
here and in England, and the fight for it has almost 
the interest of a naval battle. 



The sensibilities of the Sacramento RrronJ- (lu'on 
have been grievously shocked by the interest ex- 
pressed by the American people in the matter of the 
new baby Cleveland. It says : 

"It is simply siekeningr, this twaddle and gush on the part 
of certain alleged newspapers over the birth of a baby to Mrs. 
Grover Cleveland. She, like any other good woman and wife, 
is to be congratulated on safe delivery of a child; and the 
father. President Cleveland, is to be congratulated, as is any 
other good man and husband who becomes a father. But 
beyond that there is no reason whatever for treating the 
birth of this child out of the common." 

Now, the interest which the public has shown in 
this event appears to us to have a very different and 
an altogether wholesome significance. We have 
looked upon it as a demonstration of the sound- 
heartedness of the American people, that they turn 
with warm interest from the sensational froth of the 
time to a very natural, very simple and very human 
event related to the domestic life of the chief magis- 
trate. The time, we trust, may never come when 
the women of America — ^and the men, too — will not 



be profoundly interested in such a happy incident as 
the birth of a child to the household of their President. 
There are, unquestionably, more important matters 
as related to public affairs, but there can be no 
wholesomer or sweeter subject of general gossip. 
And if, in giving the President our congratulations, 
we forget, for the moment, whether he is a Demo- 
crat or a Republican, whether he stands for gold or 
silver money, whether or not we approve of all 
his official acts — why, so much the better. May 
Fortune bless Baby Marian — and may she grow up 
as sweet and true a woman as her charming mother! 



The Marketing Problem. 



Ijetter Xo. 3 from Col. Hergey. 

To THE Editor:— Before discussing item I of quotations 
made from your " Fruit Grower" correspondent, I wish to 
correct a misprint of my communication in last week's issue 
wherein your "dcrH," I presume, caused me to say that the 
four united associations concentrated and sold in a single sea- 
son $110,000 worth of fruits. It should have been }!710,000 
worth. , 

I. 

" [ liifrr U,-i t] fpiilchUiij irith a (/oofi (Irnl (if intrrexf tjic di^errnt 
moms in, I, I, ill iliirnciil xrrlioiia for ilic. pin-iiiixr iif hrtteriini the 
condition 111 llir Ji iiit iiilriTHlK, anil I have, regretted Id .see .so many 
\ie.ar» and ariisiins spe/tt in the vain effort for somethina hetter. I 
had hoped i/cars ago that the fruit bustnens had passed the experi- 
mental stage." 

It is interesting to know that some of the people are watch- 
ing what others engaged in the same industry are doing to 
enhance the interests of that industry. Wise people can 
profit from the failures of others when they are made, and 
carefully observed, ft is one of the best phases of our efforts, 
that they are watched with interest. It is true "(nnrc.-i " 
have been made, having for their object the bettering of the 
conditions of the fruit industry. Not many years ago the en- 
tire product of our State was required for canners use and 
home consumption. " rencs (f(/i("this must have been the 
conditions and presumably the time when your correspondent 

hoped the fruit business had passed tliroiir/li its experimental 
stages.'''' 

Changed conditions required, however, additional experi- 
ments, and they are being made. These changed conditions 
are the production of ()0,0()(l,()OU pounds of one kind of dried 
fruit as against two or three million a few years ago, and 
thousands of acres still planted and not yet producing. All 
of the old methods and machinery of former times are as inade- 
quate as the sickle is to-day for harvesting our grain crop or 
the " two-horse team " for sending the same to the consuming 
market. There were very many small growers and many 
large ones, and both rapidly increasing. Capitalists invested 
in lands and planted orchards by the square mile. Syndi- 
cates were formed, concentrating capital for a like purpose. 
Canner's and merchant driers formed associations and fixed 
prices for the growers' fruit while the trees were yet in 
bloom. 

The small grower, and in not a few instances the large one, 
thought the time had come for them to begin to do something 
looking to continued welfare and protection. Meetings were 
held, discussions had, and the growers' wisdom crystallized 
into associations, having a beginning in Santa Clara valley. 
Their unexpected (;) success attrai^ted the interest and at- 
tention of all sections of the State, and efforts have been 
made and successful results obtained in the several branches 
of the fruit industry throughout the State. And "»ic condi- 
tiiiiis of llic fruit inlrre.'its are Jietterrir' thereby. The orange 
ind stry has been carefully and successfully managed in this 
way. The wine industry, so closely akin to ours, has arisen 
to its feet and seems to have strength and firmness. The 
fruit industry is now placed in a position that it can better 
care for itself and the individual grower. He need no longer 
compete with his neighbor nor against himself. He need no 
longer be obliged to pledge his crop or take whatever neces- 
sity compels in time of distress. He is no longer obliged to 
sell when the buyer is supplied and the speculator or "con- 
signment dump" are the alternatives. He can manage his 
product IF HE wn,i., as other products are managed, and sell 
them when the trade demands them or wlU take them at 
reasonable values. He need not send his gnods :tO()0 miles 
away, totally ignorant of the conditions where they are sent, 
unless he wishes to. He has become and is becoming more in- 
telligent at every stage of his industry from the selection of 
soil to the sale of his product. This is all very largely 
attributable to " //le j/iorex mrt((e In different seetions for * '* 
hrttering the condition of the fruit interests '" 

If this be true, and I don't think it can be reasonably 
doubted, your "fruitgrower" has no reason to regret that 
these moves have been made. He cannot truthfully say that 
he " has regretted to see so maiin ni ars and seasons spnit in vain 
effort.'' He may well say that he regrets that the ''growers" 
are not " renihi-ninde " business men and that they sometimes 
try to accomplish great things too quickly, but we desire to 
assure him that when the farmer gets ''settled down to Inisi- 
iie.s.s" the ordinary "character" may as well stand aside. 
Your correspondent said, "[ had hoped years ago that the fruit 
business liad passed through its crperimenlal stages." This hope 
surely is '• in rain " if it was intended to cover the whole sit- 
uation. The fruit industry and the fruit product are still in 
their infancy. Millions of pounds will soon be added to our 
product, and, to live, wo must dispose of it. Our ability to 
carry when not wanted must be increased, our consuming 
markets broadened and our knowledge of methods must be 
extended. We must become more expert in all things. Shall 
we do this ourselves, educate our children to do it and be- 
come a force and power in our own behalf, or shall wo 
"gather * * dru * * grade " a,m\ " tie content ." The farm 
produces brains as well as muscle, and it is a notable fact that, 
the best business houses in our busy country are established 
and maintained by the " hogs from the farm" grown into busi- 
ness service. Why not, then, continue our " mores," accumu- 
late force and ability with experience, and do in a measure 
for ourselves what otherwise we shall be obliged to compen- 
sate others for doing '. We must move with the moving 
masses and be not always "plodders." Piiilo Heksey. 



C. S. SwBNsoN, in the Salinas Index, gives an interesting 
account of the wonderful development of orchard interests in 
the San Miguel canyon. He reports that .")!),400 trees have 
been planted in the canyon to date, the total of each variety 
being as follows: 16,.');i() apple, l~,Ki'J prune, 10,177 apricot. 
.tIOI pear, 001.') peach, KiiMJ cherry, 3187 almond, lUO plum, 
walnut, 285 olive, 103 chestnut, 70 orange, 30 lemon, and 21,:i ,(» 
grape vines. 



52 



The Pacific Rural Press 



July 27, 1895. 



Rainfall and Temperature. 



The following data for the week ending 5 a. m., 
July 24, 1895, are from official sources, and are 
furnished by the U. S. Weather Bureau expressly 
for the Pacific Rural Press: 



CALIFORNIA 
STATIONS. 


Total Rainfall for the 
Week 


Total Seasonal Rain- 
fall to Dale 


Total Seasonal Rain- 
fall Last Year to 


Average Seasonal Raic- 


Maximum Temperature 
for the Week 


Minimum Temperature | 
for the Week j 


Eureka 




11 


.02 


10 


68 


48 


Red Bluff 




.16 


.02 


.01 


102 


66 


Sacramento 




.04 


T 


T 


94 


54 


San Francisco 




.01 


T 


.01 


64 


51 








T 


T 


108 


60 


Los Angeles 






T 


T 


82 


56 


San Diego 








T 


74 


00 








36 


.12 


112 


70 



Weather and Crops. 



Report of the State Weather Servire for Week Ending 
•Hid Inst. 

Director Barwick of the California Weather and 
Crop Service summarizes as follows : 

The averaf^e temperature for the week endinff 
July 22d was for Eureka 54°; Independence, 7S°; F^os 
Angeles 68°; Red Bluff, 84°; Sacramento, 72°; San 
Francisco 58°; Diego 66°. 

Compared with the normal temperatures there 
was a deficiency at all points of from one to three 
degrees, except at Red Bluff. 

The weather during the week has been abnormally j 
cool at all points in the State except Red Bluff, 
which shows an excess of heat over the normal of 
three degrees. 

Crops are in the same condition as was reported 
last week — that is, poor. The weather has been ex- 
ceptionally cool for July, and has therefore retarded 
the ripening of fruits of all kinds. 

fSacraiiieiito Valley. 

Tehama (Ked Bluff)— Grain reported very much shriveled ; 
gardens on bottom lands doing fine, and melons are ripening 
fast. 

Bi'TTE (Penlz)— Good crop of peaches, plums iind pears, while 
grapes promise a good .yield. 

CoLi'SA (Sites)— Yield is a light one in wheat, but barley is 
turning out quite well. (Grand Island)— Yield of barley is 
good, but wheat is short. Farmers are plowing in the tules 
as the water recedes. 

Yi)i,o — The river farmers are about completing the putting 
in of their crops as the water recedes in the vicinity of 
Knight's Landing. 

Soi.AXo (CoUinsvillel —Yield as shown b.v the grain alread.v 
threshed is at least one-third less than last year. The short- 
age is attributed to the north winds of June. A good deal of 
grain was shelled out by the winds and man.v of the stalks of 
grain were broken off and fell down so low that the heads 
could not be reached b.v the machine. (Dixon) — Many things 
conspired to cause the shortage in the grain crop of thi.s sec- 
tion. In some lethalities all the damage was done by the north 
winds, in others the late frosts seem to have blighted the 
grain, and one locality south of town, which escaped both of 
the others, succumbed to the ravages of the joint worm. All 
these causes combined reduced the yield to considerably less 
than halt a crop, or the iKwrcst yield on record except the dry 
season of Ixi'A. 

San Joaquin Valley. 
Loni — The alfalfa crop will be short. Corn and beans are 
doing well. 

Fresno (Reedley)— Peaches are getting ripe; grains will be 
.several weeks earlier than last year. (Kaston)— All varieties 
of grapes have made rapid progress. Zinfandels promise a 
big crop. Generally speaking, muscats will also make a good 
crop. 

KiN<;s (Hanfordi— The grape crop this season will average 
with the best of previous years. There will bo more drying — 
that is, more care will be exercised in the drying process-- 
than usual, and none of the second crop will bo made into 
raisins. 

Southern California. 

Sasta B.Mii!AHA--The wheat crop in this county is a failure. 
The mustard crop around Lompoc is inferior in quality, owing 
to its getting scorched by a few days of hot sun just after go- 
ing out of bloom. 

Ventcka— The mornings have been foggy. Beans are 
growing rapidly. Fruit is ripening fast, and in the young 
orchards is of a fair quality. 

Los An(;ei.ks (Los Angeles) — The damp, cloudy and foggy 
nights are a detriment to summer crops. 

San Die(;(> (Poway)— Peaches are ripening in commercial 
((uantities, hut t he crop is light and the quality good. (Otay) — 
Threshing has begun and the quality is poor. 



California Forest Tree Literature. 



To THE EniTOK :— I am desirous of obtaining a text-book on 
Forestry of California— a work treating directly on the sub- 
ject of the pei'uliarities of each kind of forest trees, so that by 
its aid 1 ma.v be able to identify trees at present unknown to 
me. Will you kindly recommend some publications on the 
subject ; .loiix A. VoGi.Esox. 

Neenach, Los Angeles Co. 

There is no text-book of Californian forestry, but 
the works by which the trees of the State may be 
identified are: Prof. Greene's '"Illustrations of 
West American Oaks," the same author's books of 
descriptive botany, namely, tho " Bay liegion 
Manual" and the ''Flora Franciscana," also the 
volume upon our pines by Prof, l.enunon, wliieh was 
put»Ushe(i spine years since by tb© State Bo^rcl of 



Forestry. The "West American Oaks" is not for 
sale, but may be found in some public libraries. The 
books by Prof. Greene which can be purchased are 
as follows: 

"Flora Franciscana." An attempt to classify and describe 
the Vascular Plants of Middle California. Parts i, ii and 
iii. (pp. ;i5-2, isni-!)2l finished. Price *2. 00. 

" Manual of the Botan.v of the Region of San Francisco Ba.v." 
A systematic arransement of the higher plants growing 
spontaneously in the counties of Marin, Sonoma, Napa, So- 
lano, Contra Costa. Alameda, Santa Clara. San Mateo and 
San Francisco, in the State of California. One volume, 8vo. 
pp. xiii, 328, lSf»4. Price of library issue, $2.00; of school 
issue, single copy, ?1..50. 

Though the Manual treats primarily of the Bay 
Region botany, the plants have of course a wide 
range up and down the coast. The books may be 
ordered from this office postpaid. 



Qieanings. 



Nai'a has a local improvement club. It is giving its first 
attention to the beautification of the city streets and the 
roads leading to town. 

Two WOMEN were arrested on Saturda.v last for taking two 
small apples from a tree in the grounds of D. A. Cohen in 
Alameda. They pleaded guilty, but the judge declined to 
impo.se a penalty. 

Work on a big raisin warehouse wa.s begun at San Jose last 
week. The warehouse will be controlled by Fresno capital- 
ists, chief among whom is A. B. Butler. Raisins and dried 
prunes will be the principal products handled. 

The boiler of a threshing engine belonging to the outfit of 
Hanford Bros, exploded on the 17th inst., about ten miles 
from Tulare. Engineer McCornish and Clarence Torre.v were 
instantly killed and eight other men were so badly scalded 
and otherwise injured by flying scraps of iron that some of 
them will die. 

Watsonville Pajarittiiini : The little man from .lapaii is be- 
coming as much of a bother in labor fields as was the Mon- 
golian in the days of Dennis Kearney's prominence. He is a 
tnore troublesome fellow to handle than the Mongolian. He 
fights back, and he crowds himself into all fields of employ- 
ment. A demand for the restriction of Japanese immigration 
j is going to be quite loud-toned in California in the near future, 
and it promises to be a big issue in the next general State 
election. 

The Western Packing Co.'s works at Portland, Oregon, 
have started up canning horse flesh. A dispatch from Port- 
land dated 10th inst., says : The first batch of horses were 
shipped from Arlington a few days ago. They are just off the 
range and are in good condition. About ten, it is said, were 
killed to-day. The railroad campanies have been asked to 
make a rate on canned horse meat in carload lots to the East 
at $1 per hundred. Special rates have been quoted on live 
horses from Idaho and Arizona to Portland. 

Orange, July lit.— The Orange County Fruit Exchange will 
end its season's .shipping this week. With the exception of a 
few standard seedlings, for which it is impossible to find a 
market, the Exchange will have made a clean sweep of all 
fruit. The executive committee will receive about $lfi,0(X) 
rebate from the refrigerator car service. Of this amount 
Orange county will receive about f2000. Heretofore these 
rebates have gone into the pockets of the commission men. It 
is claimed that growers who marketed their oranges through 
the association will realize more than those who sold through 
commission men. 

Nai'A RruMr.r : The vineyard industry " up valley " is by 
no means dead. The phylloxera has, in years gone bj', de- 
stroyed thousands of acres of once flourishing, productive and 
valuable vineyards. In numerous instances these vine.vards 
will not be renewed, but many will be replanted to resistant 
vines, the acreage of which is annually increasing. There is 
a brighter prospect for better prices for grapes in the future 
than have for some time ruled. Now that the way has been 
found to succossfull.v prevent the destructive work of the 
phylloxera, parties interested in vine growing have more 
courage to plant than they have had for many years. 

Fkesno, July 19. — The books of the County Assessor show a 
falling oft of 14,801 in the raisin vineyards acreage of the coun- 
ty during the fiscal year ended July, I8!I5. In the correspond- 
ing term of 1894 the following was the acreage in vines: 
Table grapes, '23; wine grapes, l,;i:ifi; raisin, 51,7S1. This year 
the figures are : Table grapes, 99; wine, l,'20l; raisin, .3ti,980. 
The raisin vineyards representing the difference have been 
plowed up and planted in fruit or .sown with alfalfa. The 
number of fruit trees in the county shows an increase from 
048,827 to 702,001. The prospective effect on raisin prices, due 
to the falling off in the raisin acreage, is beginning to cause 
considerable speculation among growers, but the general feel- 
ing is that the raisin industry is practically ruined at the 
present time. 

Nai-a Reginter: Farmers and stockmen in this county who 
in past years have found it to their interest to raise sheep in 
greater or less numbers long ago became discouraged, and the 
industry here, as elsewhere in this State, has dwindled to 
small proportions. Some stockmen have kept their wool over 
from year to year, thinking that better prices would rule, but 
continued disappointment has fallen to their lot. It is an in- 
disputable fact that as long as the present tarifl is in force 
there will be no inducement for parties to engage in raising 
sheep, either for the wool or for mutton. In this valley few 
sheep are to be found. Only two thousand, in round numbers, 
were reported to the county asses.sor last March. Seldom 
does one hear of a large flock. The greatest numbers in any 
one locality are raised in Berryessa valley. 

Mr. Arthtr R. Brioos of Fresno thus writes of the raisin 
industry: "I firmlj' believe that small vine.vards largely, if 
not wholly, worked by the owners, without employment of 
hired laborers, are most profitable to the owners. The great 
menace to this industry is the non-resident holdings, and 
other holdings controlled by men without adequate means to 
properly oonduct the business. Raisins produced by both 
these classes are too often improperly cured and handled. 
Undor consignment thoy are generally found on the market 
at any price obtainable, to the serious detriment of the indus- 
try, I beljeve in prptecting tUe small produper, aad »m §ft^ 



isfied this can best be done by establishing the rule of selling 
raisins for cash— in the sweat box— as fast as the product is 
cured. If packers were buyers they would be loth to slaugh- 
ter the product under any conditions." 

The California Poultry Co., a corporation, will soon go into 
the chicken and egg business on a great scale near this city. 
The company will have a capital stock of *2.5,00O. The farin, 
which is to be located near Petaluma or Napa, will begin 
operations November 1st, and the first chickens will be puton 
the market the first of January. During the first year 30,000 
fowls will be marketed, HO.OOO the .second and the third .vears. 
When the full capacity of the plant is reached, 90,000 chickens 
will be marketed. The plant of the new industry will consist 
of an incubator-house ;20x3t feet, from either side of which 
will extend a wing 40x13.5 feet, to be known as the boiler- 
houses, and a feed and store house 28x.")0 feet and two stories 
high. The rest of the farm, which is to be of forty acres, will 
be devoted to breeding-houses and pons for the fowls which 
lay the eggs for the incubator and for the market. The 
breeding pens, in which are kept solely the hens which lay 
the eggs for the incubators, will be 18x700 feet, divided into 
sections 18x'20 feet, with an out-of-door court •2Ox'20O feet. The 
building will occupy about a quarter of the farm, aside from 
that occupied by the main buildings, and the rest will be de- 
voted to pens and courts similar to the breeding pens, in 
which the fowls which lay for the market will be kept. Each 
pen accommodates thirty hens, making a total of 900 laying 
for the incubators and 10,000 laying for the market. These 
latter, as stated, furnish an output of 2,000,000 eggs annually. 
The eggs are to be hatched in two mammoth incubators of a 
capacity of '2040 eggs each. J. A. Finch, late of Washington, 
D. C, is the loading spirit in the enterprise. 



Pacific Coast Hop Report. 



We are indebted to Lillenthal & Co. for the follow- 
ing statistical hop review: 

Crtiji iif 1SH4— Arrm. RaleK. 

California 8,fi00 77,.500 

Oreiron 15.0(Mi rt:i,(KK) 

Washington 10,000 49,000 

British Columbia 400 1,000 

Totals .34.4<K) lOO.-'iOO 

Distribution of stock from June 30th, 18;t4, to July 



1st, 1895: 

CALIFORNIA. 

Unlff. Bales. 

stock from 1893 on hand June .■«), 1804 2,.tO0 

Received from Oregon and Washington 

Returned from New York 4(X) 

Crop of 1894 77,500— 80,800 

Shipped overland by rail (56,200 

Shipped to foreign ports by water 3,800 

Home consumption 5,000 

Shipped eastward by water lOO — 74,100 

On hand July, 1, 1S<.».5 6,700 

OHEOON. 

Stock from 1893 on hand June 30, 1894 .500 

Crop of 1894 6.3,000— 63,500 



Shipped overland by rail 00,850 

Shipped to California 400 

Home consumption 7.50 — 62,000 

On hand July 1, 1895 1,500 

WASHINGTON. 

Stock from 1893 on hand June 30. 1894 1,300 

Crop of 1894 49,000— .50,:«X) 

Shipped overland by rail 4.5,.300 

Home consumption 1,000— 46,300 

Oh hand July 1, 1895 4,000 

IIRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Shipped eastward 1,000 

RECAPITULATION. 

Total stot'k on hand June -M). 1894 4.300 

Total returned from New York 400 

Total Pacific Coast crop, 1894 190, .500—1 95, 200 

Total rail shipments 173,:i50 

Total water shipments 2,900 

Total consumed by local brewers 6,750—183,000 

Total stock o:i J:i'y 1, l-<'r, 12,200 



How We Go to Sleep. 



" Order is Heaven's first law," and the truth is 
manifested even in the process of going to sleep. 
When a man drops otT to sleep, says the Cincinnati 
Medical Jiiiinidl, his body does not do so all at once, 
so to speak. Some senses become dormant before 
others, and iihMiys in the same order. As he be- 
comes drowsy the eyes close and the sense of seeing 
is at rest. It is quickly followed by the disappear- 
ance of the sense of taste. He next loses the sense 
of smell, and then, after a short interval, the tym- 
panum becomes insensible to sound, or rather, the 
nerves which run to the brain from it fail to arouse 
any sense of hearing. The last sense to leave is 
that of touch, and in some hypersensitive people it 
is hardly ever dormant. Even in their case, how- 
ever, there is no discriminating power or sense of 
what touched them. This sense is also the first to 
return upon awakening. Then hearing follows suit, 
after that taste, and then the eye becomes able to 
flash impressions back to the brain. The sense of 
smell, oddly enough, though it is by no means the 
first to go, is the last to come back. The same 
gradual loss of power is observed in the muscles and 
sinews as well as in the senses. Slumber begins at 
the feet and slowly spreads up the limbs and trunk 
until it reaches the brain, when unconsciousness is 
complete and the whole body is at rest. This is why 
sieep i§ impossible when the feet are eold, 



July 27, 1896. 



The Pacific Rural Press. 



58 



AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE. 

Distribution of 5alts in Alkali Soils. 



By E. 



An Acconnt of the Latest Investigrs^tlons. 

W. HiLGARD, Director of Experiment Stations of State 
University, at Santa Ana Farmers' Institute. 

As time progresses the importance of the alkali 
question — i. c, dealing successfully with the cultiva- 
tion of lands more or less impregnated with soluble 
mineral salts — becomes more and more obvious. It 
is to be regretted that the mistaken efforts of land 
owners to suppress or at least to ignore this matter, 
for fear of injuring the selling value of their lands, 
interpose additional difficulties in dealing with an 
intrinsically sufficiently difficult problem. In view 
of this circumstance, we bear patiently the disap- 
pointment we have undergone in finding that, unex- 
pectedly, one of our geographically most important 
culture experhnent stations is located upon ground 
subject to all the difficulties inherent in the cultiva- 
tion of alkali land, since we are thus enabled to 
study the problem independently of any private in- 
terests. 

The University s Facilities for the Study.— The 
culture experiment station near the town of Tulare, 
originally intended to represent the Upper San 
Joaquin valley, has thus, instead, become the station 
for the study of the alkali problem in all its phases, 
from the mildpst to the worst. Until this problem 
is solved, no certain conclusions for the region at 
large can be drawn from the cultural results ob- 
served I here, since we know that all the vegetation 
on the station grounds is under more or less stress 
from the alkali in the soil. If, however, we shall be 
successful in overcoming this influence — as we hope 
to be — the station will have rendered, not only to 
the San Joaquin valley and the State at large, but to 
the entire region west of the Rocky mountains, a 
most important service. 

Charnctcristic Btltavior of Alkali Soils. — For an 
understanding of the situation, it may be necessary 
to re-state here that in their vatural condition the 
lands for several miles around the station, as in 
hundreds of localities elsewhere in the valley and the 
State, show only occasional alkali spots, while out- 
side of these spots, during the spring months, the 
country is covered with a luxuriant growth of native 
(largely annual) herbaceous plants, many being 
showy Hovvers and aftordiog a most attractive sight, 
also proving beyond question the great inherent 
fertility of the land. As the season advances, from 
April to June these plants go to seed or dry up, 
leaving the land more or less bare, or with only a 
sparse growth of hardy, drouth-resisting, partially 
perennial jjlants. There is not, in ordinary seasons, 
any perceptible increase or decrease in the area of 
the iuter.spersed alkali spots. 

When such land is put under cultivation mitfiont ir- 
rigation, it will in years of unusual moisture bring 
very heavy crops of grain, which easily make up for 
at least one other season of almost total failure when 
the rainfall is light or unfavorably distributed. It is 
this "fighting chance" of a highly remunerative 
crop that has in so many cases induced the invest- 
ment of entire fortunes in such ventures, frequently 
with a total loss and financial ruin as the result — a 
kind of agricultural gambling little better in itself, 
and with as many chances against success, as that 
at the faro table, but now happily almost a thing of 
the past. 

Effect of Irrigaiion upon Allcali Soils. — With the 
advent of the irrigation ditch, the heavy grain crop 
becomes for a few years a matter of certainty. Then 
there is a gradual change for the worse. First it is 
noticed that the alkali spots increase their area out- 
ward, often merging neighboring small spots into one 
large one. Then new ones begin to appear, at first 
" no larger than a man's hand," but enlarging each 
year, and finally often so cutting up and reducing 
the producing area that the land is abandoned in 
disgust. 

The " rise of the alkali " thus brought about by ir- 
rigation was very generally at first attributed (and 
sometimes justly) to the saline character of the irri- 
gation water used. But, as in time it became ap- 
parent that even the purest waters, such as those of 
Kings and Kaweah rivers, would produce the same 
result, the conclusion that the alkali salts ai'e simply 
brought up by evaporation from the soil itself forced 
itself upon the most superficial observers. 

The Point To Be Dcterniined. — Then arose the ques- 
tion, " How much of these salts does the soil con- 
tain, or where do they come from ?" If it could be 
shown that the soil, subsoil and substrata were 
equally impregnated with alkali, and would continue 
to supply indefinite amounts, the reclamation of such 
lands for permanent cultivation would be almost 
hopeless. 

We at first approached the problem by the exam- 
ination of "bottom waters" in cases where the 
latter had risen from a considerable depth in conse- 
quence of a filling up from leaky ditches. It was 
found that, in the vast majority of cases, such water 
contained relatively small amounts of alkali salts 
only — not mpre than many waters successfully used 



for irrigation. It thus became evident that the main 
mass of these salts exists in the soil and subsoil within a 
few feet of the surface. The chemical examination of 
the "alkaU" moreover showed that it consists, as a 
rule, of such compounds as are known to be formed 
in all soils in consequence of weathering, and that it 
contains all the ingredients useful, as well as those 
useless, to plant growth — substances which in raiay 
countries are currently leached out and carried out 
into the country drainage and finally into the ocean, 
but in regions of scanty rainfall remain in the soil 
mass. 

We are thus led tcvthe vitally important conclu- 
sion that the amount of the salts in these lands is hut 
limited, and, if once removed or rendered innocuous 
to crops in some other way, it will take thousands of 
years in the future, as in the past, before another 
such accumulation can occur from the very gradual 
weathering of the soil mass. 

The Method of Investigation. — In view of the 
extraordinary intrinsic and permanent fertility of 
alkali lands when once reclaimed, it has seemed 
desirable to study in detail the manner of the dis- 
tribution of the soluble salts, as well as their kind, 
at different depths in the soil and at different sea- 
sons, so as to gain an insight into their migrations 
and transformations, and thus determine the best 
and cheapest methods of dealing with them. 

The problem is a very complex one and involves a 
great deal of labor, hence cannot be solved in one or 
a few seasons because of the great diversity of soil 
conditions. The investigation has, however, yielded 
such striking and practically important results that 
it seems best to bring them to public notice at once. 

For more ready understanding, these results are 
tabulated so as to show by actual determination the 
increase and decrease of the total soluble alkali, as 
well as of the several salts composing it. The soil 
samples were taken (by means of post-hole augur) so 
that each represented a vertical column of three 
inches of soil, continuing thus to the depth of four 
feet. Each of these samples was then leached of its 
salts, and every leaching analyzed separately. 



TABLE r.— ALKALI SALTS AT VARIOUS DEPTHS IN UN- 
IRRIGATED ALKALI LAND, COVERED WITH 
NATURAL HERBAGE. 



Depth of Soil Columns 




The predominance of carbonate of soda seen in 
these diagrams shows at once that the Tulare alkali 
is very " black," so that the use of gypsum is the 
first thing needful in attempting any reclamation or 
preventive measures; but, aside from this, the 
diagrams suggest, very instructively, the explana- 
tion of many points not well understood heretofore. 

Effect of the Rainfall. — It is well known to residents 
that in Tulare and northern Kern counties the great- 
est depth to which the soil is wetted by the winter 
rains rarely exceeds three feet. This, then, is the 
depth to which the soluble salts in the soil may be 
washed each successive year by the natural rainfall, 
and from this depth it may partially or wholly re- 
ascend toward or to the surface during each dry 
season. It is reasonable to expect that near the 
lower limit there will be a gradual accumulation of 
the saline matters, which reach it in the form of 
strong solutions. Table 1 illustrates this strikingly. 
It shows the condition of the natural, unirrigated 
land at a point half a mile north of the Experiment 
Station, which was at the time (May, 1895) covered 
by the native spring growth of herbage and flowers, 
and which during the dry season shows no sign of 
alkali on the surface. Evidently, at the time repre- 
sented here, the winter rains had washed the alkali 
salts so far down into the subsoil that the seeds had 
no difficulty in germinating near the surface; and as 
the growing herbs covered the surface, practically 
all the evaporation took place through the roots and 
leaves, and the alkali did not move upward to any 
great extent. The roots only reached to the level 
(18 to 24 inches) where the impregnation is not 
strong enough to hurt them. The soil moisture 
being pretty nearly exhausted by the evaporation 
through the plants during their growth, evaporation 
from the soil could not thereafter bring any percep- 
tible amount of salts to the surface. Thus the first 
rain would next season again enable the seeds to 
germinate without injury from the alkali, despite the 
heavy impregnation farther down, which is seen to 
be greatest about the last half of the third foot. 

As a matter of course, not only the native growth. 



but also any crop of which a good stand has been ob- 
tained on an alkali soil, will similarly tend to di- 
minish or prevent the rise of the alkali. Hence a 
crop of alfalfa, once established, may flourish for 
years on ground that, so soon as it is left bare dur- 
ing the dry season for the fall sowing of a grain crop, 
may prove altogether too strong and may kill the 
grain. 

From the fifteen-inch level down we see a sudden 
and very rapid decrease of the salts, so that toward 
the end of the fourth foot they are reduced to little 
more thau is shown at the end of the first foot from 
the surface. 

Those familiar with "black alkali" lands will at 
once recognize the three-foot depth as the one at 
which, in punching or digging post-holes or ditches, 
a very tough, intractable clay hardpan is frequently 
encountered, which, when exposed to the air, soon 
becomes covered with abundance of white salts. 
This is the cause of the thick layer of salts often seen 
alongside of irrigation ditches in the alkali regions. 

We see thus demonstrated, beyond any possible 
cavil, the correctness of the conclusion we have pre- 
viously drawn from the examination of the bottom 
waters, viz., that the bulk of the alkali salts is even 
in natural alkaU lands, accumulated within easy 
reach of the surface and underdrains, and that if this 
accumulation is once removed, no more— or at least 
not enough to do any harm— will come from below. 
This points to underdrainage as the ready and com- 
plete corrective of all alkali, as has been long ago 
recommended by us. But it does not follow that the 
indiscriminate use of underdrainage is to be recom- 
mended, since, as we have abundantly shown, enor- 
mous amounts of valuable soil ingredients would thus 
run to waste. In the majority of cases, other means, 
presently to be referred to, will accomplish the 
reclamation. 

Effects of Irrigation. — Let us now see what effect 
irrigation, or the establishment of leaky ditches in 
a pervious soil, will produce in land circumstanced as 
shown in PI. 1. 

As regards the latter case, any one can see for 
himself that as the ditch water, filling up the land 
from below upward, comes in contact with the alkali- 
sodden subsoil or hardpan layer, it will dissolve the 
salts and carry them up toward the surface. Evap- 
oration from the moistened surface will then go on 
all the year to a greater or less extent, and the al- 
kali will keep steadily moving upward until in the 
course of a few years the maximum will be found, not 
three feet below, but right at the surface. This is 
one phase of the "rise of the alkali," very easily 
understood in the light of Table 1, and its outcome 
is graphically shown in Table 2, which scarcely re- 
quires comment. 



TABLE 11.— ALKALI SALTS AT VARIOUS DEPTHS IN IRRI- 
GATED ALKALI LAND, ON WHICH NO 
VEGETATION WOULD GROW. 



Am't ingredients in 100 of soil. 



Depth of Soil Columns. 



First foot 



Second foot. 



Third foot 



Fourth foot. 



0— 3 ins. 

3— 6 " 

6— 9 " 

U— 12 " 

12—15 " 

15—18 " 

18—21 " 

21—24 " 

24—27 " 

27— 3U " 

30— :« " 

33-36 " 

36—39 " 

39—42 " 

42—45 " 

45—18 " 



Total 
Salts... 


Glauber's 
salts... 


m 

m O P 
O -1 " 
G 

: 5& 


Common 
salt. , , , 


Saltpeter 


.773 


.351 


.351 


.144 


.087 


.449 


.170 


.233 


.035 


Oil 


.436 


.164 


.225 


.037 


.010 


.318 


.099 


.184 


0.S3 


.002 


.332 


.076 


.229 


.027 




.286 


.065 


.199 


.014 


.008 


.223 


.026 


.170 




.027 


.109 


.016 


.093 






.U80 


.007 


068 


.005 




.058 


.018 


040 






.040 


.010 


.025 


.005 




.036 


.010 


021 


.005 




.034 


.019 


.013 


.002 




.019 


.013 


.004 


.002 




.023 


.017 


.004 


.002 




.027 


.018 


.002 


.007 





This table shows the condition of land originally 
similar to that represented by table 1, which has 
been irrigated for four or five years, and quite lately 
has also been influenced by a neighboring leaky 
ditch, outside of the Station inclosure. Here we see 
that the alkali has moved bodily upward and has ac- 
cumulated near the surface to such a degree that any 
useful growth of ordinary crops has become impos- 
sible. Seeds sown (except those of salt bushes) are 
quickly corroded or " rotted " by such alkali as this, 
and fail to sprout. Anything set out, ready grown, 
may live while the rains last, but will be promptly 
killed by the corrosion of the root-crown, or lower 
end of the stem, from the effect of the strong solu- 
tion formed around it whenever a light rain or heavy 
dew falls, even if the root should be able to resist the 
action of the alkali in the soil itself. 

Why Irrigation Brings Up More Alkali. — It is not 
quite so easy to understand why surface irrigation 
should produce the same general result as the rise of 
the bottom water from below; and yet a little con- 
sideration readily explains it. Under irrigation the 
land receives many times more water than in its 
natural condition, but rarely enough to leach the al- 
kali salts into the country drainage. Practically all 
this irrigation water therefore evaporates in the 
course of the year. As it penetrates the soil to a 
greater depth than the natural rainfall ever goes, it 
completely dissolves the alkali salts in the subsoil 
and in the progress of its evaporation throughout the 



64 



July 27, 1895. 



season it carries them toward the surface instead of 
leaving most of them accumulated at between two 
and three feet depth, as in their natural state. In 
the course of time, especially in orchards where the 
soil remains bare, therefore exposed to evaporation 
throughout the season, the accumulation near the 
surface becomes so great as to injure even the bark 
of full-grown trees and vines, while ordinary herba- 
ceous vegetation becomes impossible. If the alkali 
should be of the "black" kind— i. e., carbonate of 
soda — the soil will soon begin to settle, and puddles 
of inky water will remain for some time after rains 
or irrigation, sometimes forming permanent "alkali 
ponds," with a bottom of tough, impervious hardpan. 

Treatments to Rediwf Alkali.— That these worst ef- 
fects can be suppressed by the conversion of " black " 
alkali into " white, ' by ineans of gypsum, I have al- 
ready sufficiently explained In former publications. 
The " white " or neutral alkali is many times less in- 
jurious than the " black," which is so corrosive that 
it dissolves not only the humus of the soil but also the 
bark of plants, always excepting the wonderful 
"salt bushes " and their kind. But thei-e are limits, 
varying for different plants, beyond which even the 
white alkali becomes incompatible with cultivation, 
so that its accumulation near the surface must be 
prevented as near as possible. The table No. 2 
shows the conditions of bare irrigated land in May. 
At the end of the dry season we find nearly the whole 
of the alkali concentrated within less than a foot of 
the surface, and if we could afford to remove that 
first foot of soil we would have no more trouble from 
alkali, but we would have seriously damaged the 
land's productiveness. 

(■iiHiileractliiy Eiaporation. — From what has been 
said it is obvious that, since evaporation from the 
soil surface is the cause of any "rise of the alkali," 
one of the chief preventive measures must be the re- 
duction of surface evaporation to the lowest possible 
point. This can be done either by mulching or, less 
effectually, by shading. 

The best mulch, available in all cases, is a w U and 
ihiplji tilled surface soil, on which a crust is never 
allowed to form. Then evaporation will be reduced 
to the minimum, and whatever does take place 
leaves the alkali distributed through the whole of 
the tilled layer, instead of at the surface, where the 
bulk of the damage is usually done, for a loosely 
tilled soil will take up little or no moisture from a 
denser or more compact subsoil, which it protects 
quite as effectually as would a straw mulch. 

Of course the depth or thickness of this protective 
tilled layer is of the utmost importance, not only for 
the sake of preventing evaporation and accumula- 
tion, but also because, since the maximum of alkali 
in irrigated land at the end of the dry season is 
always near the surface, the intermixing of the 
strong surface alkali with as large a mass of subsoil 
as possible, is important in order to dilute and 
diffuse it, so that it may not be strong enough any- 
where to hurt the root or root crown. After such 
an intermixture, say to the depth of ten or twelve 
inches, it takes some time to bring the salts to the 
surface again to a sufficient extent to hurt the crop. 
An instinctive recognition of this principle has led 
cultivators of alkali .soil in in some cases to resort to 
sanding the surface, and with temporary good re- 
sults. 

But the mainstay in the cultivation of alkali land 
must always be the maintenanee of deep and loose tilth 
throughout the timi's vhen eraporafioii is act ice. This 
implies the growing on them of hoed rather than 
grain crops, unless drill culture (which at present 
prices would hardly pay) were resorted to. The 
growing of corn, beans, beets, and possibly of 
canaigre, always choosing preferably the deep- 
rooted crops, is therefore indicated; and experience 
at Chino has conclusively shown that the best of 
beets may be grown on light alkali soils in which 
common salt is not too prominent. 

''^ Black" and " While" Alkali. — Deep and loose 
tillage, however, is practically impossible on lands 
tainted with any considerable amount of "black" 
alkali. It will remain cloddy, and will crust over 
even with dew, despite all cultivating, harrowing 
and clod-crushing. The first need is the neutraliza- 
tion of the black alkali with gypsum, by which 
operation other important benefits are also secured. 
The saving in cost of cultivation on heavier lands 
will alone soon pay for the purchase of the gypsum, 
aside from increased and improved products. It 
must always be remembered that little or no benefit 
is to be expected from it in cases of purely " white," 
neutral alkali; but there are tens of thousands of 
acres of alkali land now lying idle, lightly tainted 
with " black " alkali, that would be definitely re- 
claimed and rendered profusely productive by the 
use, once for all, of a ton of gypsum per acre. But 
it is not absolutely necessary to use the entire amount 
at once; it can also be done by annual installments 
of say 500 pounds per acre, put in some time before 
the seed. The latter will thus be protected from 
being killed by the black alkali, and secure a stand 
to shade the ground, preventing an injurious rise of 
salts for the season at least. It must be remem- 
bered, however, that gypsum cannot act on alkali 
without water, and that the action itself takes several 
weeks for completion before immunity is secured. 

Berkeley, July, 1895. E. W. Hiloabd. 



! THE IRRIGATOR. 

A Decision Against the Wright Irrigation 
Law. 

Judge Ross of the United States District Court 

rendered a decision in Los Angeles on July 22d, 
which declares the Wright irrigation law unconsti- 
tutional. 

The decision was on a demurrer in which the con- 
stitutionality of the Wright act was involved. The 
main points on which Judge Ross decided the case 
were, that under the Wright act, land was taken 
from private owners without due process of law, and 
that it was not for a public purpose. It was not 
like the taking of property for a highway, but was 
the taking of property for the benefit of property 
owners, whether they be few or many. 

The decision involves the determination of several 
constitutional provisions relating to property rights 
and the duties of Legislatures in framing laws per- 
taining thereto. Referring to the fact that the 
Supreme Court of California had already determined 
the validity of the act of the Legislature upon which 
defendants based their demurrer, and in answer to 
the argument that the Federal Court was bound to 
regard such adjudication. Judge Ross recalled the 
dictum already established upon the point to the 
effect that the solution of the question "must be 
sought not in the decisions of any State tribunal but 
in general principles common to all courts." 

Proceeding to the consideration of the questions 
involved, the Court first took up the general propo- 
sition of the appropriation of private property for 
public use as provided in certain cases, comparing 
the present case with adjudicated cases. The broad 
proposition established by precedent and approved 
by the wisdom and prudence of successive tribunals 
was not questioned, but it was insisted that the case 
at bar did not come under the classification. The 
mere fact that the language of the act stated that 
under its provisions property under delinquent 
sales and for other contemplated purposes could be 
taken for public purposes in compliance with the 
fourteenth amendment to the Federal Constitution, 
was declared to be insufficient to establish beyond 
question the real purpose and import of the legisla- 
tion, but that it was competent, and even obligatory, 
upon courts to pass upon the question whether or not 
the proposed legislation was in fact prosubservative 
to a public use. 

The Wright law contemplated the organization of 
certain irrigation districts, and provided that upon 
a certain petition their existence should be declared 
to obtain. It also provided, among other things, 
that the property of individuals within the area of 
irrigation should be taxed for the maintenance of 
the plant and for the payment of bonds and interest 
for the money required in its establishment. 

The purpose for which money could be realized 
was the establishment of plants and canals and the 
expenses of organization; only such purposes as were 
subservient to the proposed operations within a 
limited area. When completed the plant was to 
belong exclusively to the irrigation district, and its 
officers were to determine whether applicants for 
the use of the service established were entitled to 
such privileges. In short, the act contemplated the 
establishment of a plant, not for the use of the gen- 
eral public, but for only such as resided and owned 
lands within the district. This, the court decided, 
was not such a public use as would justify the appro- 
priation of private property. 

In support of its position the court made an ex- 
haustive review of the cases already passed upon, in 
which the right of eminent domain had been invoked 
for the purpose of condemning private property. It 
was not enough that the public would receive, inci- 
dentally, benefits such as usually spring from the 
improvement of lands in the establishment of pros- 
perous private enterprises; but the public use con- 
templated by law meant possession, occupation and 
enjoyment, and it must be construed to include the 
entire public, and not the few within a narrow dis- 
trict. 

Passing to the next point raised in the case the 
court asserted that if the act in question could be 
maintained at all, it must be under the power of 
assessment for local improvements or the power of 
the legislature to establish regulations by which ad- 
joining lands, held by various owners in severalty, 
and in the improvement of which all have a common 
interest, but which, by reason of the peculiar natu- 
ral condition of the whole tract cannot be improved 
or enjoyed by any without the concurrence of all, 
may be reclaimed and made useful to all at their joint 
expense. But in this case no moi-c than any other 
could property be taken from the individual without 
due process of law. 

In the present case the court held that "not only 
does the legislation in question provide for the 
assessment and selling, and thus the taking, of pri- 
vate property in order to supply water for irriga- 
tion to specific persons within the district, and to 
these only, but all of this is authorized to be done 
without affording the owner any opportunity to be 



! heard in opposition to the validity of the proceed- 
ings. In these provisions no opportunity is contem- 
plated whereby any property owner within the 
district may have a hearing, either as to the suffi- 
ciency of the petition which forms the basis of the 
district organization or as to any act which it may 
do. It is thus provided that no due process of law 
was required by the act, as a condition precedent, 
for the condemnation and sale of private property." 

In this the act was found to be in direct violation 
of the Federal Constitution and of every recognized 
canon of justice and equity. Not only was it not 
provided that any landowner within the district 
might have a hearing, but the Board of Supervisors 
were expressly prohibited from making any inquiry 
as to the sufficiency of the fundamental petition be- 
fore declaring the existence of the irrigation district. 
The petition might not contain the required number 
of names of landlords within the district, and thus 
was left open a chance to fully allow any wrongly 
disposed persons controlling a district to force the 
sale of lands within that district in direct violation 
of law and public policy. This would clearly be a 
case of depriving the individual of his property with- 
out due process of law. 

Apart from the two foregoing questions involved 
in the controversy, the Court expressed itself ad- 
versely upon the proposition of constructing an irri- 
gation district as in this case, when no natural wa- 
ter supply existed for purposes of irrigation, and 
where, as was revealed upon the trial, it was con- 
templated to take private property for the purpose 
of establishing dams and reservoirs in which to catch 
rain and flood water. The case was declared not to 
come within the cases contemplated by the Wright 
act, but to be rather in the nature of an experiment. 

And, too, within the proposed district there were 
certain lands belonging to the United States and to 
the State of California besides those of the com- 
plainant, for the admission of which to the benefits 
of irrigation no petition was ever signed, and yet by 
reason of the existence of such lands the bonds issued 
by the district officers were raised $9000. 

Regarding the question of public policy involved in 
the adjudication of the controversy, the Court said: 
" The fact that vast sums of money have been in- 
vested in works constructed under, and in pursuance 
of, this legislation, and that bonds running into the 
millions have been issued and sold thereunder, and 
that many individuals may not be able otherwise to 
secure water for the irrigation of their respective 
tracts of land, and that the validity of the legisla- 
tion has been several times sustained by the Supreme 
Court of the State, while demanding on the part of 
this Court great care and caution in the considera- 
tion of the case, and casting upon it a very grave 
responsibility, cannot justify it in failing to declare 
invalid legislation which, in its judgment, violates 
those principles of the Constitution of the United 
States which protect the private property of every 
person against forcible taking without due process 
of law and for any other than a lawful purpose. Such 
questions are not to be determined by questions of 
expediency or hardship. 

" Unfortunate as it will be if losses result to in- 
vestors, and desirable as it undoubtedly is in this 
section of the country that irrigation facilities be 
improved and extended, it is far more important 
that the provisions of that great charter, which is 
the sheet anchor of safety, be in all things observed 
and enforced. 

"The views above expressed render it unneces- 
sary to consider other objections urged on the part 
of the complainants." 

It is probable that a case involving the questions 
in this controversy will be taken to the Supreme 
Court of the United States. 

■JUDHK W.W.MIRE DOES NOT BELIEVE THE DECISION 
WILL HOLD. 

Judge James A. Waymire, when interviewed con- 
cerning the decision of Judge Ross, had this to say : 
"The Wright act was passed by our Legislature 
away back in 1887, and was amended in 1889, 1891 
and 1898. More than a dozen times has its consti- 
tutionality been questioned in our Supreme Court 
and twenty or more times in the Superior Courts. 
In every case the opinion rendered has been unani- 
mous, and upheld the law. In the first case, Tur- 
lock Irrigation District vs. Williams, decided May 
81, 1888, the present Chief Justice of our Supreme 
Court, Judge Beatty, argued for the law and was 
opposed by ex-Attorney-General A. L. Hart. There 
were three lawyers to assist Beatty and five to 
assist Hart. The opinion was written by Court 
Commissioner Foote, and concurred in by the two 
other commissioners and the full Supremo Court. ' In 
the second case. Central Irrigation District vs. De 
Lappe, there were three attorneys on each side. 
In the third case, Krall vs. Poso Irrigation Dis- 
trict, Judge Rhodes argued for the district and 
Beatty was then a member of the Supreme Court 
and joined in the decision. Judge Rhodes appeared 
also in the fourth case, Modesto Irrigation District 
vs. Gregea, and Chief Justice Beatty wrote the 
opinion. There were three attorneys on each side 
of that case, and it is now pending and will be de- 
cided in the United States Supreme Court in October 
next. 

"The opinion in the fifth case, in re Madera Irri- 



July 27, 1895. 



The Pacific Rural Press. 



55 



gation District, was written by Justice Harrison 
and covered forty pages. There are several later 
cases, but they are all alike; they show that over 
twenty Supreme Court Justices have considered the 
law constitutional. I think an appeal to the United 
States vSupreuie Court will result in a reversion of 
Judge Ross' decision. 

" Judge Ross' decision that the establishment of 
irrigation districts is the taking of property, not for 
public use, but for private use, is apparently incon- 
sistent. Why should not the inhabitants of a sec- 
tion which needs water in order to farm be permitted 
to organize irrigation districts ? Cities build water- 
works and furnish water to their inhabitants. School 
districts are formed for the benefit of certain sec- 
tions, and trustees are appointed to carry out the 
plan. There is no question ever raised about the 
constitutionality of an act authorizing the organiza- 
tion of .school districts or water works, and yet the 
principle is just the same. Of course the establish- 
ment of an irrigation district is not a public use in 
the strictest sense, but neither are schools nor 
water works. They are necessary, however, and 
the same considerations which call for them justify 
the establishment of means whereby the farmers 
may make their lands productive." 



METEOROLOGICAL. 



Sunshine in California. 



To THE Editor:— The Weather Bureau makes 
record of all meteorologic phenomena, among which 
is the record of the number of hours and minutes 
each day that the sun shone. This record is made 
by a photographic process or by an electrical regis- 
ter; each possesses merit, and both give very accur- 
ate results. Records of sunshine have been made at 
San Francisco since April, 1890, and a record has 
also been made at San Diego. At the other Weather 
Bureau offices in California no sunshine record has 
been made. However, as a record of the clear, 
partly cloudy and cloudy days have been made at all 
stations in California as elsewhere, the approximate 
amount of sunshine can be ascertained for all places 
in California in conjunction with the absolute sun- 
shine record now made. This paper is for the purpose 
of disseminating such information concerning the 
record of sunshine in California as the Weather Bu- 
reau has so far collated. The rays of the sun are 
the life-giving properties to all living things. The 
existence of ourselves, our health, the germination, 
growth and development of all vegetation is depend- 
ent upon sunshine. The presence or absence of sun- 
shine regulates, to a very great degree, the condition 
of the invalid and controls the actions of the healthy. 
Especially is the sunshine of value to the people of 
California in their vineyards and fruit drying. It is 
true that an excess of sunshine makes a country 
arid, a deficiency makes a country humid, but 
favored indeed is the country of a medium between 
these extremes. The records" of San Francisco show 
that it enjoys on an average 58 per cent of the pos- 
sible sunshine; that the month of June has the great- 
est amount of sunshine when the per cent of the 
possible amount is 70, and that December has the 
least, with 43 per cent. The amount of sunshine 
at San Francisco in December, 43 per centum, is, 
however, 1 per cent more than the average 
amount of sunshine that occurred in Cleveland, Ohio, 
during the year of 1893. The average amount of 
sunshine at San Francisco in the various months of 
the year, based on the past five years' record, is in 
per cent of the possible: 



January 52. 

February 52. 

March 52. 

April 63. 

May 59. 

June 70. 



July 69. 

AugUM. 57. 

September. 61. 

October 64. 

November 57. 

December 43. 



The average annual being 58, it is seen that from 
April to November, inclusive, there is more than the 
average sunshine, and less than the average from 
December to March, inclusive. These latter months 
are practically the months of the rainy season, yet 
the average sunshine for these rainy months is 50 
per cent, and this average is more than the average 
annual sunshine over the New England and Middle 
States, and over Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana and the 
region of the Great Lakes, or more in San Francisco 
during the period of least sunshine than prevails on 
an average throughout the year over that portion of 
the United States where the population is the 
densest. It should be remembered that San Fran- 
cisco is on the immediate coast, and that naturally 
more cloudy or foggy weather will there prevail 
than at places farther removed, hence a greater 
amount of sunshine prevails in the interior. 

At San Diego there was 68 per cent of the possible 
sunshine during 1893, according to the figures taken 
from the latest report of the chief of the Weather 
Bureau. This report shows that August had 76 per 
cent of possible sunshine, April and October 75 per 
cent, July 73 per cent, November 71 per cent, Feb- 
ruary 70 per cent, September 69 per cent, January, 
May and December 66 per cent, June 61 per cent 
and March 56 per cent ; or that at San Diego the 
least amount of sunshine in any month is in March, 
when 56 of the possible prevails. And this is a 
larger amount of sunshine than the average annual 



amount which prevails over all that portion of the 
United States east of the Mississippi river and 
north of a line drawn on the latitude of Omaha. On 
an average throughout the year 80 per cent or 
more of the possible sunshine prevails at San Diego 
from 11 A. M. to 5 p. m. At San Francisco from 70 
to 78 per cent of the possible sunshine prevails from 
11 A. M. to 5 p. M. It is to be regretted that there 
are no absolute sunshine records at Red Bluff, Sac- 
ramento, Fresno and Los Angeles. However, con- 
sidering the number of clear and partly cloudy days 
at the various places, the approximate sunshine for 
each place is obtainable, and hence it can safely be 
assumed that at Los Angeles the per cent of pos- 
sible sunshine is 70, at Fresno 66 per cent, at Red 
Bluff 65 per cent, at Sacramento 60 per cent, and at 
Keeler 64 per cent. The sunshine at Los Angeles, 
70 per cent, is the greatest in the United States 
save over Arizona, New Mexico, Southern Kansas 
and contiguous sections, where it amounts to from 
74 to 77 per cent of the possible, the greatest amount 
being at Tucson, where it amounts to 77 per cent. 

The following data obtained from the annual 
report of the chief of the Weather Bureau, for the 
year 1893, the latest published, may in this connec- 
tion prove of interest and of value, for it shows the 
main climatic conditions for the greater portion of 
California, as well as for the principal portion of the 
United States. The table is full of interesting deduc- 
tions, which can be made by the reader. 

DATA FOR 1893. 



Place. 



San Francisco 

Red Bluff 

Sacramento 

Fresno 

San Diego 

Los Angeles 

Eureka 

Boston 

BufTalo 

Chicago 

Cincinnati 

Cleveland 

Denver 

Detroit 

Dodge City 

Eastport, Me 

Galveston 

Kansas City 

Memphis 

New Orleans 

New York City... 

Philadelphia 

Portland, Or 

St. Louis 

Salt Lake City 

Santa Fe 

Savannah 

Tucson 

Washington City. 



33 


21 


S! 




Temperature 


■O C 

£5 a 


0*0 C5 O 


op 


S.° S 






0*65 (!■ 


5" 








m 
o w 


C _ P 


e 

O.0, 


B-o — 


Mean i 
Max. 1 


Mean 
Min. 


line 1 

til I . 


t> 

■ -'o'< 
"•a T 01 


• 




60 


235 


80 


17.91 


60.1 


48.5 


*65 


305 


60 


24 36 


71.7 


49 5 


*60 


286 


79 


16.59 


69 6 


48.1 


*86 


304 


61 


9 40 


74.2 


47,9 


68 


316 


49 


10.29 


68.2 


53 


*70 


321 


44 


21 96 


72,8 


50.2 


*40 


214 


151 


53 71 


56.0 


45.2 


53 


240 


12i 


41 84 


55 3 


40.5 


47 


239 


128 


38.64 


52.8 


33 8 


*47 


254 


111 


27.47 


52.9 


39.2 


47 


253 


112 


44.00 


62.1 


45.3 


42 


222 


143 


33.88 


55 4 


40.7 


67 


326 


39 


8.48 


69 3 


37.9 


48 


234 


131 


34.18 


54 5 


39.2 


74 


326 


39 


10.12 


68.3 


41 


45 


228 


137 


29.87 


47.8 


34 2 


59 


283 


77 


35.43 


75.1 


65 4 


57 


282 


83 


32.13 


62.5 


43 2 


60 


282 


83 


44 45 


70 6 


52 


52 


289 


76 


48.02 


76,8 


61.9 


*47 


255 


110 


53.01 


58.4 


44 2 


49 


229 


136 


37.65 


60.7 


45 2 


37 


185 


180 


39 03 


57.1 


43.1 


60 


274 


91 


39.33 


63 8 


46 7 


63 


274 


91 


17.35 


59. 9 


40.4 


74 


334 


31 


14.94 


60. 1 


38.7 


53 


285 


80 


61 58 


75 5 


57.9 


77 


316 


49 


13.12 


81.9 


50 4 


52 


262 


103 


36.71 


62.8 


44 7 



* Approximated. 

B. S. Pague, Local Forecast Official. 
Weather Bureau, San Francisco, July 20. 

FLORIST AND GARDENER. 

Tuberous Rooted Begonias in California. 



Many readers who have tried these plants in the 
open air will be interested in the following state- 
ments by Fred Rafferty, of Santa Ana, in the 
Orange County Herald. He says that none of our 
summer flowers can come up with them in quantity 
of gorgeous coloring except perhaps the geranium. 
They have been widely advertised in the East ac a 
bedding plant to take the place of the geranium, but 
experience has shown that they are almost an entire 
failure everywhere in the United States unless 
planted in partial shade. In England, and perhaps 
in some other European countries where there is 
moisture in the atmosphere and a lower temperature 
in summer, tuberous begonias are very popular as 
bedding plants, and they succeed with almost any 
exposure. But in this country, and especially in 
California, the sun is too trying, and only in sheltered, 
protected locations are they at all satisfactory. 
But whenever all conditions are just to their liking, 
there is scarcely a flower grown that will attract 
more attention. 

They are very difficult to grow from seed, and 
none but experienced florists are apt to succeed in 
raising them that way. Bulbs are very cheap, how- 
ever, especially in quantity, and can be had in 
almost any color except blue and purple. They start 
easily if placed in a pot or box of leaf mold and sand 
in April. Cover about one-quarter or one-half inch 
and keep always moderately moist. When well 
started put into five or six-inch pots or set out in 
the ground outdoors. 

The soil should have a large addition of leaf mold 
for best results, and frequent watering is necessary. 
The top of the soil should never be allowed to become 
quite dry. 

They do not want a high temperature when grow- 
ing. Anything over 70° is unnecessary, and any- 
thing over 80° is more or less harmful; 55° to 60° at 
night is the best, so that the cloudy nights and damp 
mornings ol May and June are just suited for them, 
and tbey make a strong, sturdy growth of large, 



crisp, green leaves that cover the ground sufficiently 
to materially lessen evaporation. On this account a 
large plant will, during July and August, seemingly 
require less water than a small one in order to 
thrive well. 

A good strain of plants will show very large flow- 
ers, four to six inches across, on strong, upright 
stems, and the colors will be bright and pure. Dull 
colors are not common among them, and flowers 
shading from one color into another are not plentiful 
either. 

Like many other kinds of flowers, double ones are 
not generally so pretty as the single ones, but occa- 
sionally a plant is seen bearing very large double 
flowers that are truly magnificent. Those having 
the shape of a camellia are perhaps the best, though 
some shaped like a double hollyhock are very fine 
too. The double ones, as a rule, are nothing like as 
fine bloomers or as strong growers as the singles, 
and therefore need much more care in their cultiva- 
tion. 



AGRICULTURAL ENGINEER. 



The Good Roads Movement. 



The California Road Commission is still risking its 
life by suffocation in the investigation of our dusty 
county roads. After getting the dust out of their 
throats by such means as the vicinity allows, the 
members of the Commission usually meet the county 
supervisors for conference. The following is a 
sketch of such a meeting in Alameda county: 

For the information of the Commissioners County 
Clerk Jordan compiled several tables of statistics, 
showing the extent of roads in this county and their 
cost. 'The number of roads, including streets in un- 
incorporated towns, is about 235, and the total mile- 
age is 464 miles. In the last five years these roads 
have cost the county $388,730.01. There are 252 
miles of dirt road and 212 graveled; 51 miles are 
watered. 

Mr. Mansen addressed the Board, saying they 
were present in accordance with a law passed at the 
last session of the Legislature, which required the 
body of which they were a part to visit every county 
in the State and learn what was being done and the 
expense to the people ot keeping up the highways. 
Not only this, but they were to inquire into all natu- 
ral formations, to find what was of a quality to be 
used in making public highways. They were to visit 
each county once a year and confer with the super- 
visors and others interested in good roads. 

"We ride," he continued, " from one county to an- 
other over the roads, so as to have a knowledge of 
their construction. Coming from San Jose through 
Milpitas, Irvington, Niles and Haywards, over the 
county roads, we entered your city. The road is well 
situated in a valley, but it is not well made. We 
could very nearly see the line across the road be- 
tween this county and Santa Clara. I do not 
care to say anything to boom Santa Clara county, 
but their roads are much better than those on this side 
of the line. Your roads could be much better for the 
money expended." 

Commissioner Irvine addressed the Board next. 
This county, like most others, he found, still clung to 
the old road district plan, which had been abolished 
in 1891, so as to do away with district road masters. 
In Sacramento there were only two districts, one for 
each of the supervisors elected from outside the city. 
The road tax was divided in this way and used to 
make permanent roads. In this way better roads 
could be secured than when it was divided into drib- 
lets and used in repairing the separate districts. 

Commissioner Irvine said it was something of a 
pleasure to see the progress Alameda was making in 
the way of working up enthusiasm and good intentions 
On the subject of good roads. If this feeling devel- 
oped into something definite, there was no question 
but that Alameda would eventually be in a position 
to boast of one of the finest systems of roads in the 
country. The object of the bureau, he said, was to 
constantly agitate this question, and if possible pre- 
vent county officials, and the people as well, from 
relapsing into their old-time condition of careless- 
ness. 

" One thing I have noticed during my inspection of 
your roads," continued Mr. Irvine, " and that is that 
you do not sprinkle your highways as much as you 
should. It surprised me, really. You should know, 
gentlemen, that this is one of the most valuable 
treatments you can possibly prescribe for county 
roads. Not only does it render travel more comfort- 
able in the summer, but it prevents the surface from 
being ground into dust. The latter is converted into 
mud in winter and your road is impassable. They 
sprinkle everything in Santa Clara. 

IN contra costa. 

Martinez, July 19. — Marsden Mansen and R. C. 
Irvine of the State Bureau of Highways held a meet- 
ing with the Board of Supervisors of Contra Costa 
county to-day to consider the matter of road build- 
ing and maintenance. The gentlemen drove up 
from San Pablo and said they thought what roads 
they bad seen in Contra Costa were about the ^VDrst 



July 27. 1896. 



they had encountered in their 800 miles of travel. 
They had found it impossible, they said, to obtain 
much information in regard to the system here, but 
it was evident that Contra Costa's system is, Vike 
that of many more counties, shiftless patchwork, 
which would never result in any permanent improve- 
ment in the condition of the roads. 

Contra Costa's tax roll foots up about $17,000,000. 
There is spent upon the roads about $50,000 annu- 
ally. The total mileage of highways is 381. and the 
money is always expended for temporary purposes. 

Messrs. Mansen and Irvine gave the board and 
citizens present much information, and great inter- 
est was shown in the meeting, which will, without 
doubt, develop a demand for better roads. Contra 
Costa has no indebtedness. She is one of the most 
productive and wealthy counties in the State, and 
already a feeling is being shown in favor of bonding 
the county to build better highways. 

FREIOHT R.ATES ON FOLSO.M ROCK. 

The .Southern Pacific Company has finally decided 
on its spoeial tariff on crushed rock for macadamiz- 
ing roads, and it will take effect on August 1. 

The rates are made from the State crusher at 
Folsom prison quarries to various points along the 
railways in California in accordance with a reiiuest 
from the State Bureau of Highways, and were re- 
cently adopted by that body. There are three main 
rules to be observed. Cars must be loaded to the 
marked capacity, and in no case will the charge be 
less than $5 a carload. Side and end boards for cars 
must be furnished by shippers, and will be returned 
free at the owner's risk and the company's con- 
venience. No mileage shall be asked on private 
equipment engaged in handling crushed rock, so the 
State's special macadam cars will pass free over 
Southern Pacific lines in California between Folsom 
and places where roads are being either constructed 
or improved. 

Rates are given in cents for each ton of 2000 
pounds, and to some of the principal points are as 
follows: Sacramento 25 cents, Auburn 45, Colfax 
60, Dutch Flat 70, Marysville 55, Oroville 75, Wil- 
lows 85, Dixon 85, Vacaville 45, Winters 50, Suisun 
45, Vallejo (JO, St. Helena 75, Calistoga 85, Santa 
Rosa 85, Benicia 60, West Berkeley 75, Oakland and 
Vicinity 80, San Francisco 85, Stockton 45, Modesto 
65 cents. 



THE SWINE YARD. 



Profit From Pig Pork. 

Each year more of our farmers are learning, 
writes Waldo F. Brown in the 0/iiu Farmer, that 200 
pounds of pork can be made much cheaper and with 
less risk of loss from a pig six months old than to 
allow the pig to eat half rations from spring to fall 
and then push it in cold weather 

Give your pigs a chance to exercise as soon as they 
are a week old. Thousands of pigs die each year for 
the want of this. They get fat, and having no 
chance to run out, soon become diseased and die. In 
my younger days 1 lost many entire litters from this 
cause before I knew what was the trouble. The bet- 
ter the sow suckles the greater the danger of loss 
from this cause. There should be a grass lot con- 
nected with each hog house and when the pigs are a 
week old, open the door and give them a chance to 
go out, and you will find them the embodiment of 
activity. 

Both for profit and to reduce the risk of loss from 
diseases, you ought to push your pigs so as to have 
them ready for market at the earliest possible age, 
and this need not be more than seven months, and 
if you keep a dairy and sell only cream and butter, 
so that milk can form a good part of the ration, this 
can be reduced to five months. Teach the pigs to 
eat as early as possible, and by the time they are 
four months old, fix a place which the sows cannot 
enter, and here feed the pigs five times a day. If 
you want to be sure that cholera will not attack 
your herd, feed but little corn before they are four 
months old, but let the food be bran, oil meal, mid- 
dlings, ground wheat and such protein foods, but 
whichever of the last three foods named you use, 
make the half ration bran, as it contains more bone 
and muscle-forming material than the others. 

With these food materials give about one-fourth 
ration of corn, and after four months increase the 
corn to about one-half of the food eaten. Fed in this 
way and confined in lots where your neighbors' hogs 
cannot come, or water flow from other farms, you 
need have no fear of the cholera. I consider pigs fed 
in this way cholera-proof, and would not give 25 
cents a year per head to have them insured for their 
full value. 

Pigs managed in this way can be weaned from 
seven to ten weeks old, and will not lose a day's 
growth when taken from their mothers. Mature 
mothers are worth much more than young ones to 
grow pigs for pig pork, for they not only produce 
larger and stronger pigs, but also suckle better, and 
when you own a sow that combines these qualities of 
producing uniform large litters of strong pigs, has a 
kind disposition, and carefully carps for her pigs, 



and is a good suckler, keep her as long as possible, 
for she is worth more than any one is likely to offer 
you for her. It has also been proven that the use 
of young sires tends to early maturity in the pigs, 
and I therefore recommend that young sires be used 
on mature mothers. It pays to breed up two litters 
a year, and I have done it for many years, and 
found my fall litters nearly as profitable as those 
born in the spring. 



HORTICULTURE. 



English Gooseberries. 

To THE Editor: — English gooseberries in America 
have not been cultivated very extensively because of 
the mildew. We are pleased to state now that the 
mildew can be completely destroyed if the following 
directions are complied with: In early spring, as 
soon as the first leaves appear on the bushes, spray 
with a solution of sulphide of potash, and repeat 
this operation every twenty days. The sulphide of 
potash is used at the rate of one-half ounce to every 
gallon of water. The cost of this operation is very 
light; and as the demand for these gooseberries is 
considerable, it will be quite a profitable business to 
go into. By raising a great number of varieties, the 
season can be greatly prolonged. I should judge 
that they could be shipped almost any distance. As 
they are very large in size they can be picked quite 
rapidly, and this is quite an item when one has to 
hire pickers. 

The New York Experiment Station at Geneva, N. 
Y., has done a splendid line of work in experiment- 
ing with English gooseberries, they having imported 
187 varieties to test in America, and to find out the 
best for market purposes. They report that the 
best so far tested among the large white varieties 
are the Triumph, Wellington's Glory, Whitesmith, 
and Roeschos; the best red variety being Crown 
Bob. The Crystal gooseberry they report as being 
exceptionally fine flavored; this latter, however, is 
of American origin. 

We have tried the Industry gooseberry in Califor- 
nia; it is a very poor, weak grower, and we would 
not advise anybody to plant it. 

One of the very best large gooseberries that we 
know of at the present day is the Corliss Seedling; it 
is really an American variety, but it originated from 
seeds of the English gooseberry, which were sown by 
Mr. H. A. Corliss of Oregon. For a vigorous, rapid 
grower it is unrivaled, having a rich, brilliant green 
foliage, and it bears heavy crops of fruit. The 
berries are quite large, of a bright green color, 
shaded yellow, and the flavor is simply delicious. It 
has never yet mildewed with us, and we have never 
heard of it having a case of mildew in any section; in 
fact we are sure it is mildew proof. It is quite a 
thorny variety, but the berries, being so large, are 
quite easily picked without striking the thorns. 

Grizzly Flats, El Dorado Co. S. L. Watkins. 



THE DAIRY. 



Weight of Butter Rolls Again. 

To THE Editor: — I was very much interested in the 
query of Kay of Santa Clara in the Press of July 
20th and very much amused at the comments of the 
manager of the Dairymen's Union. How hard he 
tried not to answer Kay, and how hard he tried to 
whitewash a fraud! If the query had been referred 
to me I would have said : First, The dairyman is a 
party to a fraud and receives no benefit from it; 
second. The merchant is a party to a fraud and gets 
paid for it; third, The consumer is the victim of a 
fraud and pays for it. 

This effort to shift the responsibility is mere sub- 
terfuge. The fact is the dairyman and the mer- 
chant are both guilty of a crime. The statute is 
plain and need not be misunderstood. 

Now for the remedy: Let the dairymen unite and 
agree to mane only full-weight rolls or squares. 
Stick to the agreement and the problem is solved; 
or, let the consumers in any town unite and demand 
full-weight rolls or squares and the question is 
settled. 

Some one may say this is not practicable. I think 
what one man can do, another can. I know a man 
who has been making butter for forty years, begin- 
ning in 1855 with two cows and is now making from 
100 to 12(1 pounds per day, and makes it every day in 
the year. In all these years he has insisted and still 
insists upon making full- weight rolls. He has not to 
his knowledge had a box of butter weighed in ten 
years. The rolls are counted and paid for by the 
roll, and the least he has received for a box of fifty 
rolls this season was $15 net cash. When a man 
buys one of those rolls he knows he is getting two 
pounds, and the greatest trouble this dairyman has 
is to supply the demand for his butter at the highest 
market price. Wm. Johnston. 

Rospbyd Rancbo, Qourtland, 



THE POULTRY YARD. 



Experiments With Green Bone. 



The Agn'cii/titnil Stmlent made an experiment in 
green lx)ne feeding, and the results are interesting 
and valuable. The experiment began November 
1st, to test the value of green bone as a food for lay- 
ing hens, with four divisions, and two pens in each 
division — one of old hens and one of pullets, ten to 
each pen: 

First division received fourteen pounds of raw 
ground bone, two pounds oyster shells and all the 
gravel they wanted. 

Second division received fourteen pounds raw 
ground bone and all the gravel they wanted. 

Third division received six pounds oyster shells 
and gravel. 

Fourth division received nothing but gravel. 

Counting bone at three cents per pound, and shells 
at two cents, the hens with bones more than 
doubled in value of eggs either those of shell or 
nothing. 

There was enough difference in those fed shell to 
more than pay for the shell, but leaves a narrow 
margin when fed with bone; while those fed bone 
more than doubled on those fed nothing — or it would 
have been profitable to pay twenty cents per pound 
for the raw ground bone. But this is not all; the 
hens receiving bone have a much better plumage, 
and stand the winter much better. 



Fattening Fowls. 



It is an item to send all poultry to market in as 
good a condition as possible. While on some farms 
where they are given a free range they may be able 
to pick up a sufficient amount of food to fatten 
properly, as a rule, it will pay, and pay well, to 
take pains to feed with good fattening ration for at 
least ten days before marketing, and they should 
have all they can eat five or six times a day. 

The better plan is to divide into as many hours 
apart as the times of feeding will make best, and 
then make it an item to feed regularly and give them 
all they will eat up clean at each meal but no more. 
At no time, whether feeding for growth or to fatten, 
can it be considered advisable to give more than can 
be eaten up clean, readily. 

It requires more careful feeding to fatten a grow- 
ing animal or fowl than it does a matured one. Corn 
meal and sweet milk can always be made the principal 
ration, with a sufficient variation of other materials 
to keep in good appetite. A fowl can fatten quicker 
if kepi quiet, and for this reason, in nearly all cases, 
the fowls will fatten quicker if reasonably closely 
confined. Even growing fowls, if in a good condition, 
can be greatly improved by ten days of liberal feed- 
ing with a good, fattening ration; and the better 
the condition, the better the price, while the better 
feeding will add materially to the weight. 



Mr. Pressey on Broiler Raising. 

One of the most successful broiler raisers in Ham- 
monton, N. J., is G. W. Pressey. The following ex- 
tract from a recent lecture of his is full of meat: 

Very much depends upon the kind of food given 
chickens, how prepared and when given. Of course, 
the principal food must be the different grains. Corn 
alone will not make a good chicken; it is most valu- 
able for its fattening and warming qualities. Wheat 
contains the material for bone, feathers, etc., oats 
for muscle. So we feed corn, two parts; wheat, one 
part; oats, one part; and we have a fast growing 
chicken. Feed either of these grains alone and we 
have all kinds of monstrosities — weak-legged, sore- 
eyed, no feathers, and every conceivable deformity. 
Add to these rains a quantity of meat to take the 
place of insects, which form a part of their natural 
food. 

See that they have plenty of sand or gravel. They 
have no teeth, and must have the gravel to grind 
the food in the gizzard. Give oyster or clam shells 
ground or powdered as fine as wheat. Keep by them 
also powdered charcoal; it prevents the digestive 
organs from becoming clogged with a sour food if 
they have eaten too much. 

If all these things are provided for them, the 
sheds kept clean, occasionally sprinkled with car- 
bolic acid, and once a month given a coat of white- 
wash, the chickens should keep in perfect health. 
But if any signs of roup or other diseases to which 
they are subject should appear, we use a liberal sup- 
ply of Douglas mixture, which is simply one pound 
of sulphate of iron (copperas) and one ounce of sul- 
phuric acid dissolved in a gallon of water. Dose, 
two or three tablespoonfuls to each one hundred 
chickens, in their food or dripk, for eacli day until 
tbey are Ijetter, 



July 27, 1893. 



The Pacific Rural Press 



57 



THE FIELD. 



The Ramie Fiber Problem. 

Wm. Rutherford, superintendeat of the California 
Cotton Mills, East Oakland, has written to Edwin F. 
Smith, of the State Agricultural Society, an inter- 
esting statement on the present standing of the 
ramie fiber industry in this State. We are indebted 
to Mr. Smith for the opportunity of presenting the 
following quotations : 

I have pleasure in telling you what I know about 
ramie and ramie culture in this State. There was 
an attempt made som^^ short time ago to introduce 
ramie culture inti) California. A good deal was 
written and spoken about the matter and a few 
acres were planted in ditlerent sections of the State 
with imported plants. A good crop was raised on a 
considerable patch on the Newhall lands in the south- 
ern section of the State. This ci-op was good, and 
proved beyond question that excellent ramie fiber 
could be produced. Why its cultivation was not 
persevered in was just why most other industries 
are not persevered in on this coast. The promoters 
were not encouraged in their work in any way. 
There was no financial aid given in any way to sup- 
port it. Private enterprise and capital would not 
venture on an experiment which, if successful, would 
benefit the whole people and State, but if not suc- 
cessful would result in loss to those only who were 
eno'a''ed in the venture. Decortication has been 
onFy partly successful in this State; the more ad- 
vanced aiid scientific methods tried elsewhere in 
ramie-producing countries were not available here. 
Indeed, this process at best is not yet perfect, and 
much has to be done yet before a perfectly satisfac- 
tory method is reached in making the fiber ready for 
the spinning machine and loom. The dry-process 
machines are practicable, but it is difficult retaining 
the strenr/fh tcMnre and ailh-y fiucnrss ot the fiber if sub- 
jected to the dry process. The market price of the 
tow lint or ramie fiber after decortication varies 
greatly. The finest qualities are nearly as valuable 
as raw silk — may be worth several dollars a pound; 
the poorer qualities might not be worth over ten 
cents per pound. The interest in ramie culture in 
this State is almost dead. Indeed, I do not think it 
possible to revive it without national or State aid. 
It is too much of an experiment and no local market 
available for even the finest decorticated fiber. 
Then it must be remembered that this industry is 
being pushed with more or less energy and varying 
success in low-paid countries — Italy, France, Aus- 
tria, India and China. Now those countries afford a 
better field for experimenting in, as labor is cheap, 
taxes low and State aid is given, or rewards, of a 
substantial nature to the most successful pioneer 
in a new field of enterprise which promises im- 
portant national benefits. There is always a great 
loss to some one in connection with all new or ex- 
perimental fields of labor or investigation, and few 
private persons arc found with public spirit enough 
or patriotism to stand it. 

When raw jute fiber was first imported to London i 
and Dundee from Calcutta, about forty years ago, 
no one could work it. The first consignment lay for 
years rotting. At length, by perseverance in 
trying various methods of softening it and several 
kinds of machines for breaking, carding and spinning 
it, success was attained, but several fortunes were 
spent in the attempt to work the fiber. It came in 
long stalks about ten feet in length, and it was a long 
time before the manufacturer found out that the 
first thing he had to do was to break down the long 
fiber to about twelve inches length and soften it 
with oil, etc., with special machinery. The losses 
thus sustained in the experimental stages have been 
more than ten thousand limes repaid to England 



and Scotland, where the jute trade took deep and 
permanent root and where nearly all the machinery 
is made for this manufacture for all parts of the 
world. Our State prisons are filled with machinery 
nearly all made in Great Britain. What holds true 
with respect to jute holds true concerning ramie and 
all new enterprises, and it will always be so in new 
fields of investigation. 



Prison Grain Bags Reduced. 

The price of prison-made grain bags has been re- 
duced to $4.20 a hundred. The cut was made at a 
special meeting of the Board of State Prison Direc- 
tors, held in Chairman De Pue's office in this city 
Saturday night, after the Board's return from San 
Quentin. 

At the new rate the State is underselling the deal- 
ers in imported bags from 18 to .30 cents a hundred. 
To hold their business the dealers will have to meet 
the cut, and it is just possible that the present re- 
duction is but the forerunner of a merry war, by 
which the husbandman will profit. 

The State now has on hand many thousands of the 
prison-made bags. Those on hand, owing to the 
high price of jute at the time they were made, cost 
$4.86 to manufacture. The cost per hundred now, 
however, is only $4.15, so that, although there is ap- 
parently a considerable loss in selling them at $4.20, 
that loss has been suffered long ago from the shrink- 
age in value and is not a present loss due to the re- 
duction in price. 

The only reason which induced the directors to 
keep the price of their bags as high as $5 for so long 
a time was the fear that in the case of a lack in the 
supply corners might be formed and the farmers 
made to suffer. At the beginning of the season the 
prospects were that at least 6,000,000 bags would be 
needed more than could be possibly supplied. In- 
juries to the growing crop from rust and wind have 
rendered any shortage in the supply of bags most 
unlikely. 

" We have reduced the price of bags," said Direc- 
tor Neff yesterday, " for the same reason that we 
kept it high for so long — to benefit the ranchers. 
We feared at the beginning of the season that a com- 
bination of dealers would be formed to make the 
ranchers pay extraordinary prices. For that reason 
we kept our stock in reserve, and for the same 
reason, when the price of Calcutta bags dropped, we 
fixed the price of ours 12 or 15 cents higher. Now, 
however, we are satisfied that there is nothing to 
fear from combinations, and in order to give the 
farmer cheap bags we have reduced the price as low 
as we can." 



Bounty on Last Year's Beet Sugar. 



The bounty on beet sugar manufactured prior to 
August 28, 1894, is to be paid. A bounty of 2 cents 
a pound is to be paid on all sugars testing not less 
than 90 degrees by the polariscope and 1] cents a 
pound on all testing less than 90 and not less than 
80 degrees. The time up to which application for 
bounty could be made was to have expired on the 
first inst., but owing to the government's delay the 
time has been extended. 

There are three beet sugar factories in California 
that will be directly benefited by the new law. They 
are the Western Beet Sugar Company of Watson- 
ville, the Chino Beet Sugar Company of San Ber- 
nardino county, and the Alameda Beet Sugar 
Company of Alvarado. The beet growers are also 
directly interested, as the understanding between 
the farmer and the company was that so much of the 
bounty was to go to the farmer if it was paid. 

The amount provided by Congress to pay the 
bounty is $238,239.08. There are only seven beet 
sugar factories in the United States, and of these 



three are in California. The total amount of bounty 
paid last year was $852,174.84, and of that sum 
$655,768 came to this State. Our three factories 
produced 35,065,479 pounds of sugar, working on an 
average of 100 days each during the year. They 
employ on an average 125 men each. 

Of the bounty paid, the Western factory received 
$305,773.90, the Chino factory $263,197.66, and the 
Alameda factory $86,797.28. Since that time the 
Chino factory has doubled its output and the West- 
ern factory is producing more and more each season. 

The back amount to be paid the three factories 
will amount to about $180,000. 



The Game Laws. 

The many twists and turns in the State game law 
in reference to the closing and opening dates of the 
game season have been a puzzle to many sportsmen. 
H. T. Payne of Field Sports had a very interesting 
intei'view recently with an assistant of the Attorney- 
General, and from that gentleman he gleaned infor- 
mation which will prove of much interest to sports- 
men and also to the Supervisors of the counties of 
the State. 

It is a general belief that deer can be killed in any 
of the counties between July 15 and October 15, 
excepting in such counties where the Supervisors 
have shortened the time for the killing of deer to 
please the wishes of the sportsmen of their respective 
localities. The State law provides that it shall be 
unlawful to kill male deer between the 15th day of 
October and the 15 day of July and repeals all laws 
or ordinances in conflict therewith, but only such as 
are in conflict. It will therefore be seen that any 
ordinance passed by the Boards of Supervisors of the 
several counties of the State that is not in conflict 
with the State law is not repealed. It must there- 
fore be remembered that the State law provides that 
it shall be unlawful to kill deer between October 15 
and July 15, not that it shall be lawful to kill 
between July 15 and October 15. The Supervisors 
therefore have the authority to say that it shall also 
be unlawful to kill deer any other time between July 
15 and October 15. 

The new game law repealed only such acts and 
parts of acts as were in conflict with it. Section 29J 
of the county government act gives the Supervisors 
power to pass ordinances for the protection of game 
and fish and that power has not been taken from 
them any further than to prevent a conflict with the 
State law. 

All ordinances passed by the Supervisors a year 
ago or since that provide for an open season on deer 
whose limits are within the three months between 
the 15th of July and the 15th of October, and have 
not been repealed by the board, are not in conflict 
with the general law, and are consequently still in 
force. The county ordinances that are still in force 
are: 

Contra Costa— July 20 to September 2. 

Los Angeles, Marin, Monterey, San Mateo, Shasta 
and Ventura— July 15 to September 1. 

Sonoma — July 25 to September 5. 

San Benito, Santa Barbara and Santa Cruz — 
August 1 to September 15. 

Lake — August 1 to October 1. 

Colusa, Glenn and Orange — August 15 to October 1. 

Amador and San Joaquin — September 1 to Oc- 
tober 1. 

In other counties where ordinances have been 
passed either the opening dates have been set previ- 
ous to July 15 or the closing dates later than October 
15. Such ordinances have been repealed by the 
general law. The ordinance in Mendocino County 
prohibiting the killing of deer until August 25, 1895, 
is of course in force unless it has been repealed this 
year, and if so the present season in that county will 
be from August 25 to October 15. 



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AND 

ft General Commission Merchants, it 

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The most saccessful college on this continent. For full particulars address the Secretary, 

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For Sale bv • 

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U I6&I8 DRUMMST S.F. ^. 



58 



The Pacific Rural Press. 



July 27, 1895 



THE HOME CIRCLE. 



New Every Morning. 



Every day is a fresh beginning: 
Every morn is a world made new. 

You who are weary of sorrow and sinning, 
Here is a beautiful hope for you, 
A hope for me and a hope for you. 

All the past things are past and over. 
The tasks are done and the tears are shed. 

Yesterday's errors let yesterday cover; 
Yesterdav's wounds which smarted and bled 
Are healed with the healing which night 
has shed. 

Yesterday now is part of forever, 

Bound iip in a sheaf which God holds tight, 
With glad days, and sad days, and bad days 
which never 
Shall visit us more with their bloom and 

their blight. 
Their fullness of sunshine or sorrowful night. 

Let them go, since we cannot recall them. 

Cannot undo and cannot atone. 
God in His mercy receive, forgive them! 

Only the new days are our own. 

To-day is ours and to-day alone. 

Here are the skies all burnished brightly; 
Here is the spent earth all reborn ; 

Here are the tired limbs springing lightly 
To face the sun and to share with the morn 
In the chrism of dew and the cool of dawn. 

Every day is a fresh beginning, 
Listen, my soul, to the glad refrain. 

And, spite of old sorrow and older sinning, 
And puzzles forecasted and possible pain. 
Take heart with the day and begin again ! 

—Susan Coolidge. 



A Whaleman's Adventure. 



"Say, Han'some," said Fa'-mer Joe, 
' ' was yeou ever on the Greenland 
whalin'-graoun's ? " 

"Yes, I was," replied Handsome, 
" and I don't care very much about go- 
ing there again. " 

"Why? " 

"Why? Beacuse it's the meanest 
country on the face of the civilized globe, 
that's why. ' 

"What's the matter with it ? '' 

"Ice — that's what." 

"But I alius heerd tell as how there 
were a open sea up there." 

" Maybe there is, but I didn't see it. 
All 1 saw was ice and ice, and then 
some more ice. I lived on ice, and I 
came pretty near dying on it." 

"That saounds like the interduction 
to a yarn," said Farmer Joe, stretching 
himself on his back and squinting at a 
small white cloud which was soaring 
above the foretruck. 

"Well," said Handsome, "I suppose 
1 may as well set to work to tell you all 
about it." 

"That's what," responded Farmer 
Joe laconically. 

"Then here goes," said Handsome, 
disposing his limbs in a more comforta- 
ble position along the sloping deck. " I 
won't say how long ago this was, be- 
cause it's none of your business how old 
I am. I shipped at New Bedford on 
the whaler America. The captain, 
Joshua Coffin of Nantucket, said that 
he was bound for the northern whaling 
grounds, and I had always had a sneak- 
ing sort of a notion that I'd like to see 
a polar bear or a walrus at home instead 
of stuffed or in a cage. So I up and 
shipped with him then and there. I've 
told you fellows all about the fitting 
out and sailing of a whaler, so I won't go 
over it again. We cleared on a beau- 
tiful morning in February, it being the 
skipper's idea to get up north in the 
spring, hunt whales all summer and in 
the early fall, and then make for low 
latitudes. He'd been up there before, 
and had vowed he would never go again, 
but I've noticed that most men who've 
been in the arctic once go back. They 
can't help it. It's a kind of disease. 
The only way to get cured of it is to 
get such a dose as we did. That either 
cures or kills. Now, Capt. Coffin — but 
we'll get to that after a while. 

"We got across the Nantucket shoals 
and right well out to sea while the 
pleasant weather lasted. Then we 
ran into a nor'westerly gale. Capt. 
Coffin hove the American to on the port 
tack, and there we stayed for two days, 
drifting like a chip. However, when it 
cleared off the wind came in from the 
south'ard, and we bowled along at a 
ten-knot gait. The weather was good 
enough, though the winds weren't al- 
ways the way we would have liked 
them; but, anyhow, WP m&^P Cape Race 



a week afer the gale, and by the middle 
of March we were in the entrance of 
Davis Strait. Here we found ice 
altogether too plenty for comfort, so 
the skipper headed her to the southward 
and eastward for clear open water. 
But, say, the whaling was about the 
poorest I ever saw. We cruised and 
cruised, till I thought the men would 
go crazy for the want of something to 
do. But at last the welcome cry of, 
■ There blows ! ' broke from the mast- 
head, and we got our first kill, a splen- 
did Greenland right whale. 

" And now the ice began to break up 
in the North, and we just had our hands 
full dodging bergs, and as for calving — 
say, did you ever see an iceberg 
calve ? No ? Well, it's a very fine 
sight to see — at a good distance. The 
warm water melts away the under part 
of the mountain of ice tiU there's a great 
overhanging piece the size of one of 
those big office buildings in New York. 
First thing you know that breaks off 
and falls into the sea with a roar like 
thunder. It raises a mountainous 
wave that almost throws a ship on her 
beam ends, and pretty nigh rolls the 
masts right out of her. We were 
lying becalmed less than half a mile 
from a monster berg, when it dropped 
off one of those pieces, and I tell you 
if we hadn't luckily been head to the 
sea it raised we'd have been sent to 
the bottom then and there. However, 
that isn't exactly what I started out 
to tell you. 

"Capt. Joshua Coffiin was pretty 
well disgusted with the kind of luck 
we'd been having — out now two months 
and only one whale — so he decided 
that we must push further north. So 
away we went right up to Upernavik, 
where we put in for a fresh supply of 
water and some fresh meat. Now, that 
was where the skipper made the mis- 
take of his life. For when he'd got to 
Upernavik nothing would do but he 
must cruise to the northward of that 
place for whales. Now, every one 
knows that Baffin's Bay, and much less 
Smith's Sound, is no place for whal- 
ing. But as luck would have it we 
hadn't got twenty miles north of 
Upernavik when we killed a whale, 
and the captain said, ' See that ? 
We're right in the middle of luck up 
here.' 

" We stood on the northward. Two 
or three days later we ran into a dead 
flat calm. Then there set in a long, un- 
earthly swell from the southward. 
The ship rolled like something mortal 
in great agony. Her top masts swayed 
and bent like long whips, and the 
swinging of her yards filled the air 
over our heads with a horrid groaning. 
The sky turned a sort of sickly yellow, 
like a heavy fog with sunlight behind 
it, except around the horizon, where 
it had a reddish tinge, as if blood had 
been spilled. There was not a breath 
of air, and from the shore came echo- 
ing across the oily water all kinds of 
strange cries of birds and beasts. 
After a time the air filled with rushing 
of wings, and looking up we saw thou- 
sands of birds flying around and 
around over the ship like vultures hover- 
ing over their prey. There were 
gloomy-tinted gulls and frittering ptar- 
migans and broad-winged, solemn alba- 
trosses. And now a new noise arose. 
The rising swell began to make havoc 
among the loose ice along the shores. 
Great pieces were tossed into the 
air, and hurried together with terrific 
force, and the crashing of them filled 
our ears with a noise like that of a 
battle. 

" 'If this keeps on," muttered the 
skipper, ' the ice to the north'ard of 
us'll begin to drift down, and then, 
unless we get a breeze we'll be in a 
serious position.' 

"Well, sure enough, it wasn't very 
long before we all saw what looked to 
be white vapor under the edges of the 
reddish gloom along the northern 
horizon. 

" ' That's the ice,' said the skipper. 
' It s coming down.' 

" The vapor-looking line seemed to 
hang up there on the horizon, but after 
a time I saw some white spots that 
seemed to grow in size and come nearer 
and nearer. As they approached they 
took o» a le^pipg motion, and then I 



knew that they were large pieces of ice 
tossed by the swell. Say, it was a sort 
of ghastly sight to see those pieces 
coming down slowly and steadily 
in the teeth of a swell that ought to 
have driven them back. As the first 
piece drew near us we discovered a lot 
of black spots on it. and we began to 
heai- a most direful roaring. 

" ' Lord save us ! ' cried young Billy 
Butt. ' What is it ? ' 

" As it drew nearer and nearer we 
saw that the piece of ice was covered 
with sea lions, which were lifting their 
heads, showing their white fangs, and 
fairly shrieking at the ship in their 
anger. 

"'Well,' said Billy, 'if that ain't 
a warnin' to git out o' here, I never 
seed one in my life.' 

" It was all very well to talk about 
warnings to get out, but we couldn't. 
All day long and all through the night 
this deathly calm prevailed, and the 
air was full of the crashing and grind- 
ing of the ice, the shrieking of wild 
birds and the demon like yelling of 
wild beasts. Just before dawn there 
came a little puff of wind. It was from 
the northward. 

"'Now, lads,' cried the captain, 
' here comes the breeze just where 
we want it. Clap the cloth on her.' 

" We made sail at once, and in a few 
minutes had the tops'ls and to'gallants 
loosed. But bless you, the puff died 
out and left us rolling worse than ever. 
I tell you, lads, she dipped her tops'l 
yard arms into it. Suddenly we heard 
a great moaning to the south'ard, as if 
the great-grandfather of all seals was 
being killed. The moaning grew into a 
cry and the cry into a scream. 

" ■ Here it comes ! ' shouted Billy 
Butt; ' the Lord have mercy on us ! ' 

"The next minute the gale came 
howling out of the south. The America 
went over on her beam ends like a man 
struck with a club. For a moment we 
thought it was all over with us, but 
the stout canvas of the tops'ls and 
to'gallants yielded to the strain. With 
reports like cannon the sails burst 
from their bolt ropes, and went swirl- 
ing away to leeward. The ship righted, 
and we set to work at once to get a 
bit of the spanker set to hold her head 
to the seas, which were now something 
awful to look at. Our effort was suc- 
cessful, and we managed to bring her 
to on the port tack. But that didn't 
ease our minds any. We knew well 
enough what was under our lee. And 
still large humps of ice kept making 
their way to the southward. It was 
terrifying to see them hurled away aloft 
at sea when we were down in the trough. 
They loomed over us every now and 
then, threatening instant destruction. 
We were perfectly helpless and could 
only wait in silence to see what would j 
happen. Suddenly a loud cry burst 
from the men who were away forward, ' 
and they rushed aft with frantic haste. 
A gigantic block of ice weighing hun- | 
dreds of tons was poised on the brow 
of a great black sea. Then down it 
came and struck the vessel just beyond 
her knightheads, breaking the bowsprit 
short off, and causing the fore-to'gal- | 
lant mast to go by the board. At once ! 
the captain gave the carpenter orders 
to sound the pump and see if it were 
taking in any water, while a lot of us 
were set to work to clear away the 
wreck forward. A few minutes later 
the carpenter reported six inches of 
water in the hold, and we were set to 
work to pump her out. And now we 
noticed that the ice no longer came 
down from the north, but, on the con- 
trary, it began to come up from the 
south. 

" ' It's the tide, that's what it is,' 
said the captain. 

" And then we all realized that all 
that had kept us from driving bodily lee- 
ward against the mass of ice to the 
north was a tremendous ebb tide. Now 
it was running flood, and with tide, 
wind and sea we were tearing at an 
awful rate straight to destruction. 
Some of the men began to lose their 
wits. Some sang, some laughed, some 
danced, some raved in the most reck- 
less manner. Others sat down on the 
decks, and, supporting their pale faces 
in their hands, stared with vocapteyes 
at the reeling wflrVes. 



"'Come, lads, come!' cried the 
Captain, ' this won't do; while there's 
life there's hope.' 

" Now some set to work at the pumps 
again, but it was in a half-hearted man- 
ner. Suddenly a terrible cry arose 
forward: 

" ' Breakers on the lee bow ! ' 

"With that Billy Butt just fell 
down on the deck .senseless. We all 
saw the breakers dashing against the 
ice pack, which was leaping, groaning, 
grinding and crashing with a deafen- 
ing noise. I tell you, lads, it was a 
sight to make the boldest lose heart. 
At that instant a wild flurry of snow 
broke loose, and it seemed as if a ghost- 
ly curtain of white had been let down 
between us and our doom. But that 
only made it more terrible, for we could 
not see it, but we could hear the dread- 
ful grinding of the ice. There was no 
way known to a sailor of checking the 
frightful drift of the vessel. 

' ' We must be pretty close to it ! ' 
I shouted, for you had to shout in that 
din. 

"'Yes,' the captain shouted back; 
' and when we strike good-by to us all.' 

" It seemed an hour, yet it could not 
have been more than a minute, before 
the ship was swung thirty feet high 
upon a mountainous wave, and hurled 
bodily down upon the ice pack with a 
heart-rending crash. Every man of us 
was thrown down, and some were badly 
hurt. The fact is, the ship had struck 
squarely on her bottom on top of the 
ice, and the next moment the cakes 
separated and let her down between 
them. Then they came toward one 
another, squeezing her between them. 
Say, lads, I never want to hear any- 
thing again like the rending and crash- 
ing of her sides. It sounded as if she 
were a big human thing in awful agony. 
If the crew had been deprived 
of their wits before, they went quite 
mad now. Billy Butt came to, grabbed 
a life preserver and jumped overboard. 
Of course he was never seen atrain. 
The captain he called to the two or three 
of us who still had some control of our 
senses, and told us to jump below, and 
get what provisions we could lay hands 
on. Of course we didn't waste much 
time at it, for we didn't know at what 
moment the ice might open and let go 
of the America, and we knew that 
when it did she'd go to the bottom. In 
a few seconds we were back on deck 
with a small stock of food and some 
condensed coffee. The captain slung 
a line over the side, and climbing down, 
bade us follow. We did so with great 
haste, for we could feel the ship begin- 
ning to heave again. We went down 
away forward, and even then we were 
almost swept away by the wash of a 
big sea that broke upon the ice. For- 
tunately the snow stopped, it had been 
only a squall, and we were able to see 
where we were going. We pushed 
further inland, or in ice, and we hadn't 
gone two hundred yards before the 
cakes separated, and we heard a few 
screams as the America went down 
bodily and the loose ice closed over her. 

" We camped out on the heaping ice 
that night, but of course no one went 
to sleep. The gale broke, however, 
and we had some comfort in our misery. 
It was summer, you know, so there 
wasn't much night to speak of, and at 



Awarded 
l^ighest Honors— World's Fail 
Qold Medal, Midwinter Fair. 

•DR.- 




mam 
mm 

Most Perfect Made. 
40 Years the Standard. 



July 27, 1896. 



The Pacific Rural Press* 



69 



2 o'clock in the morning we began to 
take counsel among ourselves as to 
what we should do. But our debate 
was cut short by several terrific re- 
ports, like the firing of heavy cannon. 

"'Why, the ice is cracking !' ex- 
claimed the captain. 

"Sure enough, it seemed that the 
ebb tide had set in again, and that the 
ice along the edges of the pack was 
breaking off and starting southward. 
We started up and moved forward, but 
we were too late. The piece on which 
we were had already begun to float 
down, and we found it was surrounded 
by an impassable channel. And now 
comes the strangest part of my story. 
This particular cake of ice, which was 
about fifty yards square, got out of the 
tidal current and into an eddy, which 
kept it in one place, while the tide was 
running flood again. When the ebb 
returned it moved off slowly, and after 
that it continued to make a little steady 
progress southward. 

"'We've got into the regular cur- 
rent,' said the captain; ' the same one 
that carries the big bergs down into 
the path of the transatlantic steamers. 
There's hope for us now, if we don't 
starve.' 

" Well, it didn't look so very encour- 
aging, for we had only food enoufjh for 
about a week. And for a week we 
drifted and drifted on that cake of ice. 
The supply of food began to get short. 
Hank Moore, one of our party, began 
to talk sort of wild, and we were afraid 
he was going to go crazy. Next day 
the captain fell sick, and refused to 
eat the Uttle bit of a share of food we 
had for him. Day after that the other 
two fellows gave up hope, and stretch- 
ed themselves on their backs to wait 
for the end. I don't know what was 
the reason of it, but I couldn't make up 
my mind that we were going to perish, 
so I kept on my feet, and walked up 
and down, all the time watching the 
horizon for a sign of land or a sail. 
Twenty-four hours passed without food, 
and I began to feel weak and dizzy. 
All of a sudden I saw a ship. I made 
up my mind I was crazy, for I hadn t 
seen a sign of a sail. But the next 
minute I saw that she had just come 
out from behind a berg which had con- 
cealed her. Then I gave a great ]ump, 
and called out as loudly as I could, 
' Sail ho ! ' 

"The poor fellows lying on the ice 
looked at me and smiled with pity, for 
they thoucrht I had lost my senses. 
But I leaped about and waved my 
hands, hoping thus to attract atten- 
tion aboard the ship, which was. not 
more than a mile and a half away. The 
next instant I saw her swing her fore 
yard and alter her course. 

" ' Hurrah ! ' I yelled, ' we're saved.' 

"Then I fell in a swoon. When I 
came to we wei-e all aboard the whaler 
Andrew Jackson, homeward bound. 
And that was the end of all the arctic 
experience I ever want." — W. J. Hen- 
derson. 

Fashion Notes. 



toilette, the dift'erence in the dress skirt 
being rather in the cut than in the 
material. Fancy silk and velvet waists 
are worn with these skirts, both for 
the street and for the house. Velvet 
waists are too warm for summer. 

Skirts without trimming are the rule 
for all gowns except thin muslins. 
Some of these made recently are trim- 
med with two or three bands of insertion 
arranged in a deep point on either side. 
The full blouse waist and sleeves are 
like the skirt, and shoulder revers of 
lace over a collar and satin ribbon 
rosettes are the only trimming. The 
insertion on the skirt is also over a band 
of colored ribbon. 

Economical women are arranging 
pretty, light-colored wash dresses, that 
so easily become soiled about the 
bottom, in a decidedly protective and 
attractive manner, with a band of 
darker material about the hem. 

In the new washing fabrics the variety 
is endless. The marine twills, with red 
and white striped patterns on light 
blue and navy grounds, suggest seaside 
and yachting dresses which would last 
well. The spotted brocades might be 
taken for silk, and so might many of 
the printed cambrics. 

The heavier materials, such as piques, 
drills and ducks, are made plain, or are 
trimmed with white wash braids, which 
are shown in many beautiful designs. 
Often great wash buttons patch tbese 
braids, but where the gown is untrim- 
med the buttons are of pearl or bone. 



Qem5 of Thoug^ht. 



Pedestrianism in Germany. 



Pretty, cool-looking hats for mid- 
summer are white, transparent straw, 
shaped somewhat like a sailor, except 
that the brim narrows toward the back, 
and trimmed with rosettes of white 
chiffon, white wings which spread out at 
each side, and bright pink roses with 
many leaves. 

White Leghorns, caught up twice in 
the back with bows or rosettes of ribbon, 
and trimmed lavishly with flowers, are 
also worn, and, more dainty than all, 
are the pure white Neapolitan hats, 
faced with shirred white chiffon and 
decked around the crown with fine 
white flowers and a bunch of green 
miroir velvet. 

Alpine hats of soft felt, in shades ot 
brown and black, and trimmed with a 
bow of silk ribbon and stiff quill or cock 
feathers, are worn by young ladies and 
matrons tor traveling and use in the 
mountains. 

A very large bow placed at the waist- 
line in the front of a bodice is very good 
style, and a series of bows from the 
bust to the waist is even newer, and 
expresses an idea borrowed fi'om the 
Marie Antoinette period. 

Cloth skirts are in favor for demi- 



A German friend of mine (he is some- 
what of a humorist) was bantering me 
about the notorious aversion of Ameri- 
cans to walking, and he remarked that 
he had heard it said that the average 
American did not walk more than a mile 
a day. Of course I resented this gross 
libel, and I asserted that the average 
American thought nothing of starting 
out for a walk of five miles. 1 cited 
with a good deal of pride the habitual 
practice of Julian Hawthorne of taking 
a mere stroll of twenty or thirty miles 
whenever he had a few minutes to de- 
vote to exercise. I spoke, too, of your 
townsman, Mr. Slason Thompson, editor 
of the America, who is in the habit of 
walking ten miles a day and running fif- 
teen or twenty more. 

My friend thereupon became personal, 
and ventured to intimate that I could 
not walk five miles. Of course 1 accept- 
ed the challenge implied, and, peacefully 
doddering imbecile that I was, 1 actual- 
ly walked for four consecutive hours be- 
fore I learned (upon remonstrating with 
my humorous friend) that a German 
mile was equal to four and a half Eng- 
lish miles and that in order to accom- 
plish the feat I had undertaken I should 
have to cover twenty-two and a half 
miles. 

Germany would be a veritable para- 
dise, methinks, for Julian Hawthorne 
and Slason Thompson. They would be 
elected to the Reichstag at the first 
congressional election. — Eugene Field 
in Chicago News. 



Curious Facts. 



Every man is the architect of his own 
fortune. — Appius Claudius. 

Much tongue and much judgment 
seldom go together; for talking and 
thinking are two quite different facul- 
ties. — L' Estrange. 

If you wish success in life, make per- 
severance your bosom friend, experi- 
ence your wise counsellor, caution your 
elder brother and hope your guardian 
genius. — Addison. 

That is true Symbolism, where the 
more particular represents the more 
general, not as a dream or shade, but 
as a vivid, instantaneous revelation of 
the Inscrutable. — Goethe. 

As we ascend in society, like those 
who climb a mountain, we shall find 
that the clime of perpetual congelation 
commences with the higher circles, and 
the nearer we approach to the grand 
luminary the court, the more frigidity 
and apathy shall we experience. — 
Colton. 

It will often happen, therefore, that 
when a man of very great real excel- 
lence does acquire great and general 
esteem, four-fifths of this will have been 
bestowed on the minor virtues of his 
character ; and four-fifths of his admir- 
ers will have either quite overlooked 
the most truly admirable of his quali- 
ties, or else regarded them as pardon- 
able weakness. — Whately. 

The child is to the father and mother, 
who imparted life to him, and who see 
his youth, the most excellent consolation 
that nature can afford them for the loss 
of their own youth, and for the short- 
ness of life in themselves ; but if the 
mother is therefore convinced that her 
child is a consoler to those who have 
none, he is sure, at some time or other, 
to be considered an unmitigated bore. 
— Jean Ingelow. 

The passion caused by the great and 
sublime in nature, when those causes 
operate most powerfully, is astonish- 
ment; and astonishmerat is that state 
of the soul in which all its motions are 
suspended, with some degree of horror. 
In this case the mind is so entirely filled 
with its object that it cannot entertain 
any other nor by consequence reason on 
that object which employs it. Hence 
arises the great power of the sublime, 
that, far from being produced by them, 
it anticipates our reasonings, and 
hurries us on by an irresistible force. 
Astonishment, as I have said, is the 
effect of the sublime in the highest 
degree ; the inferior effects are admira- 
tion, reverence and respect. — Burke. 

In order to be enabled to enjoy all 
the happiness of which his present 
state is capable, the sensitive part of 
man needs to be combined with another, 
which, upon a comparison of the pres- 
ent with the future, shall impel him 
towards that mode either of gratifica- 
tion or of self-denial which shall most 
promote his happiness upon the whole. 
Such is self love. We give this name 
to that part of our constitution by 
which we are incited to do or forbear. 



DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 

Domestic Hints. 



To Warm over Beefsteak.— If pieces 
of beefsteak are left over from break- 
fast or dinner, keep them in the refriger- 
ator until you have enough for a meal. 
Then cut them into neat little pieces, 
put them into a saucepan, cover them 
with hot water and let them simmer 
gently for an hour or two. Add an 
onion minced, with plenty of salt and 
pepper and the juice of half a lemon. 
Thicken the gravy with a little flour 
browned in a tablespoonful of butter. 
Add, if you choose, a tablespoonful of 
Worcestershire sauce and your effort 
to economize will be crowned with 
success. 

Soups. — Soups are often made with- 
out resource to the stock pot, but with 
much help in the way of milk and cream. 
These soups are easily made, form a 
delicious first course to any dinner, and 
are especially acceptable in summer 
weather. 

Creaji of Tomato Soup. — Add to a 
pint of water ten medium-sized toma- 
toes, or a quart of canned tomatoes, a 
tablespoonful of sugar, a bay leaf, a slice 
of onion and two or three springs of 
I parsley. Boil all together fifteen or 
j twenty minutes, add half a teaspoonful 
of soda and strain. Put one quart of 
milk into double boiler, thicken with a 
heaping tablespoonful of corn starch, 
and boil ten minutes, stirring constant- 
ly. Then add a little salt, a sprinkling 
of cayenne pepper, a heaping table- 
spoonful of butter cut in small pieces 
and tomato mixture. Let it get 
thoroughly heated through, but do not 
allow it to boil, as it would be apt to 
curdle. Serve with toasted bread. 
This bread should first be cut in thin 
slices, then buttered, cut into little 
squares, placed in a pan butter 
side up, and browned in a quick oven. 

Swiss Soup.— One quart milk, a little 
chopped onion, one tablespoonful of 
flour, salt and pepper to taste, two 
eggs. Put the milk on to boil with the 
onion ; rub the flour smooth with a little 
cold milk reserved from the quart, and 
add to the milk. Boil for about ten 
minutes, stirring often ; season with 
salt and a sprinkling of cayenne. Beat 
the eggs light and put into the tureen, 
pour the boiling soup over it, and serve 
at once with sippets of toast. 



One Point of Difference. 



The skeleton of an average whale is 
said to weigh no less than fifty thousand 
pounds. 

Some of the condors shot in the Andes 
Mountains have a spread of wing 
from fifteen to twenty feet. 

Copper wires are used for Mexican 
telegraph lines, so that they will hold 
the weight of the birds and monkeys 
that crowd them at night. 

The gum on the back of the postage 
stamps of the United States is made 
from alcohol one part, acetic acid one 
part, dextrine two parts and water 
five parts. 

The military workshop of Puteaux, 
in France, is turning out leather tires 
for the army cycles in place of India 
rubber ones which are difficult to re- 
pair when they break down. Leather 
tires can be sewn without much trouble 
by the cyclist or a neighboring shoe 
maker. Moreover they are lighter 
than rubber ones, and less apt to slip 
on wet pavement or asphalt. 



"Yes, indeed," said the old man 
thoughtfully after his wife had delivered 
a dissertation upon the progress of the 
sex, " the new woman is vastly differ- 
ent from the old." 

" I thought you would realize that in 
time," she returned rather sharply. 

" I have just been reading," he went 
on, "how girls used to be sold by their 
parents, and some of them brought 
fancy prices." 

"But there's none of that now, thank 
heaven!" exclaimed the new woman 
proudly. " Woman has asserted her- 

to gratify or to deny our desires, simply I 77 , . . 

- - V . . . ' I J "No, there s none of that now, 

interrupted the old man. "That's all 

past. A man does not buy a wife in 



on the ground of obtaining the greatest 
amount of happiness for ourselves, tak- 
ing into view a limited future, or else 
our entire future existence. When we 
act from simple respect to present 
gratification, we act from passion. 
When we act from a respect to our 
whole individual happiness, without 
regard to the present only as it is a 
part of the whole, and without any 
regard to the happiness of others, 
only as it will contribute to our own, 
we are then said to act from self-love. 
— Wayland. 



these days." 

" I should think not!" 
"Certainly not. It's all changed, 
all changed. Now he has to be paid 
to take her, and the poor old father 
has to wreck his bank account to pro- 
vide the dowry. Yes, I admit that the 
new woman, Maria" — 

Then the door was slammed as she 
indignantly left the room. — Chicago 
Tunes Herald. 



Highest of all in Leavening Power.— Latest U. S. Gov't Report 




Baking 
Powder 



ABMILUTECV PUBE 



The Pacific Rural Press. 



July 27, lUtJft. 



MONARCH CAR PR est 

10 TONS BOXCAR 1*00 I 

MONAfteHJ 

(6»^ iSTNCBCfTCMALl. 

IE UK mai irnia 
.WORLD. 




Monarch and 

Junior Monarch 

HAY RRESS. 

Falented by Jacob Price. 
ALSO 

Double-End HURRICANE Press 

(Two Sizes). 
FOR SALK BY 

L. C. nOREHOUSE, 

SAN LEANDRO, CAL. 
wn. M. GRAY Oeneral Agent. 



VEHICLES 

ALL KINDS. 



HARNESS 

ALL KINDS. 





No. 600. Price, ICS. 

Top Boggieg »76 to »125 

Road Wagrong 46 to 60 

Two Seat Wagons 46 to 110 

Phaetons 100 to 150 

Sorrfes and Carriages 126 to 300 

Harness 8 to 36 

WE SHIP EVERYWHERE. 

Send 2c stamp for Catalogue or call. 

CALIFORNIA WAGON AND CARRIAGE CO., 

FKKMONT ST., SAN FK.ANCISC'O 

★ C. H. EVANS & CO., * 

(SucceasorH to THOMSON & EVANS.) 

I 1 O & 1 1 2 HKAI.E STREET, S. F 

MACHINE WORKS, 

5teani Pumps. 5teain Engines. 

All Kiwi' ni MAI HIXEny 



Business College, 

94 Pfnt street, . - - san Francisco. 

FOR SEVENTY-FIVE DOLLARS 

This Coilcpe inatriiotB in Shorthand, Type- Writing 
Bookkeeping. Teletrraphy, PenmaDShip, Drawing, 
all the English branches, and everythinfr pertaining 
to business, for full six months. We have sixteen 
teachers and gire individual Instruction to all our 
pupils. 

A Department of Electrical Engfineering 

Has been CHtablished under a thoroughly qualified 
Instructor. The course is thoroughly practicaL 
Send for Circular. C. S. HALEY, Sec. 

"INDURINE" COLD WATER PAINTS. 

A Most Remarkable Mainrial in the 
OUTSIDE I IN D U R I IM O . 

It stands rain and exposure as well as oil paint 
and costs only a fraction as much. 

It is just the thlnK for fences, outbuildings, fac- 
tories, etc., being Cheap, durable and easily ap- 
plied by anyone. 

It has no equal as a light reflector for ligbt- 
shufts and couit yards of large buildings. It is 
supplied in a thick paste, to be diluted with cold 
water. It is made in white and several colors. 

inside: I rs n i_j r I pm e 

Is designed espi-rially for factories, stables, and 
general Inside work, as a sui.stilute for white- 
wash, kalsomine or oil paint. 

// uill not rub or mule, soften or darken with 
age, and works well over old whitewash. A dry 
powder to lie mixed with cold water. 

Both ludurlnes are perfectly fire-proof. 

Send for circular and prices to 

\VM. KI KI). MAM F.VCTI KEK, 
isiill.liiii:, - - Shd KranriHcn, Cal. 

School of Practical, Civil, Mechanical, 
Eleciricai and Mining: Engineering, 

Survt-Miig, Architecture, Drawing and Assaying 
•7-2 3 /V1/*I^K.ET STREET. 
Sas Franciscu, Cai.. 
Open All Year A. VAH DER HAILLEll, Pres't. 

Assaying of Ores, tv£; Bullion and Cblorinatlon 
Assay, %■&, Blowpipe Assay, 110. Full course of 
»sBuy;cg,|50. Established 1864. Send for Circular. 



Fertilisers for Fall Crops 

should contain a high percentage of Potash to 

insure the largest yield and a permanent enrichment 
of the soil. 

Write for our "Farmers' Guide," a 142-page illustrated book. It 
is brim full of useful information for farmers. It will be sent free, and 
w-ill make and save you money, .•\ddress, 

(GERMAN KALI WORKS, 93 Nassau Street, New York. 



MEYEK, WILSON & CU., '.ilO liattery St., San Francisco, Sole Agents for the I'acitic Coast' 




■^■^^ DRIED APRICOTS AND PEACHES can be graded by the 

HAMILTON FRUIT GRADER 




SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

INCOBPORATID APRIL. 1874 



^^^^^^^^ 

Capital Paid Dp Vl.OOO.OOO 

Reserve Fund and Undivided Prottts, 130,000 
Dividends Paid to Storkholders 833,000 

— orpiciKS — 

II. M I,.\UI'F. President. 

I. C. STKKLE Vice-President. 

ALBERT -MONTPELLIER.... Cashier and Manager. 
C. H. .M<( ()R.MICK Secretary. 

General Banking. Deposits Received, Gold and 
Silver. Bills of Exchange Uought and Sold. Loans 
on Wheat and Country Produce a Specialty. 

January 1, isii4 A MONTPELLIER. Manager 



♦ As well as PRUNES and WALNUTS. 

THE ONLY MACHINE ADOPTED BY THE CAL. FRUIT EXCHANGE. 

W. C. HAMILTON, Patentee and Manufacturer, 

Factory, 451 W. Santa Clara St. SAN JOSE, CAL. 



Price's Traction 
Engine. 



IRRIGATION. 



I 




W.W. mONTAGUE Sc CO. 

ARE MANUFACTORERS OF 

RIWETED IRON /AND STEEL 

Water Pipe 

For Irrigation, Hydraulic Mining, Mills and I'uwer Plants. 

IRON, CUT, PUNCHED AND FORMED, AND TOOL.S SUPPLIED FOR MAKING PIPE ON THE 
GROUND WHERE REQUIRED. 

309 to 317 Market Street, San Francisco. 



We have one of these engines that was used 
about one month last .season and was taken back 
by us by reason of Illness of purchaser. Engine Is 
in perfect order, and in better working order than 
when first sent from the factory. A BARGAIN. 
Indicated power, 80-horse; Cylinders, 8x8; Wheels, 
Sft. high, 28 in. wide; weight, less than 10 tons. 
Price when new, ^Hf). 

HOOKER & CO., 

10 anfl IS Drnmni Street. San Francisco. 





NEVEH 
REQUIRES 
OILING 
-OR- 
CLIMBING OF 
TOWERS. 



GEm STEEL VA/ I N D /V\ 

WITH <1KAFHITF: BOXES. 

Gu;irantefd niorf* durable without oil than other 
mills that are oiled. Practically these mills re- 
quire no attention. Truly a Gem, and worth lits 
weight In gold. It combines beauty, strength, 
durability and simplicity. Governs Itself per- 
fectly, is easily erected, and is sold on its merits: 
lnfact.lt is the best on earth. They are gt-ared, 
back three to one -the wheel making ihem run in 
thf lightest wind or breeze. Tlw mill Is m:ide en 
ilrely of Steel and Cast Iron. E:iclt one of oui-Geiu 
Windmills is warranted. If not satisfactory, freight 
will be paid both waj's and money refunded. 

We carry a full line of all kinds of pumps— for 
hand, windmill and power use. Adapted for all 
deiJilis of wells. Pipe. Pliie Fittings. BrassCioods. 
Hnni.. Tanks, t-tc. Si-nd for falaliigue. mailed free. 
WOOUIN* LITTLE, .'{12-314. Market St..S.F. 



LL 




The Williams Standard Typewriter 

I Is a (.'real iiuprovemi ut over the old " lift and 
j peek" machines. You see your writing wMle 
I writing it. No lifting of platen. No dirty ribbon. 
I Perfect alignment. Weighs but IB pounds Does 
I the finest work Easiest learned No experiment. 
■ In use 3 years. Adopted by British War Depart- 
; ment over all tlie old fasriioned "blind" machines. 

Write for sample work and illustrated catalogue 

and testimonials. 

PACIFIC STATES TYPE FOUNDRY, 

40» (Vashingtoii .St San Francisco. 

Sole .\gents for California. 




SESSIONS & CO., 

Lynwood Dairy and Stock Farm 

p. O Box 686. Los Angeles, Cal. 

We have Berksbires of the most fashionable strains 
'I'hey are from I'rize Winners and are I'rize Win- 
ners themselves. We can furnish pigs three to six 
months old. Correspondence solicited 



UNION 

8ACRAMKNTO, 



IRON WORKS. 

CALIFORNIA. 



ROOT, NEILSON & C0.,«^ 

— MASnFACTfREKS OF— 

STEAH ENGINES, BOILERS, 

And lilt kill lis of 
♦ ♦ MACHINERY FOR MINING PURPOSES. 
Floor Mills, Saw Mills and Quartz Mills; Machin- 
ery Constrncted, Fitted Up and Repaired. 
FROINT STREET, Bet. 1M<«:0 
SACRAMENTO. CAL 




JOHNSON 

CORNER CALIFORNIA AND FRONT STREETS 



LOCKE MERCANTILE CO. 



SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



July 27, 1895. 



The Pacific Rural Press. 



61 



S. F. MARKET REPORT. 



Market Review. 



San Francisco, July 24. 1895. 

FLOUR— We quote; Net cash prices for Famil.v 
Extras, $3 .S.i(ai3 4h bbl; Bakers' Extras, $3 2b@ 
$3 35; Superdne, $2 a5(8'2 60 bbl. 

WHEAT— No 1 Shipping Wheat is quotable at 
OOc per ctl for No. 1 and flp/jc for choice. Mill- 
ing Wheat, 97'4c@.$l per ctl. 

BARLEY— Feed, fair to good, 6lyc; choice, 
62(4c: Brewing, 70@7.ic. 

OATS — We quote; Milling, Jl(ai 05; Sur- 
prise, Sltai 10; fancy feed, 05: good to 
choice, 85@95c: poor to fair, 80@85c; Black, 
nominal; Gray, 80®85c f, ctl. 

CORN— We quote: Large Yellow, *1 I0@1 15; 
small Yellow, *1 15@1 20 f* ctl; White, $1(& 
$1 10. 

RYE— Qu'jtable at 81'4c ctl for New, and !)0c 
for Old. 

BUCKWHEAT— Quotable at 8'!4(fi90c ¥ ctl. 

CRACKED CORN— Quotable at $25 ton. 

CORNMEAL— Millers quote feod at $24@25 per 
ton; line kinds for the table in large or small 
packages, 3@3'/ic per lb. 

OILCAKE MEAL— Quotable at $25 per ton from 
the mill. Jobbing lots, $27 .50. 

COTTON SEED OILCAKE— Quotable at $24 
per ton. 

RICEMEAL— Quotable at $12@I5 per ton, ex 
mill. 

MIDDLINGS— Quotable at $16 50Co>18 50 ^ ton. 

BRAN— Quotable at $12 .50@13 * ton. 

GROUND BARLEY— Quotable at $1-1 1? ton. 

HAY— Wheat, $7(ff.l0; Wheat and Oat, i7@9 .50 
Oat, $5 50®7 .50; Alfalfa, $6 .50@7 50; Barley, $5 .50® 
$7: Clover, *6@7 50; Compressed, $6@8; Stock, $.5® 
5 .50 iP ton. 

STRAW— Quotable at.30(n'50c V bale. 

BEANS— We quote as follows : Bayos, $1 25 
®l 5(J; Butter, $2@2 25 for small aiid $2 2.5® 
2 .50 for large; Pink, $1 2.5® 1 40; Red, $1 
®l 25; Lima, *.5fal5 50; Pea. $2 60@ 2 80; Small 
White, $2 75-32 90; Large White, $2 70@$2 80; 
Blackeye, $2 25@3; Horse, $1 2.5@1 40^ ctl. 

DRIED PEAS— We quote: Green, $1 35® 1 55; 
Nile.s, $1 2.5®1 .50 'fi ctl. 

SEEDS— We quote : Mustard seeds, nominal; 
Canary, 3H(g>S'ic: Hemp, S'/jc; Rape, {^(S^-iiic; 
Alfalfa, 7c V lb; Flax, $2 2.5®2 50® * ctl. 

POTATOES— Early Rose, 40(n'mc ~f, ctl in boxes 
and 30r<j 40c ctl in sacks. Burbanks, .50®60cl?i 
ctl in boxes and .SOf" 40c t" ctl in sacks. Swoet 
Potatoes, $3 25(n 3 .50 ^ ctl. 

GREEN CORN— Berkeley, small crates, 7.5@85c : 
Alameda, large crates, $1. Sack corn, 25® 
60c. 

ONIONS— Quotable at 50(Vi60c ^ ctl. for Silver 
Skin. 

VARIOUS — We quote: Bay .Squash, large 
box, 3(l((i40c; Cucumbers, Bay, 10(n'25c '# box; 
Tomatoes, 75c(n$l; Bay, large boxes. $1 75®2 25; 
String Beans, 2®4c B); Green Peas, 2(n2Hc 
lb tor garden; Green Peppers, 2.5® 50c ordinary, 
40(ri 60c for Bell; Egg Plant, 7.5c(" $1 Vbox: Green 
Okra, "5c@$l 1;' box; Turnips, 50c f, ctl; Beets, 50c 
^ sack; Carrots, .50c; Cabbage, 75c 1^ ctl; Garlic, 
2®3c V tb; Cauliflower, 50@75c ^ dozen; Dried 
Peppers, t3®15c * tt>. 

FRESH FRUIT— Apples— Quotable at 30@50c fi 
box for Green and 40@75c box for Red. 

Apricots— Quotable at 30®50c per box. 

Berries— Strawberries, Sharpless, $1 25®2 .50 fl 
chest; Longworth, $2..50@3; Raspberries, $1 25®4 
chest; Blackberries, $I@2 ^ chest ; Huckleberries, 
6®8c lb. 

Crab Apples— Quotable at 2.5®35c ^ box. 

Canteloupcs— Quotable at $1 50®2 ^ crate. 

Cherries— Quotable at 6.5@75c ^ box. 

Currants— Black Currants, 40®.50c 'i^ drawer. 

Grapes— Quotable at 60@75c box for black, 
.30(.i 40c for Sweetwater, and 75c®$I for Muscat. 

Nectarines — Quotable at 35(rt 45c y< box for white 
and 50((i 75c for red. 

Plums— Quotable at 20@35c. Prunes, 50®60o 
box. 

Pears— Quotable at 25@40c in boxes. Bartlett, 
.50cfi $1 a box. 

Peaches— Quotable at 15®30c in boxes and 15@30c 
in baskets. 

Watermelons— Quotable at $7®10^ hundred for 
Lodi, and $7ft 12 for Fresno. 

CITRUS FRUIT— We quote: California Navels, 
$1 25®2; Seedlings, .50@75c; Mexican Limes, 
$3®4 box; California Lemons, $2®3 for com- 
mon and $3 50@4 .50 per box for good to choice. 

NUTS— Walnuts, 6®7c for hard shell, 10®llc for 
paper shell; California Almonds, 6@7c for soft 
shell, 3®4c for hard shell and 7®8c for paper shell ; 
Peanuts, 4(o'5c for California and a(aW/iC for East- 
ern; Pecans. 6c; polished, 8c; Brazil Nuts, 8@9c 
Tfl lb.: Cocoanuts, .$4 50®5 50 per 100; Pine Nuts, 
20c ■# lb. 

HONEY— We quote : Comb, 10® He; water-white, 
extracted, b@hy^c; light amber, extracted, 5c; 
dark amber, 4®4Hc i? tb. 

BEESWAX— Quotable at 26®27c ¥ lb. 

BUTTER— Creamery— Fancy, 15@16c; seconds, 
14®14!4c ^ B) Dairy— Fancy, 1.3® 14c; fair to 
choice, 10H@12Hc; store lots, nominal. 

CHEESE— We quote: Choice to fancy, 5H@6c; 
fair to good, 4@5c; Eastern. ll@12V4c l^'ft. 

EGGS— Quotable at 12@14c ^ dozen for store 
and 16® 18c for ranch: Eastern, 12!4@14c. 

POULTRY— Wo quote as follows : Live Turkeys 
— Gobblers, I3@I4c; Hens, I2®l,3c f( tb; Roosters, 
$4 50@5 for old, and $4 .5(i®6 for young; Broilers. 
$1 .50@2 (X) for small and $2 .50®3for large; Fryers, 
«3 .50® 4; Hens, $4 0fl@5 IX); Ducks, $3®3 25 for old 
and $2 .50®.4 .50 for young; Geese, 75c®$I f( pair; 
Goslings, $1®1 25; Pigeons, $1 ]2Y~(ii i 25 ^ dozen 
for old aud for young. 

WOOL— We quote spring: 

Year's fleece, San Joaquin, ^ lb 6®6Hc 

6 to 8 months do 6@8c 

6 to 8 months Calaveras and foothill, free 8®10c 

Do, defective 6®8c 

Northern, good tochoice 12®13V4c 

Do. defective 8® 10c 

We quote Nevada spring: 

Light and choice 9®llc 

Heavy 6@8c 

HOPS— Quotable at 4@6c ^ B>. 

HIDES AND SKINS— Quotable as follows : 

Sound. Culls. 
Heavy Steers, 56 lbs up, If* lb. . .10'/4®llo 9'/2@10 

Medium Steers. 48 to 56 lbs 9i4@10 — @9 

Light, 42 to 47 pounds 9 @— — @8 

Cows, over 50 lbs 9 ®— — ®8 

Light Cows, 30 to 50 lbs . 9 ®— — @8 

Stags — ®7 -^@5 

Kips, 17 to 30 lbs — ®7 — @6 

Veal Skins, 10 to 17 lbs — @8 — @7 

Calf skins, 5 to 10 lbs ^@10 — ®9 

Dry Hides, over 16 lbs 19 ®19H 14 @14V5 

Dry Kips and Veal, 11 to 16 lbs. .14 ®I5 10 ®— 

Dry Calf, under 4 lbs —©20 14 ®15 

Pelts, Shearlings, 10@20o each; do, short, 35®35o 
eaol); do, medium, 30^45o wii; do, long wool, 40® 



eOceach; Deer Skins, summer,30; do, good medium, 
t.5@25c: do, winter, 10@15c ^ tb; Goat Skins, 20@ 
3.5c a piece for prime to perfect, 10®20c for dam- 
aged, and 5c each for Kids. 



Review of the Dried Fruit Market. 



San Fit.^Ncisco, July '24, 189.5. 
It is questionable if last week's estitnate of 
;^00 car loads of Dried Apricots was not too 
high. Up to this date the crop in sight will 
not exceed '2.50 car loads. In spite of this state 
of fact there is little Eastern interest, and 
the market for Eastern shipment is slow at 
about yc, altliough sales have been made at as 
high as 9^/4c. The reason for this is that at 
nearly all ternimal points or commercial cen- 
ters in the East there is a large carry-over of 
last year's stuff, which is going out, and in 
many instances is being sold for new crop. 
The crop now unsold remains in the Santa 
Clara valley, where, we are reliably informed, 
there will not be enough to go round. In 
southern California growers are excited and 
nothing can be secured for less than 9c, and 
many are holding out for 10 and 11c. The can- 
ners have practically withdrawn from the 
market, having bought sufficient to cover their 
requirements. In northern California the crop 
of Dried Apricots is practically cleaned up. 
The condition of Apricots, the crop prospects 
and statistics concerning them are such as to 
warrant some in the trade backing their opin- 
ion by buying in anticipation of future wants. 
Peaches. 

There have been actual sales made for Aug- 
ust shipment at ti'ic, f. o. b., although it is 
freely predicted by those interested in the 
trade that lower prices will have to be m;ide 
to move the bulk of the crop. 

I*earft 

Are in good demand for canning and ship- 
ping at $^0 per ton for canning and §40 for 
shipping. 

Prunes. 

We are unable to locate at this writing a 
sale reported last week as having been made 
by one of the prominent houses of San Fran- 
cisco on the basis of 4'/4C for the four sizes and 
at this time such a sale would be purely a 
gambling proposition on the part of the buyer. 
Actual requirements of tiie trade do not ne- 
cessitate their purchasing at these or any 
prices now, in view of the recent heavy sales 
made on the basis of 8% and 3^4 cents, f. o. b., 
for old stocl5, which, we fear, will materially 
work against large sales of futures at any- 
thing like the growers' ideas, which are in 
the neighborhood of 4^+ to 5c. 

AlmondH. 

The crop of Tarragona Almonds has been 
offered, and sales have been made in the N.Y. 
market at 9-'4C delivered. It is reported that 
California Languedocs,(the ordinary Standard 
Soft Shell), will have to meet this price, 
unless freight rates are in their favor. This 
would be equivalent to about 8c in this market 
for choice Languedocs. 

Raisins. 

The latest information from Fresno is that 
the raisin crop for 189.5 will be very large and 
very fine in quality. One estimate places the 
season's product for shipment at 5000 car 
loads. There is a carry-over from last year of 
about .50 car loads remaining at Fresno. 
Growers are not, as a rule, so vye are in- 
formed, tying up to the commission packer. 
There is little talk of combination to fix 
prices, and it is not expected that there will 
be any movement corresponding to the effort 
of last season. The story widely printed to 
the effect that 14,000 acres of vines in the 
Fresno district had been dug up, is a fiction. 
Some tracts which ought never to have been 
planted to vines have been abandoned, and a 
few tracts have been dug out, but there has 
been no such wholesale abandonment as re- 
ports would make it. 



California Fruit Sales. 



Cnir;AGo, 111., July 23 —The Earl Fruit Company 
sold to-day: Bartlett pears. $1 25(o l 90; Burbank 
Plums. $1 150/1 45; Egg Plums, 7,5c('i$l ;iO; Purple 
Duane, $irn 1 25; Fontainebleau grapes, 5.5®80c; 
Nectarines. 6.5c(fi $l 20; Crawford Peaches, 65(S 8.5c. 

Porter Bros. Co. sold to-day ; Half crates Tokay 
Grapes. $2; Fontainebleaus, 30®80c: Bartlett 
Pears, $1 10® 1 70; half boxes, 60@75c; Tragedy 
Prunes, $1 2.5(</ 1 .50; Burbanks, .$1 lOfr/ 1 40; Egg 
Plums, $1 10((i i 3i); Comedy Plums, $1 15; Wash- 
ington, $1 10; other Plums, 70e@$l 10; Nectarines, 
75c(o$l 20; Peaches, 45®85c. 



By GUSTAV EISEN. 



This is the Standard Work on the Balsln Industry 
In California. It has been approved by Prof. Hll- 
gUTii. Prof. Wlekson. Mr. Chas. A, Wetmore and a 
multitude of Practical Raisin Growers. 

Sold only by The Dkwky Pi'ui.it»iiiNO Co.. or its 
agents at the uniform price of ISIJ.OO, postage pre- 
paid Orders should be iiddiessed: 

PACIFIC RURAL PRESS, 

899 NArfc«t Street, San FrSPcliOQi C»lg 




You Can't 
Beat Elasticity, 



Manufacturers of soft wire fences have tried 
It for years. Unruly bulls, runaway horses, 
and all kinds of farm stock have tired them- 
selves out on it, and still it 'waves' alMve all 
competition. For full particulars address 

PAGE WOVEN WIRE FENCE CO., Adrian, Mich. 

TRCPQ nf fini n pliiiii. SPLENDOR prune. Van 
I nCLO Ul UULU OEMAN <iunice-c)).<ice of 

Biai);inl;'s 2<» Million ••new creations." STARK 
Trees PREPAID evi rywliere. SAFE ARRIVAL guar, 
antecd. '1 lie^^fireai uurseries"save you over KALF. 
.MilliDijs of til,' best trees 70 ye;irs' experience can 
Kr(>\v; tliev "live longer and bear better."— Sec. 
^'■■'Ui'i. STARK. R 14. Louisiana. Mo., Rockoort. III. 



California 



If you want to know 
about California and the 
Pacific States, send for 
Pacific Kural Press, 
the Best Illustratt^d and Leadin? Fanning and Hort- 
icultural Weekly of the Par West. Trial, .50 cents 
for 3 nios. Two sample copies, 10c. The Ueirey 
Publishing (;<>.. 220 Market St., Sau Pranclscc 



ONE MAN P P P 
30 TONS. 

In addition to the regular drying-ground force 
one man can, with the Pacific Prune Perforator, 
clean and perforate the skins of thirty tons of 
fresh prunes or any other fruit in a day, the work 
all being done on the drying ground or in the 
orchard. No fuel; no fire; no lye; no hot water; 
but little cold water; no bloaters. It is by far the 
cheapest machine on the market and equal to the 
best. Four sizes. Send tor circular to 

Sperry Wire Works, 

715 nission Street San Francisco. 

WACON AND An A I CO 
PLATFORM 

HOOKER & CO. IS-ta OBUMM STREET. S.F 



K°^WELLMACHINERYw«rks. 

All liinds of tool^. Fortune fort lie driller by UBing our 
Adamantine process; can take acore. Perfected Econom. 
ical Artesian Pumping Riirs to work bv steam. Air. etc, 
I^etuB help you. TIIE AMERIOAN WELL WOBE8, 
4aror*, III.: ChlcSKO. IlLl Dallaa. T«x. 



♦♦♦♦ CUNININGH/\m'S 

Prune Dipping Machine, 




Palrntcd l)tccmlii-r sih. Ih'.H. 

A Machine tor Scalding in not Lye Water and Rinsing in Cold Water, Plums, Prunes aud Urapes of 

all kinds. 

We also manufacture aud deal in 

CUNNINGHAM PRUNE SPREADERS, GALVANIZED IRON GRADER 
ELEVATORS AND FRUIT CONVEYORS 

For both Green and Dried Fruit. 

DIPPER CAULDRONS, GALVANIZED COLD WATER CAULDRONS, FCRNAt'E IRONS, 
DIPPI>G BASKKTS, FLOOR TRUCKS, FIELD CARS. TRANSF'ER CARS, 
TURN T.ABLES. and a General Line of 

F"RUIX DRYERS' SUF»F»LIES. ♦♦♦♦♦♦ 

L. CUNNINGHAM, 

446 West Santa Clara St SAN JOSE, CAL. 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue of Fruit Dryers' Supplies. 



H E **AC7VVE:.** 




A machine for perforaliiiff and grMdiUf,' prunes. It cuts the skins witliout the use of lye. grades 
accurately into two or three sizes, and spreads them onto the trays at one operation. The fruit Is not 
mashed or bruised b.v too much handling, and there are no bloaters to waste time and money with. 

The tendency is toward lower prices, and growers must use economical methods if the.v would suc- 
ceed. The " Acme " Increases profits by reducing expenses. Excellent for silver prunes and plums. 

The Following: are a Few of the Testimonials from Parties Who I sed the machine Last Year: 

Mk. H. M. Bahnghover. Sax Jose, Cat,.— Dear Sir: I have used your perforator with the greatest 
success. I find it ^ivlufr better satisfaction than the old w,iy of dipping in lye. I most cheerfully recom- 
mend it to all parties who may need a machine of the kind. Very respectfully, 

E. S.WHi'r.NKY', Los Gatos. Cal. 

Mh. H. M. Bahngkovbii— Dear Sir: Having- used your machine all last season, I can cheerfully 
recommend it to prune growers. It pricks the fruit evenl.v aud rapidly, and al.so grades \ery correctly. 
The fruit goes to the drying ground graded and in excellent shape, and cures quickly and evenly. There 
are no bloatei^s. consequently no sortitig ia needed. The machine is well constructed and durable, and I 
am well pleased with it. Yours truly. 

J. L. MosiiER, Member State Board of Horticulture. 
Mk. H. M. Baknohoveh— Dear Sir: I have used your perforator and grader, and can cheerfully 
recommend it to prune growers. It pricks the fruit thoroughly, grades It very evenly, and does away 
with bloaters. Yours truly. 

H. A. VAN' DousTEN, San Jose. Cal. 

FACTORY AND SALESROOM: 
573 SOUTH FIRST STREET SAN JOSE, CAL. 

H. M. BARNGROVER, Proprietor, (Write for Circulars.) 



DEWEY & CO., PATENT SOLICITORS. 

/Vlarket St.* San p'ronoisco* C^ol* 



62 



The Pacific Rural Press. 



July 27, 1895. 



Patrons of Husbandry. 

Observations by Hr. Ohieyer. 



To THK Editor: — I am sure that any 
su^ifjestion that is calculated to benefit 
the farmers at lartje is appropriate lor 
the Grantje Department, for the reason 
that whatever benefits the one cannot 
fail to reach all alike. And since the 
sjjecial secret features of our organiza- 
tion are enjoying a vacation just in 
advance of the recreation to be had at 
Camp Roache; and since the harvest 
season is about over so far as grain is 
concerned, and all products of the 
fields and orchards are seeking a mar- 
ket, I may be excused for craving a 
little space under the above topic. 

Of course, it is a big question, and 
one that cannot be handled in one 
article or in a dozen ; but we may be 
able to see that California, if not a ma- 
jority of the States, are sadly in want 
of a market for even the meager sur- 
plus that is likely to appear this year 
after home demands shall have been 
supplied. It is most singular that a 
nation such as ours, with 70,000,000 
people, is begging for a market for its 
products. We buy and consume the 
products of all the world, and yet take 
little Or no advantage of the circum- 
stance to enlarge the markets for what 
we produce. There seems to have been 
too much politics and too little patriot- 
ism practiced by our leaders, and be- 
tween the two the interests of the pro- 
ducers have been lost sight of. It will 
be remembered that when the Mc- 
Kinley bill was under consideration by 
Congress, and when it was thought to 
be perfect and subserved the best in- 
terests of the country, it was sub- 
mitted to that broad-minded states- 
man. Secretary Blaine, for approval. 
He very quickly told them that, as the 
bill then read, it failed to provide a 
market for one additional barrel of 
flour or of pork. This omission was at 
once recognized and gave rise to the 
reciprocity features in the act, and un- 
doubtedly had the elTect of enlarging 
the farmers" opportunity. Singular as 
it may seem, the world is governed very 
largely by the same sentiment that 
governs individuals — "You tickle me 
and I tickle you. " Mr. Blaine's object 
undoubtedly was to play our markets 
against the exporting world for all the 
" traffic would bear." It is to be re- 
gretted that Blaine's policy of reci- 
procity was not retained in the present 
revenue act. 

These remarks ari> not made in the 
interest of any political party, as they 
disagree with them, but are suggested 
by a review of a pamphlet just issued 
by the U. S. Department of Agricul- 
ture entitled " The World's Markets." 

It is wonderful to observe how the 
nations of the globe protect and foster 
their home markets, and it is still more 
remarkable to see how they push their 
products into foreign countries by legis- 
lation, reciprocity and other methods. 
Take, for example, the German nation. 
The report observes; "The great 
factor in the wonderful increase of the 
foreign trade of Germany is its system 
of commercial unions. The following is 
compiled in part from a recent report 
of the United States Consul at Chem- 
nitz, Germany, and in part from the 
lirltixh liodiil of Traill- Journal : "The 
efforts of Germany to secure foreign 
markets for its products is shown in 
the great interest taken by it even to 
its inland cities. All over the Empire 
societies are organized to encourage 



colonization and the export trade of 
the country and promote practical 
schemes to iit young men for business 
and afterwards help them to get 
places. * * * German emigrants 
and residents in foreign countries arc 
enlisted in the encouragement of 
foreign trade by the rccciipt of al- 
manacs and other put)lications contain- 
ing the names of German firms with 
illustrations of their productions and 
manufactures." 

Commercial schools are maintained 
to educate young men in this direction, 
and during the past forty years no less 
than 40,000 young men have been fur- 
nished situations abroad. It is the 
subject of English and French emula- 
tion, and is doing a work that deserves 
the highest praise. Notwithstanding 
this "push" of the Germans into the 
business of the world, they carefully 
discriminate against and prohibit, as 
much as possible, foreign importations. 

No other (country perhaps feels this 
more than the United States. Her im- 
port duties against us practically, if 
not wholly, shuts out our wheat, flour, 
beef, pork, dried fruits and a long list 
of minor products. Other countries 
are doing the same to a greater or less 
extent, and apparently our legislation 
is such as to render our numbers help- 
less, with the balance of trade against 
us, while tied down to a home market. 
Let us adopt the mutual tickling 
process. 

With the close of the grain harvest 
the customary camping fever is seen 
approaching and the advance guard 
has already taken to the roads leading 
to the various mountain resorts sur- 
rounding the Sacramento valley. Many 
of these are already i-eported crowded, 
while a large number are moving 
toward the seaside on every passing 
train, and, judging from the prevalence 
of the migratory fever, no more people 
will remain at home than will be re- 
quired to hold the odds and ends 
together on the farm. 

This is not so with the fruit men. 
Their harvest is just on and will last 
two or three months, hence the lads 
and lassies engaged therein have to 
assuage their fever in the shades of 
the peach and pear trees or in the 
canneries. And to their credit, be it 
said, they meet the situation not only 
willingly but anxiously. Only yester- 
day, in conversation with one of the 
belles of Yuba City, I ventured to ask 
which of the State's pleasure resorts 
she expected to visit, when she said : 
"Neither; I am going to work in the 
cannery." So, instead of the popula- 
tion diminishing in this vicinity, it is 
actually increasing. All the cottages 
of the cannery company are full to 
overflowing and many others are camp- 
ing in the vicinity awaiting their turn 
at the tables, the trays or the or- 
chards. 

Strange as it may seem, this work is 
becoming quite popular with all classes. 
Here we find the matron with her 
family of sons and daughters contest- 
ing successfully with the bearded 
humanity for a share of the income 
made possible by the fruit industry, 
practically all created within a decade, 
the limit of which no one dare foretell. 

As a resort for labor, the presence 
of people from the great plains, from 
the adjacent foothills and the more dis- 
tant mountains amply testify. As I 
passed the cannery grounds the other 
day there drove up a four-horse team 
hitched to one of those great long 
vehicK'S with side seats and canopy to 
shelter the travelers who filled every 




IN pEATH VAoey- 



space available, the aisle being stacked 
up almost to the roof with household 
articles. They had evidently come 
from a distance, as their appearance 
matched the appearance of the early 
immigrant yet fresh in the mind of the 
writer, although forty-three years in 
the rear. The occupants were mostly 
in their teens and the feminine 
humanity, yet they had a determined 
and plucky appearance, and will 
doubtless make their way in the rush 
for places. 

Yuba City Grange meets regularly, 
but owing to the camping fever and 
orchard work the last meeting, July 
6th, was slimly attended, and yet it 
was one of the most interesting had 
for a long time. It would have done 
that august body, theS. G., good to 
have heai-d the remarks on the good of 
the Order. The members having worked 
themselves to a high pitch of enthu- 
siasm, it re(|uired a barrel of ice cream 
and an armful of delicious cake, sup- 
plied by a good sister, to reduce the 
aggregated effulgence to a sober coun- 
try standard. 

The next meeting will be held on 
Friday evening, August 2d, at which 
time we are promised a rare literary 
treat by the Lecturer, provided, of 
course, that our young people are not 
all carried off by the prevailing fever 
or forget themselves in the sociabilities 
of the fruit harvest. 

The question of " Who is going to 
Camp Koache and the Farmers' 
School?" is beginning to gain atten- 
tion, but owing to circumstances over 
which at present we have no control 
very few affirmative answers are 
given. It is true that we are con- 
tributing our full quota to the seashore 
exodus, and we hope they will visit the 
camp, load up with the best things 
there to be dispensed, then return to 
enlighten those less fortunate. And, 
by the way, one by one the days pass 
to the rear, and presently we shall 
stand face to face with the next State 
Grange. To my mind the Merced 



I meeting will be one of the most im- 
i portant ever held in California, and. 
I owing to the prevailing depression, is 
i not likely to be well attended. When 
the public press desires to be informed 
about certain questions it invites ex- 
pressions from leading m(>n for publica- 
tion. Why not all the leading (J rangers 
send in their opinions and ])lans for the 
i Merced meeting, so far as they can be 
j made public and are in the interest of 
I Patrons of Husbandry and farmers 
1 generally ? Georoe Oulever. 

Yuba City, July 18, 189.5. 



Next Week's Farmers' Camp 

Crops Wanted. 



To THE Editor:— One of the great 
wants of our time is to have our citi- 
zens look squarely at the issues of the 
day without the intervention of party 
goggles. To give our farmers a chance 
to do this is evidently one object of the 
promoters of Camp Roache. One of 
the best crops a farmer can raise is a 
crop of good, sound ideas. There's no 
(■rop so valuable in a cash point of 
view, or so satisfactory as a life's 
achievement. 

Now, Camp Roache wants every 
farmer to bring along the very best of 
his idea crop. Camp Roache. as I un- 
derstand, expects to give a chance to 
every farmer there to plant his very 
best idea in the breast of every other 
California farmer who is there to re- 
ceive it. 

The great thing in life is to know 
what you want. If we farmers can 
bring our ideas into harmony, and all 
manage to want the same thing, we 
can unitedly put our shoulders to the 
wheel and get the old political coach 
out of the mud. As a rule we half 
shove one way, and half the other, and 
we wonder she don't move. 

If we can bring ourselves all to real- 
ize that party, '/.s pmti/, is mischievous, 
because it tends to divide rather than 
unite mankind, it will be a step to 




Cramps may assail you at any time, without warning. You are at 
a complete disadvantage — so sudden and A iolent is thei»- attack — 
unless you are provided with a sure cure. 

Pain -Killer 

is the surest cure, the quickest and the safest cure. It is sold cvervwhcre at 
25c. a bottle. See that you get the genuine — has "Perry Davis & Sou" ou bottle. 

P. & B. FRUIT DRYING PAPER. 

★★★★FIFTH SEASON. ★★★★ 



UNEQUALED FOR DRYING RAISINS AND PRUNES! 

If you have not used it, XRV IX ! 



20 MULE HELP ■'""KITCHEHA-^LAUHDRir 

pAC'inr (-oAsr bof\Ki Co SANfRABtJISCO-CHIC/lBp-HeWVO^^^ 



SAMPLES AND CIRCULARS FURNISHED ON APPLICATION. 

PARAFFINE PAINT CO. 



116 Battery Street 



■San Francisco 



July 27, 1896. 



THE 42n(l GREAT STATE FAIR OTCAUFORNIA 



TWO WEEKS 



Will be^ he^ld at SACR/\mENTO, 

SEPTEMBER 2nd to 14th, 



1 e Q s . 



IT WILL EMBRACE a most comprehensive exhibit of the soil products of 
the greatest agricultural State in the Union; a collection of mechanical prod- 
ucts; an aggregation of live stock that will challenge any State in comparison, 
and a racing priifiramme, of unusual t'xcrj/nirr. 

A DISPLAY OF ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER, whereby machinery will 
run with power generated at Folsom, 22 miles distant, will be a leading feature 
of this year's exhibition. 

POWER AND SPACE WILL BE FURNISHED FREE to all factories, 
thereby enabling experiments to be made upon any class of machinery with but 
little cost. 

EDWIN F. SMITH, Secretary. 



THE NATIVE SONS WILL CELEBRATE ADMISSION DAY this vear 
at the State Fair. 

ATHLETIC SPORTS, BARBECUES AND THE ELECTRIC CARNIVAL 
will be leading amusement features. 

THE MANUFACTURER CANNOT AFFORD to miss this opportunity, 
whereby thousands of visitors may view and inspect his goods. 

Roncovieri's great AMERICAN CONCERT BAND has been engaged. 

Free transportation for exhibits, and reduced rates of fare will be given on 
all railroads. Address the secretary for information of any character. Pre- 
mium lists now ready. 

C. M. CHASE, President. 



union; and, as we all know, "union is 
strength." "United we stand,"' and 
united we can boost the political coach 
out of ruts and mire, and start it on 
the high-road of Progress. Though 
not a granger, I hope to visit Camp 
Roache, and trust that not only as 
many progressive farmers as possible, 
but as many hitherto unprogressive 
farmers as possible will be there. 
There will be enough good seed on hand 
to go all around to ensure such a har- 
vest of mental development as shall 
make not only more fruitful farms, but 
(which is of more importance) worthier 
and moi-e intelligent men of our Cali- 
fornia farmers. So mote it be! 

Edward Berwick. 
Monterey, July 21, '95. 



Now for Camp Roache. 



Wrights, July 22, 1895. 

To THE Editor : — Camp Roache is 
now ready for visitors, and we are pre- 
l)aring tho ground for the lectures. 
There are comfortable seats at the 
station and will be in place next Satur- 
day, when we hope for a good attend- 
ance to hear the opening address. 
Certificates ensuring one-third return 
fare can be had of the Secretary of any 
G range. The rent of tents unfurnished 
will be $4 for the two weeks — just what 
they cost us. The bus fare from 
station to camp is fifty cents. Any 
number of people can be fed and 
"slept" somehow at small expense. 

A two-horse wagon, with ladies on 
the high driver's seat, was driven over 
1 he road last Saturday and was enjoyed. 
T have ridden over it many times — on a 

scraper — and dliln't enjoy it, espe- | 
cially when we struck a rock. 

Edward F. Adams. 



A Man of Titles. 



"Giving the devil his due" is no 
light undertaking in Turkey. When- 
ever the name of the Sultan is men- 
tioned, it must be after the manner of 
the following, which is literally trans- 
lated from a Turkish paper ; 

To-day our paper reaches the thir- 
teenth year of its existence; and we 
celebrate this anniversary in the reign 
of the finest pearl of the age, and the 
esteemed center of the universe; at 
whose grand portal stand the camels 
of justice and mercy, and to whom the 
eyes of the kings and the people in the 
West have been drawn; the rulers there 
finding an example of political prowess, 
and the classes a model of mercy and 
kindness; it is our Lord and Master, 
the Sultan of the two Shores and the 
High King (Khakan) of the two Seas; 
the crown of ages, and the pride of all 
countries, the greatest of all Khalifs; 
the shadow of God on earth; the suc- 
cessor of the Apostle of the Ijord of the 
Universe, the Victorious Conqueror 
(Al-Ghiz) Sultan Abdul Hamid Kahn; 
ma v God protect his kingdom and place 
his glory above the Sun and Moon, and 
may the fjord supply all the world with 
the goodness which proceeds from His 
H.ily Majesty's good intentions." 



Hard times feed on the man that 
growls and bemoans his fate, but soon 
gets away from the presence of the 
man that gets up and rustles. Just so 
with communities. Those where the 
people get a move on soon laugh at 
hard times. — Hanford Sentinel. 



How's This! 

We offer One Huudi-ed Dollars reward for any 
case of Catarrh that cannot be cured by Hail's 
Catarrh Cure. 

F. J. CHKNEY & CO., Toledo, O. 
We, the undersifjned, have known F. .1. Cheney 
for the last Ih years, and believe him perfectly 
honorable in all business transactions and finan- 
cially able to carry out any obligations made by 
their firm. 

Wkst&Truax, Wholesale Druggists, Toledo, O. 
Wai-I)Ing, Kinn.a.n & M.\uviN, Wholesale Drug- 
gists, Toledo, O. 

Hail's Catarrh Cure is taken internally, acting 
directly upon the blood and mucous surfaces of 
the system. Testimonials senf free. Price T.5c. 
per bottle. Sold by all Druggists. 



Vassar sent out this last commence- 
ment the largest class in the history 
of the institution, a hundred young 
women receiving the degree of B. A. 



17V//\NXED ! 

By a young man— Orrman, small family— a posi- 
tion as foreman or manager of an orchard. ISi si of 
references. Nine years at last place. Address, 
MAX A. THKILK;, Novato, Mariu County, Cal. 



M. 

«). Box -i','. 



D. 



ESHLEMAN, 

KKKSNO, CAL. 




IN TH ESE TIMES 

You Ciin Largely Increase 

Your Income b.v buylni: an Incu- 
bator and eu^agiufrin the chicken 
biislness. Send stamp for our 
catalogue of Incubators, Wire 
Netting, Blooded Fowls aud Poul- 
try Appliances generall.v. Rement- 
ber thf Best i.s thf (meapest. PACIFIC 
INCUBATOR CO., 1317 Castro St., 
Oakland, Cal. 



1000 SHROPSHIRES. 

Largest Mutton Kam 
Breeding Farm in 
America. 

Range trade a specialty. 
Also fitted show stock 
in season. 
Come or write — 

A. O. FOX, Owner. 
Oregon, Dane Co., Wis. 



Porteous Improved Scraper. 

Patented April 3. ISS.'i. Patented April 1", I.SSS. 



FOR SALE. 



Three registered IIolstein-Friesian Hulls. Extra 
individuals, with best of pedigrees. 

Fourteen, eleven and six-montbs-old Dams. 
Large producers of but ti'r. Certilicale of health 
and soundness furnished. .\d(lress: 




Manufacture<l by (i. LISSICNDBN. 

The attention of the public Is called to this 
Scraper and the many varieties of work of which it 
is capable, such as Railroad Work, Irrigation 
Ditches. Levee Building. Levellnfj Land, Road Mak- 
ing, etc. 

This implement will take up and carry Us load to 
any desired distance. It will distribute the dirt 
evenly or deposit Its load in bulk as desired. It 
will do the work of Scraper, Grader, and Carrier. 
Thousands of these Scrapers are in use In all parts 
of tlie country. 

BIfThis Scraper is all Steel— the onl.y one manu- 
factured in the Slate. 

Price, all Steel, four-horse, IW40; Steel, two-horse, 
St31. Address all orders to 

G. LISSENSER, STOCKTON. CAL. 



Breeders' Directory. 



Six lines or less in this directory at !>0c per line per ] 
month. 



Horses and Cattle. 



F. H. liUKKK, t;2ti Market St.. S. F. Al Prize Hol- 
stelus; Urade Milch Cows. Fine Pigs. 

BULLS— Devons and Sliorthfjrns. All pure bred 
and registered. Fine individuals. At prices to 
suit the times either singly or in carload lots. 
Oakwood P.-irk Stock h'arni. DanvUle, Cal. 



H. H. MUKf HY, Perkins, Sac. Co., Cal. Breederof 
Shorthorn Cattle, Poland-China & Berkshire Hogs. 

M. U. IIOl'KINS, Petaluina. Registered Shorthorn 
Cattle. Both sexes for sale. 



PETKK SAXK * SON, Lick House, S F., Cal. Im- 
porters and Breeders, for past '^1 .years, of every 
variety of Cattle. Horses, Shei'P and Hogs. Cor- 
respondence Holleiied. 

J KKSK YS— The best A. .1. C. C. registered prize herd 
is owned by Henry Pierce, S. P. Animals for sale. 



Poultry. 



S'vvrine. 



Sheep and Goats. 



A. HirsCllKK, Tracy. Cal., breeder of Thorough- 
bred Whlti- Legliorns. Barred Plynioulh Rocks; 
.5U0 head .voting Slock to Sf'lect from: single binla 
from $2 u^»; trios from up: eggs $l.ju per setting. 

WKLLINCiTON'S LMI»III>VK1) K<JG FOOD 

for poultry- Every grocer and merchant keeps it. 

CALIFOKNIA POULTRY FAKM, Stockton. Cal. 
Send for Illustrated and descriptive catalogue, free. 



P. H. BUKliE, (>2B Market St.. S.F.—BERKSHIRES. | 

i 

.^I. nirLLKIi, Elislo, Cal. Registered Berkshlres. | 



J. P. ASIILHV, Linden, San Joaquin Co., Cal. 
Breeds Poland-China, Essex and Yorkshire Swine. 



TYLEK BEACH, San Jose, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
otighbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 



J. B. IIOYT, Bird's Landing, Cal. Importer and I 
( Breeder of Shropshire Sheep: also breeds Cross- I 
bred Merino and Shropshire .Sheep. R;iins for sale, i 
cPrices to suit tlie limes. Correspondence solicited. | 

i 

J. II. 4>l..f I>K, S.UTaiiieiito. Very iarjre choice Spuu- i 
ish. French and Shropsliire rams. Bechock prices. 

K. H.<.:KANE. Petalunia. Cal. Southdown Sheep. 



LEE D. CRAIG, 

Notary Public and Commissioner of Deeds, 

310 MONTGOIVIEKY STREET, 
Bet. California and Pine. SAN FRANCISCO. CaL 



SEND YOUR NAME & ADDRESS ON POSTAL CARO<.<> 
LEXRAND POULTRY RANCH.WE ST Rl VE RSI OE CAL 
3EKID.'UHEY WILL SEND YOU S0METHIN4 USEFUL 
8Y DECEMBER l5'-NEXT,."»c,.scwLEGH0RNs5:"sf. 



THE 





Trade Mark— Or. A. Owel 



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The latest and only scientiQc and practical 
Electrio Bolt made, tor general use, producing 
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to any i)?.rt of the body . It can bo worn at any 
time during working hours or sleep, and 

WILL POSITIVELY CURE 

ItHElIMATISM 
L.CJinBAGO 

GENERAL. DEBILITY 
^IjAME BA€K 
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CHRHM« DlM.v H> 
AND FUNl TIONAL 
DEllANliKM KNTS 



WITHOUT MEDICINE 

Electricity, properly applied, i.s fast taking 
the place of drugs for all Nervou.-!, Rheumatic, 
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cures in b(2emiu;;ly hopeh f .s ca^jcs where every 
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Any sluggish, weak or diseased organ may 
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Leading medical men use and recommend the 
Owen Belt in their practice. 

OUR LARGE ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE 

Contains fullest information regarding the cure 
of acute, chronic aud nervous diseases, prices, 
and how l o order, in English, German, Swedish 
and Norwegian languages, will be mailed, upon 
application, to any address for 6 cents postage. 

The Owen Electric Helt and Appliance Co. 

MAIN OFFICE A ;i) ONLT FACTORY, 

The Owen Electric Belt r IJ ;.. ZQ\ to 211 State Street, 

CHICAGO, ILL. 
''he Largest Electrif. Belt rstablisltmentin the WorM 



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(Established 181111 
Weekly, *1 a yen r. 7 Editors. 



160 -page 
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DEWEY & CO. 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN 



Patent Solicitors. 



220 MARKET ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 

Elevator, 12 Front St. 




64 



The Pacific Rural Press. 



July 2?. 1806. 



A 5ure Winner. 




The SiiARPLEs Russian Separator 
is advertised all over the United States, 
and is well known wherever there an^ 
dairy cows But we find the best ad- 
vertisement that is ever put out by us 
is to recommend intending purchasers 
to go and see a Russian in operation. 
When one of these machines gets into 
a neighborhood more are sure to fol- 
low. Some of our competitors know this and they tried a pretty 
sharp trick on some Kansas farmers recently. They took one of 
their own old style machines and painted it like a Russian and put 
a Russian name plate on it. Of course the machine wouldn't work. 
It never would. Then they brought in their customers to see the 
" Russian." But Kansas farmers were too smart for them. The 
trick worked about as poorly as their new machines do. If you 
want to know how a Russian works send for our catalogue. 

P. M. SHARPLES, 

West Chester. Pa., 
Elgin, 111. 
Rutland, Vt. 

THE BURRELL PRUNE MACHINE. 



A New Process for 
Cutting the Skins 
of Prunes. 

NO FIRE; NO HOT WATER; NO LYE. 

Cloans, Cuts and Spreads the 
fruit at one (iperation. 

SIMPLE, STRONO. DURABLE, 
CHEAPER AND BETTER. 

Letters from Persons who 
have used the burrel l 
Prune Machine: 




Red Bi.ufk, Cal.. March 17, 1895. 
J. B. BuitKELL, E?q., Wrights, /><"«/• .Si';-.- I used your Needle Machine last summer in curing 
my prunes, and I am pleased to express to you my belief, that it is a valuable invention, and must 
come into general use. I find I can handle my prunes more rapidly, and in a much more cleanly man- 
ner by using It in lieu of the old lye dip. I move il around the yard to my prunes, instead of carrying 
them all to one place to be dipped Where the fruit is soiled or gathers dirt from th« ground, I have 
used water on the machine to good advantage, cleansing the fruit and making it run over the machine 
better than without the use of water at the same time. I took part in the discussion upon the merits 
of your machine at the horticultural convention. I heard nothing there to shako my faith in its utility. 

Very truly yours, N. P. CHIPMAN. 



HlLLSDAI-E, Feb. 16, 1895. 

Mb. J. B. BURRELi,, Wrights, nenr sir: The Prune Pricking Machine does all you claim for it, and 
I am well satisfied with its work. Truly yours, C. CRANZ. 

(Other letters in next week's RruAI, Press.] 

The Burrell Prune Machine Is manufactured and sold by 

J. B. BURRELL, 449 West Santa Clara St., San Jose, Cal. 



F"R/\INCIS SmiTHI 




F^OR TO WIN WMTER W/ORK-S. 

Hj^draulic, Irrigation and Power Plants, Well Pipe, Etc., all sizes. 

130 BHALK STREET SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Iron cut. punched and forini il. for m»'-' pipe on ground where required. All kinds of Tools sup 
plied fii • M aking Pipe. Esi';p.:itus gi" - required. Are prepared for coating all sizes of Pipes 

with A^.'lial'uro. -A 



TRE - \A//\SH. 

<L>\\\je- Dip. 

"Greenbank" Powdered Caustic 
Soda and Pure Fotasli. 

T. \A/. J«CK.SON «fc CJO. 
Sole AgrentH. - - No. 326 Market 8tre»t. 

SAN FRANCISCO. CAL. 



9?L 



Olive Trees. 

ALL KINDS OF NURSERY .STOCK. Send for 
our Book on Olive Culture. 

Hovi/land Bros., 

POMONA, CAL. 



Patronize California Manufacturers! 




THE ONLY GEARED STEEL WIND MILL WITH ' 



THE ONLY STEEL MILL WITH PARTED BOXES. 
PUMPS, TANKS AND BRASS GOODS. 



-MANUFACTURED BY-- 



PACIFIC MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 

575 MISSION STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 



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ANUBRSON PKU.Nb UlPPck Nu. 



When preparing prunes for drying, the best results are ob- 
tained by giving ihem a quick dip in scalding lye and rinsing in 
clean water. This is best obtained by using an Anderson Dipper. 
It is under the absolute control of the operator and scalds the fruit 
uniformly, while the rinsing and spreading facilities are unequaled. 

WHITE FOR CATALOGUE AND PRICES TO 

W. C. ANDERSON, 

Dealer in Horticultural Supplies, 

455 W. SANTA CLARA STREET, 

f. O. Box 970 SMN JOSE, CrtL. 



STANDARD GOODS! 

Zim/V1ER/V\/\IM h IV U I I E\/« F*OR«TORS; 
BIymyer Churoh, Sohool and l='lre Bells; L-eader W/Ind- 
mllls; INon - Sh r In Ic Ing W/ater TanUs: 
^^^-^^.^^ — N^EOLDIING SrtW/IING /VI P* C H I IN E S : '>'>'*~N^^'N^ 
Cider /Vinis; \A/lne F=«resses: Grape Grushers; 

Sorghum, Coffee, Rice and Butcher /V\ac- h I n e ry ; 
Gentrlfueal F»ijmps, X/andiizene Steam Jet F»ump», 
Syphons, Eto. 
Write for Descriptive Catalogue of the (ioods you oeed lo 

JAMES LINFORTH, 37 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal., Importer and Manufacturer's Agent. 



AND CALIFORNIA FRUIT BULLETIN. 



Vol. L. No. 5. 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, AUGUST 3, 1895. 



TWENTY-FIFTH YEAR. 

Office, 220 Market Street. 



A Valley of Varied Resources. 



We give herewith the third of our series of views 
illustrating the agriculture of Santa Clara valley. 
This plate intimates the variety of the resources and 
industries of the region in soil products, and in this 
respect what is shown for this valley is characteristic 
also, in a general way, of most of the fertile valleys of 
California. Santa Clara has, it is true, special lines of 
development, which have been secured by the energy 
and enterprise of her people, and in this direction 
she is an ensample and typical of what progress has 
in store for other parts of the State which have simi- 
lar natural adaptations. 

Adaptation is a matter of the highest importance 



enviable place in the cereal records. Hay has long 
been a great crop, and vast shipments of hay are 
still made, though the local demand for the feeding 
of orchard teams has created a new local demand of 
grand proportions. Two of our pictures illustrate 
the hay industry — the stacking and the baling. 
These lines of work call for many hands and they are 
well disposed of before the weight of the fruit har- 
vest is reached. 

The scene in the lower right hand corner is rather 
dreary in aspect, yet is anything but dreary in fact. 
Five hundred acres of lettuce might be taken to sig- 
nify that the residents of the region are great for 
salad, but its real significance is far different. This 
area of lettuce is grown for seed not for foliage. 



Zante Currants. 



It seems hard to convince the Government offi- 
cials at the East that the Zante currant, so called, 
is a raisin. The wily importers do not seem loth to 
represent to the authorities that the fruit grows on 
some sort of a measly bush — is in fact a riles and not 
a vitix. It is not wonderful that the importers should 
encourage this idea, but it is surprising that East- 
ern inquiries should not have brought to light some 
traveler who has been on the Grecian islands and has 
seen the small seedless grapes and the vines on 
which they grow. Every Californian who knows 
aught of viticulture is perfectly aware that the fruit 
is produced on a grape vine and when cured is a 




GLIMPSES OF DIVERSIFIED FARM INDUSTRIES OF THE SANTA CLARA VALLEY. 



in California, and much time and money have been 
lost by failure to look closely enough into the natural 
fitness of localities chosen for special lines of produc- 
tion. Adaptation and industry are almost sure of 
success; either by itself is almost as sure of failure. 
Santa Clara county has the widest range of adapta- 
tions through her varied soils, elevations and ex- 
posures. The little sectional view in the center of 
the plate gives a suggestion of this. From low moist 
meadow, with unlimited water supply by flowing 
wells, through the higher alluvial plains and slopes 
where her vast orchard interests lie, up to the mesas 
and the worn hillsides, also famous places for fruit, 
up to the mountain tops where the hardier fruits 
find a cooler, slower season to bring them to the 
highest qualities— Santa Clara has everything in the 
line of productive soil that can be desired. 

As we have formerly shown orchard scenes, we 
take this week quite a different line of cultures. 
Santa Clara valley was once a famous grain region, 
and though her grain area has been much reduced by 
more profitable orchard planting she has still a most 



Santa Clara county is perhaps the greatest seed- 
growing county in the country, and the vegetable- 
seed product of Santa Clara goes not only to all 
parts of the United States, but to all parts of the 
world. The greatest commercial seedsmen now 
place their contracts with California seed .growers. 
One firm, whose location is near the town of Santa 
Clara, has 2500 acres devoted to the growth of seeds 
and about 200 acres of this is in sweet peas — the 
greatest sweet-pea seed farm in the world. This is 
one of the special directions in which Santa Clara has 
developed astonishingly. 

The foothills of California are all picturesque and 
charming, and Santa Clara has large areas of such 
lands which are being rapidly improved. The lower 
left hand picture gives a typical foothill scene, show 
ing large expanse of orchard and the high class of 
improvements which home makers are able to secure. 



The people of the United States consumed 63i 
pounds of sugar per capita for the year ending 1S93 
and 1894. 



dried grape — that is, a raisin. We know that not 
only because our people have been there and seen 
the fruit growing, but because more than a quarter 
of a century ago cuttings of these vines were brought 
to California and the fruit from them made into 
"currants." The literature of the subject is also 
very full and explicit. We understand that Mr. 
Wise and Col. Irish propose to have the truth of this 
matter officially set forth by the courts at this port. 
Recently in New York 150 barrels of currants were 
imported for consumption, and fifty barrels for ware- 
house storage. 

The duties on these 500 barrels, according 
to the law, was U cents per pound, but the 
Board of General Appraisers remitted the duty and 
passed the whole free. Mr. A. B. Butler, of Fresno, 
has been interested in this decision, and he says : 
" If this decision is not reversed it means the loss of 
over a million of dollars annually to the raisin grow- 
ers of California. All we pray for in this matter is 
simple justice and the bona fide execution of the 
spirit of the law." 



66 



The Pacific Rural Press. 



August 3, 1895. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 

Ufflct.No.i-iO Market til.; Elevator, No. IS From .St. .Han Francisco, Cal 

All auhscrlbers paying IS in advance will receive 18 months' (one 
vear and 13 weeks) credit. For fi in advance. lU months. For »I in 

"advance, tive months. 

Advertising rate» made known on appHcatinn. 

Anv subscriber sending an Inquiry on any subject to the 
Pkess. with a poHtage Htanip, will receive a reply, either thfOUSh tne 
colunuiK of the paper or by personal letter. The answer will be given 
as promptly as practicable. 

Registered at S. T. Postofflce as second-class mall mat ter. 



Our latest forms go to press Wednesday euening. 



ALFRKU HOLMAN Editor. 

E. J. WICK80N Special Contributor. 



San Francisco, August 3, 1895. 



TABLE OF CON TENTS. 

ILLUSTRATION.— Glimpses of Uiversitied Farm Industries of the 
Santa Clara Valley, 65. „ . „ . 

EDITORIALS.— A Valley of Varied Resources: Zante Currants. Sa. 
TOe Week; From au Independent Standpoint. 66. 

HORTICULTITRK — Lemon Growing; Orange Growing in Escon- 
dido; The Life of ll.e Peach, B'J. Kero.sene Kmulsiou, 7U. 

FRUIT M,\RKET1NG.— Competition in Fruit Growing: Perkins 
Process Goes to Georgia. 70. 

THK AIM.\ l{V.— Tlie llciriev Hee in California. "0. 

THE \1N KYARD.— The Raisin Industry, 71. 

AG Kit T l.Tl'KAL KNGINKKR.— Hints on Tile Drainage. 71. 

THE I ItRlG.V TOR.— Comments on the Ross Decision, 71. What 
the IJeeisiou Cannot Do. 

SHEf;F AND WOOL.— Southdown-Merino Cross, 72. 

THF. DAIRY.— England Hehind America in Applying a Useful In- 
vention; <4ranular Butter, 72. 

THE HOME CIRCLE.— Johnny on Easy Writing; Who's so Busy 
-asIySi.x Little Pansies; The Story of "Highflyer;" What He 
Did, 74. New View of China; Fashion Notes; To Be Read Aloud 
Quickly, 7.5. _ . 

DO.MESTIC ECONOMY.— Hints to Housekeepers; Fighting Flies; 
iJimu'Slie Hints, 75. 

MARKETS— Ri view of the Dried Fruit Market. 77. 

PATRON.'^ i)F HUS15ANDRY.— The Summer School; Observations 
bv Mr. Ohlever; San Jose Grange. 7«. 

MISCELLANEOUS— Gleanings: Poultry at the State Fair; The 
Marketing Problem, H7. California Husbandry; Rainfall and 
Temperature; Weather and Crops; Sunflower Meal, Ot<. The 
Wine Grape CrJjj, 70. Harvesting Beans; Report of Wine Ex- 
ports ana Imports. ~i Thi Wheel, 7rt Conveigence of An- 
cestry, 7t). 

BUSINESS ARNOUnCEMENTS. 

( A>«' Ihir: iKxiie.) 

Wagons and Carriages— Deeie Implement Co 

H T. Babbitt's Lve— Johnson-Locke Mercantile Co 

Engines for Irrigation— Best M'f'g Co., San Leandro, Cal 

Washer— C. E. Ross, Lincoln, 111 

Paper— Ulake, Moffltt & Towne 

Wagons— Maker A; Hamilton 



Page. 
.... 80 
. ... 77 
80 

, . . 78 
. 77 



The Week. 



Government 



Seeds. 



Si'crt'tary Morton evidently be- 
lieves that the way to stop the 
Government seed shop is to stop. 
He asked Congress to stop it, but they wanted it to 
go on some more — in fact, more than before. Now 
the telegraph says that Secretary Morton has issued 
an order abolishing the division in October, and di- 
recting the division to have its work wound up. 
Secretary Morton instructs Supt. Fagan that his re- 
port for the fiscal year ending .June 30, 18!I5. must 
state in detail the work of the division, giving the 
number of packages of seed sent out, by whom sent 
and where, and the aggregate weight of all seed 
transmitted gratuitously by the United States mail. 
The Secretary further directed him to include in the 
report e.xtracts from the newspapers of the country 
giving their opinions of the useless extravagance of 
gratuitous distribution of seeds through members of 
Congress by the Department of Agriculture. The 
trouble with the Government seed enterprise has 
lain in the abuse of it. Instead of introducing new 
seeds from all parts of the world, which was in- 
tended at the beginning, it has degenerated into a 
disti ibution of poor, cheap seed in large quantities 
by Congressmen for the purpose of tickling their 
constituents. The Government introduction has 
done some grand things, as for example the introduc 
tion of the Washington Navel orange to California. 
Introduction and trial should go on, but not upon 
the basis of distribution by Congressmen. 

We give on another page the opin- 
ions of several experts in finance 
upon the bearings of Judge Ross' 
decision on the Wright Irrigation Law, as recited in 
last week's RruAi.. We now have the judgment of 
Hon. C. C. Wright, of Modesto, the author of the 
law in question. Mr. W^right has expressed the 
opinion that the decision would be reversed by the 
Supreme Court. "If the decision should finally be 
affirmed it would mean good-by to irrigation by the 
public," he said. "The ultimate result would be 
that the land owner would have to buy water as he 
would merchandise at such prices as would give such 
a profit to the seller as he may choose to make. To 
illustrate the great difference it would make to the 
land owners, Mr. Wright gives this example: A 
private corporation has constructed a canal on the 
north side of the Stanislaus river to furnish water 
for irrigation. They charge for a water right $10 
per acre, and in addition charge an annual rental of 
SL.'^O per acre. The cost of water for twenty years 
would be *40 per acre, to say nothing of interest on 
the sums paid. Compare that with the Tipton irri- 
gation district, where the original cost of the works 
was less than $ij per acre, and the cost of main- 
tenance less than twenty cents per acre. Other dis- 
tricts would show similar great advantages over the 



Mr. WrlRht's 
Opinion. 



private ownership of water for irrigation. But Mr. 
Wright does not believe it will come to the loss of 
these advantages. Later court decisions, he thinks, 
will overturn Judge Ross. We shall have to wait 
and see. 

...^ . . * A very interesting meeti»g of 

Horticulturists at m r> 

fruit growers was held in Santa 
' Rosa on Friday of last week, when 
the State Horticultural Society met with the Santa 
Rosa Society. The busy time in the orchards pre- 
vented the attendance of many from a distance, but 
the presence of a good concourse of Sonoma county 
fruit men atoned for the absence of others, and a 
very profitable afternoon was spent. President 
Lelong being detained by imperative business, Mr. 
B. N. Rowley presided. Papers were read from 
Messrs. Lelong, Sanborn, Burbank, Sweetser, and 
Judge Barham gave a stirring talk upon fruit trans- 
portation and the importance of the Isthmus canal 
to our fruit interests. Discussion of the various 
topics presented was quite active. Messrs. M. L. Mc- 
Donald, Whitaker, Hart, Hall, Flock, Sanborn, 
Coulter and Rowley chiefly participating. The Santa 
Rosa Horticultural Society is a very active and ener- 
getic body and is accomplishing a very satisfactory 
work. The supervisors have provided a " Horticul- 
tural Hall" in the Court House, and the society will 
install therein a permanent exhibit of the products 
of the region. Supervisors of other counties could 
take a hint from this and provide at county seats 
convenient places where assemblies of producers 
could be held. Many court houses have available 
space for fiuch purposes which should not be allowed 
to lie vacant. There will always be enough interest 
to arrange a good exhibit if space is provided for it, 
and free intercourse among wealth makers would be 
a public benefit. 

Telegraphic advices speak of the 
sale of the second shipment of 
fruit from Sacramento to London. 
It started on July 10th and reached London in about 
fifteen days. The following prices are reported: 
Pears, whole boxes, averaged 13s ($3.25); pears, 
half bo.xes, 7s !M ($l.it3); plums, 8s 6d ($2.12); 
peaches, 6s fid ($l.(i2). There seems to be some va- 
riance between difTercnt reports of sale of the first 
lot of fruit as given in last week's Rural. We can- 
not say how much ground there is for the discord 
among reporters. The shippers at Sacramento seem 
disposed to send forward (considerable quantities, as 
Mr. Appel stated that ten carloads could be sent 
this week if growers desired. The experiment is a 
very interesting one and significant. It will demon- 
strate whether we are to have a profitable outlet in 
that direction or not. 



.More Fruit 



In I.oiiilon. 



Shropshire 
Enterprise. 



Evidently the various mutton 
sheep breeders propose to pursue 
their present advantage with 
much enterprise and we must commend it. The 
American Shropshire Sheep Association has pro- 
vided very handsome and costly ribbons for the 
sheep which win the special prizes it offers this year, 
and they will be sent for distribution to the secre- 
taries of the several fairs at which these specials are 
offered. This association has named a list of expert 
judges of Shropshires and will pay the expenses of 
these judges at all fairs where it offers special prizes. 
This is a unique proposition, and indicates that the 
association is dotermined, if possible, to have the 
judging of Shropshires at leading fairs done by men 
who are thoroughly conversant with Shropshire 
form and character. A list of these judges may be 
obtained from Secretary Mortimer Levering, La- 
fayette, Ind. We presume Secretary Smith of our 
State Fair has arranged for the visit of sucli judges 
to California if it is feasible to do so. Our Shrop 
shire interest may not be great now, but there is an 
immense Held for the sheep on this coast. 

., . , It would not be at all surprising 

<ione to Ura'/.ine ^ " 

to see a considerable part of the 
San Joaquin and Sacramento val- 
leys remanded to grazing — virtually returning to 
the uses of a quarter of a century ago. It will be 
remarkably good for the land and possibly better for 
its owners* pockets than wheat growing or waiting 
for sale to fruit planters. A straw in this direction 
takes the wind in the form of an announcement that 
the great area of the Crocker-Huffman Land and 
Water Co. in Merced county is to be turned into a 
great cattle range. J. D. Bradley, an experienced 
cattle raiser, who is now superintending a cattle 
ranch in Utah belonging to Goo. Crocker, will arrive 
in Merced the first of the month and take charge of 
the company's interests, relieving O. F. Giffin, Jr., 
the present superintendent, who says that he has 
favored this change for a couple of years; that the 
company's receipts had not warranted the continu- 
ance of wheat raising and that the present price of 
this product had convinced the company that cattle 
would be better property than grain. At the same 
time the restoration of .soil fertility by grazing, 
bring it into fine shape for future wheat growing or 
horticulture whenever changed conditions warrant 
such new uses. 



From an Independent Standpoint. 

It has been demonstrated in San Francisco within 
the past week that there is power in the law to sup- 
press indecency in one, at least, of its extreme forms. 
A local judge has succeeded in preventing a theatri- 
cal representation of the incidents of the Emmanuel 
Church murders and in reproving those who had the 
shameless business in hand. On Saturday it was an- 
nounced that " The Crime of a Century, " a tragedy 
founded upon the Durrant case, would be given on 
Monday night at the Alcazar theater. On Monday 
Judge Murphy, in whose court Durrant is now on his 
trial, made an order directing the managers and 
actors to desist. In contempt of this injunction the 
play began ; but before it has gotten fairly into its 
theme the Sheriff arrested the whole theatrical crew 
and carried them off to the City Prison, where the 
masculine contingent were held for the night. The 
women were allowed to go to their homes upon prom- 
ising to appear on Tuesday for trial on a charge of 
contempt of court. Upon it being shown that the 
actors were mere employes, under the control of & 
manager, they were dismissed with a sharp repri- 
mand; but the manager was held for further pro- 
ceedings; and it is surmised that he will be made to 
feel the weight of an outraged judicial dignity. Al- 
ready he has learned how it feels to live behind bars. 



Again. 



When the manager was notified by the sheriff that 
the play could not go on, he asked leave to say a 
few words to the audience by way of dismissal, and 
of course was allowed to do so. After setting forth 
the circumstances making it imperative that the 
performance should stop, he declared that he had 
disregarded the mandate of Judge Murphy because : 

I hiM that u<e have as murh right to depict lift in our way ok 
the iieu'cpiipcro hare in theirf. 

Now, the source of this remark and the bad cause 
in which it was uttered, in no wise limits the logical 
suggestiveness of it. There can be no question 
about the quality of a discrimination which shuts up 
the sensational theater but allows the widest license 
to the sensational press. And the fault, as we view 
it, lies not in the prohibition of the theater, but in 
the allowance of the printed indecency. Here 
indeed — in the open shamelessness of the San Fran- 
cisco daily press — is there need of a restraining 
hand. On the morning following the arrest of the 
actors, one of the city papers gave a series of pict- 
ures illustrating the prohibited play — thus putting 
into graphic form and spreading broadcast the very 
offense for which the actors were arrested. Another 
paper contained pictures of certain "exhibits" in 
the Durrant case— a broadside page of suggestive 
horrors too sickening to be described. Now, the 
moral effect of such publications — with others relative 
to the same case which have preceded them — is un- 
questionably and immeasurably bad. Every thoughtful 
man and woman in California resents it and protests 
against it; but none have the power to prevent it. 
Now, is there not in principle of law which shut the 
doors of the Alcazar theater force enough to check 
this other and even more widely demoralizing 
infamy ? Is there— or is there not — a way to stop 
such shocking and wicked abuse of the liberty 
of the press as is witnessed almost daily in San 
Francisco ? 

In his opening remarks at the "summer school" 
in the Santa Cruz mountains last Saturday, Prof. 
Ross of Stanford University alluded pleasantly to 
the Californian fruit grower as a new type of farmer. 
I grew up, he said, in the upper Mississippi river 
country and know something from personal experi- 
ence about the sort of farmer who inhabits — or who 
did inhabit — that fine region. He arose early and 
he toiled the day long, and if anybody had suggested 
that he " resort " somewhere for his pleasure or to 
improve his knowledge or refresh his spirits, he 
would have thought it a great joke. There was no 
time for resorting; no time for anything but work, 
and it was a hard, monotonous and ill-paid work. 
Here in California, the speaker went on, I 
find a type of farmer whose methods, ideals 
and opportunities of life are strikingly differ- 
ent; and it is to me one of the attractions of 
this meeting that I shall have the chance to 
study him at close range. All this sounds casual 
enough, as it was spoken, but it is really an acute 



August 3, 1895. 



The Pacific Rural Press 



G7 



observation. It puts into organic form facts with 
which we are all familiar in a loose sort of way, for 
when we hear it stated in words that California con- 
ditions are rapidly making a new type of rural popu- 
lation we recognize at once that it is profoundly true. 
"Within the month a gentleman of eastern expe- 
rience attended, in company with the editor, a meet- 
ing of fruit growers at San Jose and spent a day in 
casual visitation in the valley. His surprise at what 
he saw and heard was absolute. Apparently he had 
expected to meet a community of "clod-hoppers," 
for when he found everywhere men who talked of 
horticulture in scientific terms, who were inquisitive 
about world-wide facts and conditions affecting the 
fruit trade, who spoke in meeting with the address 
and discretion of practiced intelligence, and whose 
appearance was in keeping with these circum- 
stances, he could not refrain from marveling 
at it all. "Do you mean to tell me," he asked, 
"that these men are actual farmers ? " And when 
assured that they were, he remarked: "Well, Cali- 
fornia is truly wonderful in many ways." 

It is very gratifying to know that California is 
evolving a type of farmer peculiar to itself — a farmer 
who is at once a tiller of the soil, a student of a great 
branch of productive science, and a practical man of 
business. Such a farmer is bound to be a more intel- 
ligent and a better man than the old-fashioned East- 
ern farmer; but the latter had virtues which could 
ill be spared from rural character. It was the old 
type of farmer who developed the old East and the 
great West, and from whose loins have come the 
captains in American thought and life. Wherever to- 
day is found a potent leader— in industry, in trans- 
portation, in the professions, in literature — he is the 
son of an old-type farmer. If this be doubted, just 
call the American roll of honor, from the days of 
Washington to the days of Cleveland, and see how 
many were the sons of farmers — of old-type farmers. 
Let us see to it that the hardihood and the virtues of 
the old-type farmer be not lost in the process of 
evolving the new type. 



Gleanings. 



Rev. a. T. Perkins, the inventor of the sterilized air 
process for preserving fresh fruit, has resigned from the 
pulpit and will devote his time hereafter to the interests of 
his invention. 

At Ventura on August 3d a mass meeting of bean growers 
will be held to consider matters of mutual interest related to 
the marketing of this year's crop. N. M. Blanehard, T. A. 
Tice, Jno. G. Hill and J. M. Sharp are leaders in the move- 
ment. 

The Red Bluff Sentinel, in describing harvesting operations 
on the Warmouth place, near Henleyville, says that one day 
last week Miss Lizzie Warmouth took the driver's seat on 
the combined harvester and piloted the thirty mules and 
horses which hauled the big machine entirely around the 
field, while her sister Nettie run the header, and both did 
their work like veterans. 

Ventuka Democrat: The apricot is not uniform this season. 
Some orchards are bearing abundantly, while others in the 
same locality are unusually light. Major Finney has one of 
the heaviest crops he ever raised, while many of his neighbors 
will have very scant yields, though the quality of the fruit 
generally is fully up to the average of any former year. This 
inequality of the apricot crop seems to prevail in every sec- 
tion of the county, and we have not heard any explanation of 
its cause. 

Last season it was the policy of the Paige ranch, near 
Tulare, to give work to all comers, although it might be only 
a fractional day to each. This year only such hands will be 
put on as are actually needed and to whom full time may be 
given. For cutting apricots two cents a tray is being paid, at 
which rate some cutters make as high as $1.40 a day. This is 
four cents for thirty pounds, while the ruling rate in Visalia 
district is three cents for fifty pounds. Applicants for work 
are registered as they come and notice is given from day to 
day of how many will be needed. 

Byron letter in Contra Costa ffatctte: Harvesting is 
nearly done, and the farmers are all hauling their grain to 
the warehouse, consequently the roads are again in a dis- 
graceful condition, being badly cut up and dusty. Why don't 
our people do as the country folks at San Jose have done, viz. : 
Ask the supervisors to levy a small tax on them and start a 
couple of road sprinklers. The tax on each one would not be 
more than they now pay every year to have the roads re- 
paired, and we would have the benefit of it all summer, in- 
stead of having to ride through dust a foot deep. 

FnESHO Expositor : The future that is opening to the Cali- 
fornia farmer is one that presents holdings of from twenty to 
two hundred acres each, scientifically tilled in diversified 
effort, where the waste of one operation may furnish the basis 
of a new productive undertaking, so that from one year's end 
to another, in this climate where all seasons are virtually 
summer, there is continuous production and harvest and 
marketing of crops. What is needed in this part of the San 
Joaquin valley, and what is sure to come in time, is intensive 
agriculture, which makes every opportunity count in the pro- 
duction of some useful crop or in the raising of stock for 
markets. There are too many farmers who buy their butter, 
aad eggs, and poultry, and bacon, hajn and lard, and their 



vegetables, and who place their whole stake upon one crop- 
wheat, or wool, or raisins, or fruit, or cattle. If their one 
crop fails, they are " broke " for a year. 

The Healdsburg Enterprise says : That the grape industry 
has taken a new lease of life can be no longer doubted. With 
wine going out of this district at the rate of from one to ten 
carloads per day, the cellars will soon be empty. Payments 
for wine will soon begin and ere long money will be coming 
into the Russian River' valley in goodly sums. That the vine- 
yardist will receive a fair price for grapes is almost certain. 
Not alone are all the cellars of northern Sonoma empty, but 
by the time grapes are ready for the crusher nearly 700,000 
gallons of additional cooperage will be available. This will 
mean that the producer will be able to unload his crop rapidly — 
a great advantage. 

Fresno Enterprise: The boiler explosion which occurred 
nine miles from Tulare Wednesday morning was one of those 
" accidents " that is no accident at all, but the logical result 
of a compelling cause. It was known when the machine was 
in the Tulare shop being repaired that it was unsafe. It was 
condemned, but the owner, Goldman of Tulare, said: "Use 
it any way," and it went into the field. The steam gauge 
would not register over 130. Nobody knew after that what 
the pressure was. A man who knew nothing about his work 
was stuffing in straw ; the machine was still, and just what 
other conditions prevailed nobody seems to know. But it is 
certain that no omission can be noted of anything that might 
be a sure disaster-bringer. These things can hardly be called 
accidents. 

Sacramento Bee : Local marketmen are complaining of the 
difficulty they are having in getting vegetables to supply the 
wants of their customers. There is particularly a scarcity of 
tomatoes and string beans. A local dealer said to a Bee re- 
porter to-day that many acres of vegetables had been ruined 
by army worms, which are invading the country in countless 
numbers. Entire fields of green vegetables have been wiped 
out. One grower, it is said, who had a crop of about forty 
acres of tomatoes to deliver to a local cannery, is desparing 
because the worms have almost ruined the entire lot. He 
tried the plan of digging trenches around the field and driv- 
ing the worms into them. The trenches filled up so rapidly 
with the pests that he was compelled to hire a force of 
Chinese and Japanese to shovel them out. It was his inten- 
tion to get the worms into the trenches, cover them with 
straw, and then set fire to the straw. 

San Jose Mercii.ru: For some reason or other the fruit 
growers and packers are not extensively patronizing the ven- 
tilated car service. At the beginning of the season the 
Southern Pacific Company, relying upon the general dissatis- 
faction with the refrigerator cars for a liberal patronage, had 
several hundred new ventilated cars built expressly for the 
California trade, but only a few of them so far have been 
called into service. Whether this is the fault of the service 
itself or the result of an unaccountable indifference on the 
part of the growers it is difficult to determine. When the 
first shipment was made by these cars there were very con- 
flicting reports concerning the condition of the fruit upon 
reaching Chicago. The officials of the company declared that 
the (fruit had its flavor and firmness, but certain Chicago 
dealers were equally emphatic in the statement that much of 
it was too badly damaged to be placed on the market. How- 
ever, several shippers have placed themselves on record as 
being pleased with the service, among them Porter Brothers 
and Frank H. Buck. But the fact remains that the ventilated 
cars are as yet practically dead property on the hands of the 
.Southern Pacific Company. 



Poultry at the State Fair. 

The members of the California State Poultry Asso- 
ciation have a grievance against the directors of the 
State Agricultural Society. They claim that their 
interests have been unjustly discriminated against 
in the State fairs in that they have not been afforded 
the same opportunity to exhibit that has been 
accorded those interested in horses, cattle, swine, 
sheep and goats. 

A meeting of the directors of the associatioo was 
held at the Grand Hotel on the 17th inst., at which 
were present; President J. A. Scholefield, Vice- 
President E. A. Noyes, Secretary E. H. Freeman 
and Directors O. J. Albee, C. W. Hansen, A. Arm- 
strong, W. A. French, Benjamin WoodhuU, H. 
Lewellyn, H. F. Whitman and C. Nisson. The mat- 
ter of the grievance was discussed at length and the 
following resolutions unanimously adopted: 

Resolved, First — We demand that the poultry interests of 
our State receive the same treatment at the hands of the 
directors of the Agricultural Society as other interests. 

Second — We demand that all varieties recognized by the 
American standard of perfection be entitled to compete for 
ample premiums. 

Thii'd — We demand the employment of competent judges to 
pass on our stock on exhibition and entered in competition, to 
the end that true merit may be accorded its just due. 

Fourth — We demand that as much of the people's money 
appropriated for the State Fair be set apart for the poultry 
department as for any other live stock department, claiming 
as we do that our particular industry is of vital importance to 
the State, of which we are citizens and taxpayers. 

Fifth — That this amount of money so set apart shall be 
under the control of the State Poultry Association, to be 
placed according to their best judgment and to the best in- 
terests of the industry. 

Sixth — That we request the Hon. James H. Budd, Governor 
of our great State, to appoint a prominent poultry fancier of 
the State as a member of the board of directors of the State 
Agricultural Society, to the end that the poultry industry re- 
ceive the recognition to which it is in justice entitled. 

Copies of the resolutions will be forwarded to the 
Governor and the directors of the State Agricultural 
Society. We supposed there was less ground for 
complaint this year than formerly, as announcement 
was made some weeks ago of a great increase in 
poultry premiums and improved facilities for dis- 
play. However, it will do good to have the subject 
agitated and the reply of the Fair Directors will be 
awaited with interest. 



California Husbandry. 

To THE Editor:— No occupation in these United 
States gets so much gratuitous advice and criticism 
as do the cultivators of the soil. This comes chiefly 
from journals whose editors may or may not have 
vegetated .upon a farm, but if they have they are 
seeking to apply Eastern methods to California 
agriculture, for it is the California editor who seeks 
to guide the California farmer into more prudent 
and profitable ways. It cannot be denied that the 
tiller of the soil meets with more complex problems 
than fall to the lot of a large majority of mankind. 
Other occupations have fixed rules, rules that are 
not swayed by the weather or temporary conditions 
of markets that cannot be foreseen at seedtime; 
hence it is that he is always making mistakes and is 
always so kindly reminded of them by his country 
paper and occasionally by the city press. 

The last shot at supposed California agricultural 
negligence comes from the Fresno Expos t'tor, con- 
demning the importation from the " effete East " of 
butter, hams, bacon, lard, eggs, chickens and tur- 
keys by the carload, " while thousands of acres of 
the most productive soil in the world are lying idle 
within easy reach of markets, on which these things 
can be produced cheaper than anywhere else in the 
world by intelligent effort." It is to be presumed 
that the importation was made by Fresno mer- 
chants, although the editor don't say so, but con- 
tents himself by the remark "so long as it is done." 

I assume, without fear of successful contradiction, 
that the California farmers, as a class, are as intelli- 
gent and enterprising as those of any country on 
earth and their surplus products go farther from 
home than those of almost any other country, and 
this is done in the face of conditions that do not ob- 
tain elsewhere to anything like the degree that con- 
fronts us here. In the matter of the product from 
swine our farmers have to compete with Chicago 
prices. No farmer to-day can even gi^t Chicago 
quotations for his produce while the Eastern product 
and prices control the California market. Foi' some 
unexplained reason Mr. Armour of Chicago can lay 
his hog product down in our market as cheaply as 
he sells it in Chicago, while the California producer 
has to pay his own freight and possibly that of Mr. 
Armour. 

As to butter and eggs, there are a few months in 
summer beyond the Rockies when there is an abso- 
lute glut and the market is relieved at a sacrifice, 
and the same manner as to transportation. We alt 
remember how our hens showered eggs into the 
Denver, Chicago and other Eastern markets when 
their hens were in a comatose state; and how we 
rushed potatoes, cabbage and other garden truck to 
Chicago when their soil lay in the grip of ice and 
snow. Our farmers are as (juick to take advantage 
of a favorable outlook as any in the world. In a re- 
cent interview with Secretary Morton of the U. S. 
Agricultural Department, by Mr. Frank G. Carpen- 
ter, the noted writer, and published in the Detroit 
Free Press, covering a multitude of agricultural 
topics, the Secretary is quoted as saying, in remark- 
ing on the depressed condition of the farmers: " The 
truth is that the farmers are doing business on 
borrowed capital, and now and then one of them 
fails. The majority of merchants do their business 
the same way, and ninety per cent fail at some time 
in their lives. 

" I believe the percentage of failures in the dry 
goods business is fully as high as ninety-seven per 
cent. The majority of farmers succeed. They pay 
their expenses, and in the end own their farms." 
Thus speaks one of the most critical men of the 
time, the interview being replete with friendly 
criticisms of farm topics and sound advice. 

Now, believing that the California farmer is the 
equal in every respect of men of his calling any- 
where, he is entitled to more credit than he receives 
for belonging to a class of citizens and business men 
who fail least of all others. 

It is not strange that the long years of success 
with wheat in a manner spoilt our farmers; it would 
have spoilt the New England Yankee, just from his 
truck farm, as it would and did the western corn 
grower. The climate and labor-saving machinery 
joined forces, and the combination obliterated farm 
boundaries. The propi ietor opened an office in the 
city and managed his farm by telephone, and the 
schoolhouse went down before the steam plow and 
harvester. But our California farmer is learning. 
Look at the already famous orchards and vineyards, 
the hop fields, the bean farms, the sugar-beet 
farms and enterprises, and the many other indus- 
tries that are taking the place of wheat. 

The spirit that raised wheat growing to the 
highest pinnacle of success may be depended upon to 
take every advantage of climate, soil and natural 
conditions to make of California the most renowned 
country on the face of the earth. All these things 
are a portion of our Declaration of Purposes as 
taught in the Grange to diversify and to make our 
farms more profitable. The expert is wanted in the 
I Order as well as the novice, George Ghleyer. 



68 



August 3, 1895. 



The Marketing Problem. 



Letter No. 3 from Col. Hergey. 

To THE Editor; — It seem.s wisest that I shall close 
these communications replyin<^ to your "Fruit 
Grower " correspondent with this issue. 

IT. 

" Sotne of my neighbors have requested me to join them 
ill an fffort to conrentratr all our proJucts in an Ex- 
change, and appoint agatts all over the country for the 
2mrpose of selling our drli il fruit. Shall I join one of 
these eo-operative uKnenunts or * * remain free to 
fake advantage of tin markef that will he * * the re- 
sult of these co-opi rative E.rchanges 

I think your correspondent's neighbors wererif^ht 
in askini; him to join and concentrate his fruit. This 
would be best even if some coast commission house 
were employed to do all the selling. The fruit, by 
concentration, could be more uniformly prepared in 
large quantities, better graded in quality and size. 
There would be less " odds and mds " to be disposed 
of and the.se could be combined in car lots of the 
same quantity and grade and have some fixed rela- 
tive value. There would be less opportunity for 
mi.srepresentation to the grower of what each other 
was doing and more uniformity in the prices re- 
ceived. The grower would have a place where he 
would be at liberty and have the right to ask for and 
receive the best information as to markets and mar- 
ket conditions, and, if at all times loyal, his product 
would be available to be used when the market was 
most active and the opportunities for selling best. 
In our present ^'go-as-you-please" methods we find a 
few buyers about who have solicited orders from 
their ''agents all over the country," seek'inir to obtain 
stock to fill these orders. As soon as orders are 
filled, the buyer disappears or solicits consignments, 
sending to the same markets where our product has 
been sold, and it immediately goes into competition 
and generally at a reduced price and largely in- 
creased expense. The carload buyer in the East 
becomes discouraged and disgusted and ceases to 
have any interest in the handling of or dealing in our 
goods, and justly seeks every opportunity and means 
for redress. This is the experience that we have 
every year by present unorganized methods or as a 
result of incomplete organization. In order to be 
successful, the E^astern buyer needs protection as 
well as ourselves, otherwise he is not our helper or 
friend. 

As to the '' .ijipiiiiitnu ut of agents all over the coiiu- 
try" it must be said that this is the plan universally 
adopted at present, and if we cease to have agents 
of our own throughout the East, and employ a com- 
mission house on this coast to do our selling, then we 
have Ihe same system of "agents all over the country " 
whom we reach " second hand " and from whom we 
get all information in the same way, with the addi- 
tional pleasure of doubling the expense so far, at 
least, as our ''A'.f''//'<;(.yr.s- '' are concerned. The Ex- 
changes cannot afford to do their business in this 
way, and must call to their management ability 
enough to do business in the usual way or cease to 
exist. I judge your correspondent does not wish 
them to cease, but finds himself awaiting a conclu- 
sion as to whether he will join and help make a 
stable and reliable market, or remain outside and 
reap the benefit of a market made by them. This is 
his privilege, to be sure; but the spirit seems ex- 
tremely narrow and selfish. It is more than possible 
that one or two years more of experience will help 
him settle the (|uestion in our favor. The E.xchanges 
may, as they gather wisdom from experience, take- 
to themselves some of the benefits that they help to 
create. 

I am well aware that we ''farmers " are twitted of 
not having much "brains,'' and that all we are " fit 
for " is "to work;" that we have no "business 
sense " and should be " content " to leave business 
alone, no matter what "disaster "or " ruin " stared 
us in the face. I do not think this was ever true, 
much less is it now when every facility of knowledge 
of all kinds is at our command, and no small minor- 
ity have been successful business men. 

In our efforts I do not think we are inviting dis- 
aster. "All over the Kostern Stales " our " Exchanges " 
are becoming well known, have established for them- 
selves a reputation for responsibility, fair dealing 
and good intent. Their pioduct will be taken in 
preference to that of the individual, when offered on 
the same basis. Our "i/isasfer" will come, if it 
comes at all, from the " I'IR-atical outraues" com- 
mitted by one or more men who assume, with noth- 
ing in hand, to make markets and market conditions 
with speculators when neither product nor the legiti- 
mate trade are ready for business transactions. 
Our "aims," sustained by our united and entire; 
energies, should be to bring this UN.MrriiiATED evil 
to an end, and we must not " he content to stop short of 
anythiug el.se." If those are to do the business whom 
your correspondent recommends, there must be 
more mutuality of interest. I am exceedingly happy 
to note the increase of mutual interest and I attrib- 
ute it almost wholly to the strength and influence of 
our " cii-operah're movement." During the past. week 
a traveling buyer said to a fruit grower not in full 
harmony with us: " We ovTSiUKiiti must stand together 
and knock oiU t/wse Excluinges." If the Exchanges are 



a bad institution they will "knock out" themselves; 
if a good one, why " knock them out ? " 

Mr. Editor, I again ask your pardon for using so 
much of your paper. I have not yet had the pleas- 
ure of meeting your correspondent, whose communi- 
cation drew out these letters, but hope he will not 
ignore the invitation to call upon me. 

Philo Hersey. 



are making a remarkable growth of foliage but the grapes 
don't set well. Already complaints are being beard of a short 
crop, if we except Tokays, which never looked better. (Santa 
Kosa)— Prunes are much less in number and the crop will not 
be over seventy per cent: the young trees have nothing; all 
the fruit seems to be on trees six and eight vears and up- 
wards. Grapes will certainly be a light crop. Apples promise 
a full crop. Pears about twenty-five per cent of a full crop. 
Peaches good, but only one-foufth of a crop. 

Santa Clara Valley. 



Rainfall and Temperature. 

The following data for the week ending 5 a. m., 
July 31, 1895, are from official sources, and are 
furnished by the U. S. Weather Bureau expressly 
for the Pacific Rural Press: 



CALIFORNIA 
STATIONS.. 


Total Rainfall for the 
Week 


Total Seasonal Rain- 
fall to Date 


: 

: o? 


Average Seasonal Rain- 
fall to Date 


Maximum Temperattire 

i for the Week 


Minimum Temperature 
for the Week 


Bureka 




.11 


.02 


13 


88 


46 


RedBluO 




IS 


.03 


oe 


100 


58 


Sacramento 




.04 


T 


T 


04 


52 


San Francisco 




01 


T 


.01 


(H 


52 


Fresno 






T 


T 


104 




Los Angeles 


... 




T 


T 


Stt 


hi 


San Diego 






... 


T 


73 


62 


Yuma 


.... 


.01 


.36 


.15 


108 


72 



Weather and Crops. 



Report of the State Weather Service for Week Ending 
.July 2!)th. 

Director Barwick of the California Weather and 
Crop Service summarizes as follows : 

The average temperature for the week ending 
July 2!tth was for Eureka 56°; Fresno 82°; Independ- 
ence 80°; Los Angeles 70°; Red Bluff 82°; Sacra- 
mento 74°; San Francisco 58°; San Tjuis Obispo and 
San Diego 66°. As compared with the normal tem- 
peratures, there is a deficiency shown at Fresno of 
1°, San Francisco 2°, and fiOs Angeles :^°, while Eu- 
reka, Red Bluff and Sacramento show that normal 
temperatures have prevailed during the past week. 
No precipitation has been reported from any point 
in the State. The conditions of crops remain about 
the same, practically speaking. All grain crops are 
reported short as compared with the average yield. 
The great wheat-growing belt in Butte, Sutter and 
Yuba reports the shortest and poorest crop of 
cereals in twenty-five years, while the San Joaquin 
valley reports the shortest crop of cereals this sea- 
son for many years. The fruit crop is also short, 
but the silver lining (higher prices) attached to that 
depressing cloud brings hope and joy to the pro- 
ducers or growers in the great fruit belts of the 
State. 

Sacraiiieikto Valley. 

Teiia.m.v (Corning) "Wheat has been coming in lively during 
the past week, but nolhiiifj like what passed here two years 
ago or even last year. Comparatively speaking, very little 
wheat was sown for this year'.s crop, and two-thirds of the 
winter-sown was ruined by the continued north winds. 

Cor.i sA (Grimes I— Harvesting will be closed b.v the last of 
next week. (Williams) — The large ranchers lost much of 
their grain by the big blow in June. (Maxwell) — Harvesting 
in this section has been about completed. (Colusa) — Harvest 
about completed and yield about thirty per cent less than was 
looked for up to the time of the north winds in June. Water 
on land that was overflowed last winter is now receding and 
the farmers are plowing for late crops. 

Si TTEK (Nicolaus)— The hop crop is the latest we have ever 
had, and it will be quite a while before picking begins. 
Grapes are rijiening. 

YriiA (Marysville) — Wheat harvest is nearly over; the re- 
sults are very poor, there being gathered but from three to 
five sacks per acre, except on very choice lauds, which have 
yielded from five to eight sacks. This is the poorest crop 
raised in this district for twenty .vears, the unfavorable 
winter and the unseasonable spring with the continuous 
northerly winds all contributing to this bad result. The 
peach crop also is turning out light, but the quality is good 
and the fruit is large. Other fruits, such as plums, almonds, 
etc., are a good crop. 

Sackamento (Clay) — The wheat crop will be about half what 
was expected. The wheat straw seems to be of no account 
for feed this year, owing to its hardness and lack of any nutri- 
ment. The turkey crop promi.ses to be a large and fat one, as 
the grasshoppers are just about plentiful enough to keep them 
in a fine and fat condition. (Trask) — The early-sown beans 
are heavily set with full looking pods. Later sown are not 
setting yet, but promise well. The bulk of fruit for Eastern 
shipments is about over. Late pears very wormy. The dry- 
ing of peaches has commenced and the crop is large. (Folsom) 
The hop crop will not be half as large this year as it was last. 
(Orangevale) — Fruit drying commenced and the peach crop is 
a good one. 

Yolo (Winters)— The fruit shipments now will not aggre- 
gate more than two or three carloads a day. Growers are dry- 
ing the rest of the crop. (Dunnigam— The grape ci-op is 
promising in this vicinity. (Capay)— The peach crop is turn- 
ing out well. (Grafton or Knights Landing)— The late crops 
are coming up and give promise of doing very well. 

Cd.VTHA Costa (Martinez I— The Bartlett pear crop is turn- 
ing out much better than expected and is of superior quality. 
Apricots and cherries were a light crop but of good quality, 
and brought very satisfactory prices. The almond crop around 
Mount Diablo is good, but light in other sections. 

Sonoiua Valley. 

Sovo.M A (Sonoma)— Generally the fruit crop will be short, 
and tUe se»son for bftpdling wUl soon be over. The vineyards 



Alameda (Niles) — Apricots were less than one-half of last 
year's crop. Peaches, pears and apples a full crop. Almonds 
and prunes will be about two-thirds of the crop of last year, 
but all the fruit this year is of excellent quality. 

Sa.vta Claka (Santa Clara)— The apricot harvest is now in 
full blast. Prunes are growing very fast and will be of an 
extra large size. It now looks as thoiigh peaches would ripen 
earlier than usual. Apricot crop is not proving any larger 
than was anticipated ; in fact, it is rather shorter." (Camp- 
bell)— Apricots are being rushed. The first Crawfords came 
into the drier a day or two ago. Prunes are beginning to 
color up in some places. 

San Joatiuin Valley. 

Sajj Joaquin (Lodi)— Grain harvest about over and results 
have proved that not half a crop has been harvested, and that 
of an inferior quality. The melon business is very active, as 
many carloads are being shipped. Peaches are ripening and 
are fair to middling. (Stockton)— Grain crops, with the ex- 
ception of west side, the poorest known for many years, in 
many places not paying for the harvesting. Various causes 
are assigned, and in all probability they jointly affected the 
grain. Some sa.v the aphis did incalculable damage, while 
others declare that it was rust that wrought the mischief. 
Still others are of the opinion that the early hot days scorched 
the growing grain, while there are still others who say the 
whole trouble is due to the cold spring. Whatever may be 
the cause, the fact is that the crop is very light, and at best 
will do little more than pay expenses of putting it in and of 
harvesting it. The grain looked very promi.sing all along, and 
it was a bitter disappointment to the farmers when it did not 
head out as was expected. In the northern part of the count.y 
the crop is especially jwor. The grain in the tules is better, 
and barley around Woodbridge, and in fact throughout the 
whole county, did considerably better than the wheat. The 
reason is that it does almost as well when sown late as when 
planted earlv. The report from Linden is that the farmers 
are very downhearted at the scanty yield of their lands. The 
average harvest of wheat will not exceed three or four sacks 
to the acre, and in several places the crop will not justify 
harvesting. The barley yield is more encouraging, although 
that also is disappointing. In the southern part of the 
county the condition of the crop is more favorable. The west 
side farmers expected an exceptionally heavy yield, but the 
grain did not do quite as well as they thought it would. In 
the vicinity of Tracy the barley crop will run from seven to 
as high as thirty sacks to the acre. Near Graj-son. it is said, 
the yield will average that much. The wheat did not come 
up to expectation, but in some cases it will yield twelve bags 
to the acre. The hay is exceptionally fine. The Lathrop 
farmers do not expect their wheat to yield them more than 
two or three sacks to the acre. Not very much wheat was 
raised in this vicinity (Stockton), most of it having been cut 
for hay. At French camp the crop is just about half what it 
usually is. 

Staxislai s (Turlock)— Crops have not turned out one-third 
of what was expected ; quality generally poor. Careful esti- 
mates place the crop below last year, and that was not more 
than half an average crop. 

Meui ri) (Livingston)— Crops have turned out very poor in 
this section. 

Kekn (Bakersfleld)— Wheat crop on Pose this year is large. 
Southern California. 

Santa Bauhara (Los Alamos)— There are several mustard 
machines in the valley, harvesting the crops, which are gen- 
orall.y very good. Three threshing machines are i-unning in 
the valley and harvest will soon be over. Barley is turning 
out pretty fairly, but the wheat crop is below the average. 

CoaMt ConntleH. 

Santa Ckuz (Santa Cruz) — The fruit crop will be smaller 
than last year. Of prunes there will be two-thirds of a crop. 
A full crop of apples will be harvested, medium of peaches, 
good of grapes and thin of apricots. 

San Benito iHollister) — Neither the wheat nor barley crop 
are yielding as well as expected. The fruit crop is a promis- 
ing one. Although there is a light crop of apricots, the su- 
perior size and qualit.v make up for the deficiency. Ther^ 
will be a good yield of Barllett pears. 

San Lcis Obispo (Santa Margarita) — Wheat which looked 
to be so very favorable only a few^ weeks ago is now proving 
to be almost a failure. In some localities wheat is badly 
rusted and shrunken and oats likewise. Barley will turn out 
well. The prune crop will be of average quantity and the 
quality will be very good. 



Sunflower Meal. 



Sunflower cake has been found, especially in Rus- 
sia, one of the best auxiliary cattle foods. As early 
as the year 1866 about 100,000 centners of sunflower 
oil (oil of the seeds of Jlelianthus annnu.s) were manu- 
factured in Russia, and its amount has increa.sed 
year by year, it being esteemed as a very palatable 
alimentary oil. Th.- oil was formerly obtained by 
hydraulic means; the residual cake is harder than 
any other variety of oilcake, and for this reason ap- 
parently it has not found a wider application. Den- 
mark and the northern countries import large quan- 
tities annually, as do also the eastern provinces of 
Germany, and the probl(>m of its disintegration has 
been successfully solved by several manufacturers 
there. It is still unknown in southern and western 
Germany; now, however, that it is put on the mar- 
ket in the form of meal, it will doubtless soon find 
general application, suited, as it is, both on account 
of its composition and pleasant taste, for fattening 
cattle. The percentage of proteid varies about 30 to 
44 per cent, the fat between about 9 to 18 per cent. 
It is possible to prepare two qualities, one rich in 
proteid and poor in fat, and the other rich in fat and 
poor in proteid. When, for example, the somewhat 
finely ground meal is sifted, employing a mesh of 
1mm., that which passes through is much richer in 
proteid and poorer in fat than the original, while the 
reverse is true of that which remains in the sieve- 
London Farmer, 



August 3, 1895. 



The Pacific Rural Press. 



69 



HORTICULTURE. 



Lemon Growing. 



Extract from an essay by James Boyd, of Riverside, at San Diego 
Farmers' Institute. 

To show how lemons may be successfully grown we 
will have to begin at the bottom — the starting of the 
tree; and the first thing to see to is that the tree of 
the variety selected is grown on orange stock, sweet 
stock mostly preferred. Get those that are budded 
so that the lemon bark shall be clear of the ground, 
for there the gum disease first becomes apparent, 
although it is the writer's opinion from observations 
made that the disease first shows itself in the roots 
underground, and the exudation of gum is merely an 
evidence of the disease in the root, for on digging up 
one of these trees it is generally found that the roots 
are completely rotted, while the tops show some 
few signs of vitality. Ordinarily the trees ought to 
be two-year buds when planted, as they are more 
likely to survive a cold winter than buds that are 
younger. The lemon will not stand as great a degree 
of cold as the orange, hence the mildest localities 
should be sought for planting. Great heat in sum- 
mer is not so essential as freedom from severe frosts 
in winter, and any degree of cold below 28° is likely 
to be injurious, to the young trees especially. In 
mild situations they will blossom and form fruit all 
the year round, although for good keeping qualities 
the lemons picked say from November to February 
and March are the best. Summer-grown lemons 
can be cured in a week or two, and must not be kept 
too long for fear of loss by rotting. 

There are three leading varieties of lemons — the 
Lisbon, Eureka and Villa Franca, and some claim a 
fourth, the Koyal Messina; but others say that the 
Eoyal Messina and the Villa Franca are the same 
lemon. As to that, time will soon prove the matter. 
Claims and tests have been made determining one 
and another in turn to be richest in acid, but nothing 
certain has so far been settled and no difference is 
made in price in market, for all that is asked is that 
the lemon shall conform to certain standards as to 
size, color, etc. 

In some localities the lemon does well for a few 
years with but little water, like the orange, but 
when the trees get up to bearing size and age plenty 
of water is needed to produce abundant crops. As 
the lemon is a much faster grower than the orange, 
it comes into profitable bearing much sooner, but 
budding on orange roots has a tendency to more or 
less retard growth, so that the difference is not as 
marked as when grown on its own root. The habit 
of growth, too, is different, for if left to grow with- 
out any attention as to pruning the shoots grow too 
long, and when bearing time comes the limbs are apt 
to break down unless propped up. The wood, too, 
is more brittle and breaks down under the load much 
more easily. When the young trees are growing 
vigorously, wherever a shoot shows a tendency to 
get too long to support the burden of fruit expected, 
they should be shortened, causing them to put forth 
side branches; especially is this the case with 
the Eureka, which not only has a greater ten- 
dency to grow sprawling branches, but in a 
greater degree to produce fruit on the extremities 
of the limbs. 

The Villa Franca is nearly thornless and has a 
tendency to produce fruit near the body of the tree. 
If the trees have been properly tended to when 
young and in vigorous growth, they will seldom need 
props to support bearing branches, and the aim 
should be to discard props entirely as being expen- 
sive and unnecessary. The budded varieties of 
lemons are early bearers, and those who plant young 
groves will not have long to wait for returns. The 
lemon is also a regular bearer, having no specially 
off year, for if the spring blossoming fails to set fruit 
blossoms come on later on which will set fruit which 
will mature early enough for February picking. 

The lemon can be grown profitably in conjunction 
with the orange, for picking should mostly be over 
before the bulk of the orange crop is ripe enough 
for market. One of the essentials in picking lemons 
is that they must be picked carefully, because any 
bruises arising from rough handling will interfere 
very materially with the keeping qualities of the 
lemon. Experienced growers claim that they should 
be handled, while green, as carefully as eggs. 

In regard to the curing process, which was so 
mysterious before the formula became known, there 
are several methods which embrace substantially a 
calm, still atmosphere where evaporation is reduced 
to a minimum, as if evaporation goes on in any 
marked degree the skin will dry out hard. Doubtless 
a properly constructed curing house presents the 
best results, but good lemons have been cured suc- 
cessfully under sheds by putting in boxes stacked 
on top of one another with layers of paper between. 
For convenience they should be warehoused so that 
easy access can be had to them to cull them over 
and throw out all decayed fruit. Curing is largely a 
matter of personal experience, although some grow- 
ers still affect mystery and claim special secrets in 
the process. 

Marketing the lemon is one of the most important 
proceedings in lemon growing — to get the proper 



sizes demanded by the trade and to secure the color- 
ing that is most attractive to the eye. Size is com- 
pletely within the control of the grower, as lemons 
are usually picked without regard to coloring, size 
being the determining factor, and an experienced 
picker can tell at a glance just when they are large 
enough to bring the best prices. Owing to occasional 
risks from frosts, the aim of the grower should be to 
have the bulk of his crop picked before the coldest 
weather, as even when no perceptible injury arises 
from frost a severe chill will often impair the keep- 
ing qualities, as was quite noticeable of the crop of 
1893-94. 



Orange Growing in Escondido. 

Read by B. F. Dixon before the Farmers' Institute. 
To grow oranges here in southern California is not 
as grave a question as to successfully market them 
after they are ready for shipment. It is neverthe- 
less true that in orange culture there are many de- 
tails necessary, as in the production of other fruits. 

When we came to Escondido valley, over seven 
years ago, the first thing claiming our attention 
was to ascertain the locations that were clear of 
frost, to insure success in growing the orange. 
After we had spent two years in these investiga- 
tions, we became fully satisfied that within a radius 
of five miles of Escondido there were at least 10,000 
acres of as fine land for orange culture as could be 
found in southern California. In an article which 
we wrote for the Times several years ago we took 
the position that with water Escondido valley would 
soon produce oranges equal, if not better, than the 
famous Riverside country, and we believe that, now 
the valley having secured the water, it will not be 
long until she will be as much noted for her fine 
oranges and lemons as she is now noted for her 
plucky citizens, especially her noble ladies. 

The orange is not over choice as to whether the 
soil is granite, sandy, loam or red land. Either of 
the above kinds of soil will stand watering 
thoroughly, and can be kept in good condition with- 
out an extra amount of culture. The " adobe " land 
has probably more strength or richness than either 
of the other soils named, but we should prefer it to 
be some other fellow that would successfully grow 
orange groves on "dobe." 

While our soil here in Escondido valley is probably 
as fertile as any part of southern California, yet the 
growers who begin to fertilize their groves as soon 
as they come into bearing, and continue to furnish 
more to the soil than their trees take from it, by 
the time their groves are ten years in bearing, 
they, if there are any who may be so fortunate, will 
realize an income far beyond the extra expense in- 
curred. We would like to suggest that each grower 
who doubts our statement take one or two acres 
of their orange groves and each season thoroughly 
fertilize, and compare notes with that part of the 
grove and the part grown without fertilization. 

The question is often propounded to us how to 
prepare the land before planting the orange tree. 
Our advice to all contemplating planting is to first 
have a thorough survey of the land to be planted 
and thoroughly grade same, so water can be suc- 
cessfully carried to every tree. Here is where 
many make a fatal mistake; they undertake to grade 
the land by the "eye" and find after they have 
planted their grove that it is impossible to properly 
water all trees in the grove alike; then their life 
trouble begins. So we would say most emphatically 
to always have your land well graded; when this is 
properly done, then plow the land at least twelve 
inches deep; let land lay until it has been thoroughly 
settled by rains or by irrigation, then plow again, if 
possible some deeper than the first plowing. 
Thoroughly pulverize same by harrowing. Go to 
the nursery and see that your trees are dug with 
good roots, and tops well cut back and all leaves re- 
moved from the trees before they are lifted from 
nursery rows; have roots immediately puddled, then 
packed so as to retain all moisture and exclude sun- 
shine and winds. As fast as the trees are planted 
in orchard form, each tree should receive at least 
twenty-five gallons of water to thoroughly settle the 
soil. As soon as the soil is in good condition culti- 
vate thoroughly. 

If orange trees are properly handled from the time 
they are dug in the nursery until they are planted 
in orchard form, there should be no loss. We have 
found in our own experience in planting that if the 
above plan is properly followed we do not lose any 
trees, but if orange tree roots are exposed to sun- 
shine or wind for a short time only the planter will 
lose a large per cent of his trees, and those that 
grow will have such a sickly growth he would be 
better off it they had died with the others. 

We know it is possible to pack and ship trees to 
long distances and nearly all live, but from observa- 
tion of the experiences of various planters we have 
concluded the only safe plan is to buy your trees 
from the nearest nursery and superintend the dig- 
ging of them yourself. After your trees are planted 
in orchard form they should be watered and 
thoroughly cultivated every thirty days during the 
dry season; during the rainy season cultivate 
enough to keep down all weeds. 
The orange tree needs less pruning probably than 



any other fruit tree. Cut out all cross limbs, and 
when there is disposition to send out an extra 
strong growth in certain parts of trees more than 
others, pinch off the ends of the branches manifest- 
ing such abnormal growth. Never water your 
orange trees when in full bloom, if you wish them to 
retain their fruit. We find the Washington Navel 
probably more disposed to drop its fruit, if not 
properly watered, than any other variety. 

We prefer the hexagonal plan of planting out 
out orange groves. Our grove at " Orange Glen " 
was set out on this plan twenty feet apart every 
way, every other way citrus Washington Navel and 
Mediteranean Sweets, these being dwarfish in their 
growth, the other rows being of larger growing 
varieties, such as Joppa, Homosassa, Valencia 
Late, etc. Planted as above we get 126 trees to 
the acre, while the old square system only gives 108 
to the acre. 

We prefer trees with tops of medium height; 
there are various reasons, among which, the trees 
come into bearing sooner, top does not break when 
heavily loaded with fruit, is not so expensive for 
props, and you do not have to climb tall ladders to 
gather your fruit. 

We wish to call attention to the kind of stock 
most suited for a successful grove. After thoroughly 
trying both sweet and sour stock, we have become 
fully convinced that the sour stock is the only safe 
stock to plant. 

The latter is wonderfully hardy, almost equal to 
the Osage hedge plant; it never has " mal degoma," 
or foot rot, which is a fatal disease caused by heavy 
irrigation, and the sweet stock is very susceptible 
to this disease. The "pesky gopher," one of the 
greatest enemies the orange tree has, never girdles 
the sour stock, but if he once gets a taste of the 
sweet stock he never lets up until he girdles the 
tree. In our grove of 2000 trees at " Orange Glen " 
there were a few of the sweet seedling stock, and in 
four years we have lost nearly all of them by being 
gophered. 

We have the following varieties of oranges in 
bearing: Washington Navel, Thompson Improved 
Washington Navel, St. Augustine Navel, Mediterra- 
nean Sweet, Homosassa, Valencia Late, Beaches 
No. 5, Sweet Sevill, Malta Blood, Dancy Tangerine, 
Joppa and Parson Brown, all of which are good 
bearers, and we have oranges all the year round. 
Thompson Improved Navel and Joppa we consider 
ahead of the noted Washington Navel, and it has 
been conceded by good competent judges that we 
have produced as fine Navel oranges as those grown 
in the Riverside country. The Joppa we have mar- 
keted three years now, and they have brought us 
twenty-five cents per box more than our fancy 
Navels and always sell on sight, and the quality of 
the Joppa is just as good as it looks. We predict 
that the persons who are so fortunate as to plant 
Thompson's Improved Navel and Joppa in the near 
future will reap a golden harvest not to be excelled 
by any other industry. 

In conclusion we desire to say, without any boast- 
ing, that the pluck and energy of the people now in 
the Escondido region, and of those who are being 
attracted here by our varied advantages, will soon 
put them in front seats in the orange procession, 
and we doubt not Escondido will be as greatly noted 
for its fine oranges as any place in California. 



The Life of the Peach. 



By G. N. Sanborn, of Sebastopol, at meeting of State Horticultural 
Society in Santa Rosa last weeU. 

Every organic body, whether animal or vegetable, 
has a period of growth, maturity and decay, and the 
duration of the two last stages, maturity and decay, 
have a corresponding ratio to the period of growth, 
and conclusively prove that the first to mature 
soonest decays. Let us apply this general law and 
see if what we so often hear stated, that the peach 
is short lived, be necessarily true. 

Nearly all of our estimates are based on com- 
parison. The horse is termed old, while at the same 
age the youth is just entering upon manhood. The 
peach would be termed old when the oak and red- 
wood of the same age would be mere saplings. 

When the wood that is pruned from a tree is not 
more than replaced the succeeding year the tree 
has reached maturity and its maximum capacity for 
producing fruit. 

The peach arrives at that stage usually in from 
seven to nine years, while many other varieties of 
fruit will continue to grow many years longer, and 
hence we would naturally expect them to be longer 
lived than the peach. 

While most varieties of fruit are produced year 
after year on the same fruit spurs, the peach never 
produces fruit but once on the same wood, and that 
is on the wood grown the preceding year. We 
readily perceive that the peach must not only mature 
a crop of fruit each year, but also new wood and 
fruit buds for the next year's crop. 

The question naturally arises : Does this unusual 
expenditure of energy impair the vigor and shorten 
the life of the tree ? We think it does not; reason- 
able activity has a tendency to promote health and 
thus to prolong life. 

Essentials to Longevity. — I will state some of the 



70 



The Pacific Rural Press 



August 3, 1895. 



conditions, according to my observation, that the 
peach imperatively demands for a prolonged and 
profitable life. 

We would select healthy stock grown from well- 
ripened seedling pits, budded to a variety not sub- 
ject to curl leaf, and carefully plant with due care 
with regard to the proper depth in well -drained 
sandy or alluvial soil. 

The adaptation of climate must also be considered. 
Some of the best soil for the peach is found on the 
peninsula west of Bodega bay, and yet it would be 
impossible to produce a basketful of peaches there 
on account of exposure, cold wind and fog. 

The tree should \n' headed low, not above fifteen 
inches, to protect the trunk from the sun. A jieach 
tree branched four feet from the ground is equally 
as undesirable as a four-story farmhouse. 

Thorough and judicious pruning each year has a 
tendency to prolong the life of the peach. A tree 
should never be permitted to carry dead wood at 
any stage of its existence. 

We have often been accused of butchering our 
peach trees while young, and yet many of those 
same abused trees now twelve years old are eighteen 
feet high and have produced HOO pounds of fruit per 
tree with but one per cent of it below cannery size. 

When the peach begins to show signs of decay by 
producing a diminished amount of fruit of inferior 
ciuality the greater portion of them may be renewed 
and given a new lease of life by removing most of 
the top and thus securing new growth. Those not 
possessing sufficient vitality to do this should not, 
like the old horse, be retained for the good deeds 
already done, but be removed and others put in their 
places. 

Heroic thinning of the fruit next claims our atten- 
tion The most exhaustive process of nature is in 
the eftort to reproduce the species. A large peach 
exhausts the energy of the tree but little more than 
a scrub with just enough meat to cover the pit, 
the exhaustive process being in forming the pit. for 
therein lies the germ of life; hence the folly of allow- 
ing a tree to mature an unnecessary number of pits. 

Thorough cultivation of the soil and at the proper 
time is also indispensable. 

When we consider the amount of fruit and wood 
that is removed from the orchard each year, we 
realize the necessity for applying some form of fertil- 
izers, for trees require food as well as animals. 

If all the conditions above outlined are faithfully 
adhered to, we believe that the period of maturity 
may be considerabh' prolonged, and the peach tree 
at twenty, or even thirty years of age, may still be 
a thing of beauty as well as a source of profit to the 
owner. 

In caring for our fruit trees let us ever cultivate a 
zeal for their welfare equalled onl.y by the mother 
who intuitively anticipates the every want of the 
tender babe before it can articulate a woi'd. Let 
us strive to understand and work in harmony with 
the laws of nature, ever remembering that for every 
infraction of those laws we must surely pay the 
penalty. 

Kerosene Emulsion. 



haps many valuable suggestions will be made. We 
will merely remark that, though we are growing 
some fruits which they cannot, and may be much 
advantaged thereby, we cannot think for a moment 
of giving up the peach. We can grow a finer peach 
than they can and our peach season is much longer 
than theirs. If we give way at all on the peach it 
would be to grow less of the mid-season peaches, 
which come just at the time when theirs are on 
sale. We are not likely to lose our advantage in 
both early or late peaches. 

We have no exclusive right to the pear market 
except that ours are better. In plums, however, 
we have a decided advantage in their lack of 
hardiness and subjection to curculio at the East. 



Competition in Fruit Growing. 

To THE Editor : — We fruit growers hear a good 
deal about the competition of the South, and partic- 
ularly of Georgia, in our business. When added to 
that of the older States in the East it is said to 
shut us out of the peach market entirely except in 
their off years. Now it would be a guide to those 
who wish to enlarge their orchards to know in what 
varieties of fruit they would be safe from the com- 
petition of our Georgian friends. They have ad- 
vantages in nearness to market and cheaper labor, 
which, other things being equal, enables them to 
undersell us. Hitherto they have not yet succeeded 
with the apricot, the European vine and Bartlett 
pear, but if there are no soil or climatic disabilities 
to hinder them it would not be safe to conclude that 
we have these fruits all to ourselves. If any of your 
readers can inform us on these points it would doubt- 
less be useful to many as well as to 

Diamond Springs. J. P. Dunlop. 

This would be a good subject to discuss, and per- 



Perkins Process Goes to Georgia. 

Rev. Alfred T. Perkins, the Alameda clergyman 
who invented the condensed air process of preserving 
fruit in shipment, left Oakland lately for the East. 
The first practical use of the Perkins patent cars 
will be made by the Southern States and not by the 
Pacific coast, although it is California capital that is 
backing the enterprise. It was originally intended 
that the new process should be used with California 
fruit, as its first tests from here were perfectly suc- 
cessful. But the refrigerator interest, which is very 
strong, and the desire of the railroad company to 
get its new ventilated car service in operation, de- 
cided the hackers to work in a new territory. 

Charles Webb Howard and Henry Parrott are 
among those who are backing the enterprise. 

" We have chosen Macon, Ga.," said Mr. Perkins, 
"for several reasons." 

"For one thing it is the center of a large fruit 
and vegetable growing region — one, by the way, 
which is going to give California pretty lively compe- 
tition. But the principal reason why we go there is 
that we will take over the business of a refrigerator 
car line, which will sell out to us. At first we will 
take their cars and alter them so much as is neces- 
sary for our purposes, but eventually we will build 
our own cars. We will begin running to New York, 
and as soon as that service is fairly inaugurated we 
will start the line to Chicago. Boston parties also 
have been after us, and we will probably cover that 
market also. 

Of course I would have been glad to commence 
shipping fruit from California, but small inducements 
were offered us here and very large inducements in 
the East, and consequently that seemed to be the 
place for us to go. Why. one railroad man offered 
me the handling of 40,000 carloads which he person- 
ally controls upon certain conditions." 

THE APIARY. 



The Honey Bee in California. 



Following is Prof. Cook's formula for making 
kerosene emulsion, as given in his lecture before the 
Escondido Farmers' Institute : 

Dissolve from one-eighth to one-fourth pound soap 
in two quarts water. Remove from fire and add 
one pint of kerosene. Stir very vigorously, either 
by use of an egg-beater for small quantity or a force 
pump in case of large amount. In the latter case 
use a small single opening for nozzle and pump the 
liquid back into itself. An emulsion will look like 
rich cream, and the kerosene will be permanently 
mixed. Now add seven pints of water and it is 
ready for use. The application should be made with 
a force pump and should be very thorough, as it 
must touch every insect. 

FRUIT riARKETINQ. 



By C. A. McDoU(i.\l.i., at the E.-scoudido Farmers' Institute. 

Strange as it may seem, the old missionaries had 
failed to introduce the honey bee in California, for 
instead of the early pioneers finding every hollow 
tree teeming with busy bees, they found this vast 
natural honey pasture devoid of bees. Early in 1853 
some enterprising New Yorker — name unknown — 
conceived the idea of colonizing the honey bee in 
CaUfornia, and sailed for San Francisco with twelve 
colonies of bees. Arriving at Aspinwall he became 
disgusted with the venture and sold out to a Mr. 
Shelton, who brought them to San Jose. All died 
save one colony; it threw off three swarms the first 
season. Two colonies sold at auction to Major Jas. 
W. Patrick for $105 and $110 each. William Buck, 
of San Jose, imported seventy-three colonies of bees 
in November. 1855, and February, 185ti, and of those 
he saved twenty-five. He formed a partnership with 
F. G. Appleton, who had three colonies, and from 
these twenty-eight they had an increase of seventy- 
three colonies and produced 400 pounds of comb 
honey in boxes that sold for $1.50 to $2 a pound — 
what we would call rather a fancy price. 

The first successful attempt to introduce bees in 
the interior of the State was by Mr. J. S. Harbison, 
who on February 1, 1850, received one colony direct 
from his home in Lawrence county, Pennsylvania. 
Finding it did fairly well he returned and on Novem- 
ber 5th of the same year sailed from New York with 
sixty-seven colonies of bees, arriving at Sacramento 
December 2od, after a trip of 5!t00 miles. Of these 
sixty-seven colonies he saved fifty, and these he in- 
creased, after selling quite a number, to 130, the 
next season selling nearly all of them. Again in 
1858 Mr. Harbison imported 114 colonies of bees from 
Pennsylvania and Illinois, and of these he saved 
sixty-two, which, with six colonies he had left, he in- 
creased during 1859 to 422 colonies, in fair condition. 
From Octoljer 1, 1858, to the spring of 1860 there 
were shipped from New York to San Francisco 7000 
colonies of bees, most of which proved disastrous to 
the shipper and those who bought them, as many 
were affected with the disease known as foul brood. 



Fully one-half of them died, besides leaving the 
apiarist a legacy of a much dreaded disease, that 
still remains with us to some extent. 

The most novel importation of bees to California 
was by J. Grady, of Michigan, who brought four col- 
onies of bees in the rear end of his spring wagon, 
arriving in good condition at Sacramento August 3, 
1859, after their long trip. 

The enormous prices paid for bees and honey from 
1854 to 18t)0 had stimulated the artificial increase of 
bees to such an extent that apiarists soon found 
their business ruined by overproduction and a very 
limited market. The busine.ss was generally aban- 
doned except by a few thorough practical bee men 
who had unbounded faith in the future. They still 
cared for their bees and in a few short years were 
reaping a bountiful harvest. 

In 1860 Mr. R. G. Clark and Mr. J. S. Harbison, of 
Sacramento, formed a partnership for the purpose 
of establishing the bee business in San Diego county 
on an extensive scale. Mr. Clark came to San Diego 
with about 200 colonies of bees. While landing them 

on the wharf he often heard the remark, "D d 

fool ! They will all starve to death in this desert 
country.'' He made his first location at Mr. Pardee's 
ranch on the Sweetwater, near what is now known 
as the H. M. Higgins far-famed Bonnie Brae ranch. 
His keen judgment soon told him he must get farther 
back from the coast, and he finally located the Moun- 
tain, Sweetwater, Sacatara and Kimball apiaries, in 
the mountains twenty to thirty-two miles from San 
Diego. They all proved excellent locations. Harbi- 
son and Dowling soon established several apiaries in 
the Campo direction from San Diego. During the 
first four years while the business was still in its in- 
fancy, it was fairly prosperous. 

During the great honey season of 1874 each colony 
of bees the apiarist had in the spring returned him a 
clear profit of over $50 each, or over 500 per cent on 
their cash value. You will not wonder that bankers, 
doctors and lawyers all made a rush to have a hand 
in such a prosperous business. Even Major Mer- 
riam, away in Topeka, Kansas, caught the fever 
and shipped a carload of bees to San Diego to estab- 
lish himself in the business here. Unfortunately for 
him, the bees did not stand the long journey in the 
close cars and all died. Every suitable nook and 
corner in the county was taken up and apiaries 
established. 

During 1875-^76 the business was fairly prosperous 
and had a wonderful growth. Then came the drouth 
of 1877, when the honey crop was a complete failure 
and fully one-third of the bees died; 1878 proved an 
exceptional honey season and brought renewed inter- 
est in the business. At the end of the season Mr. J. 
S. Harbison and his associates had over 5000 colonies 
of bees. The drouth of 1879, following so soon after 
the disaster of 1877, proved a serious drawback to 
the business. The year 1880 proved very prosper- 
ous, both as to quantity of honey produced and price 
received. Then came dry seasons of 1881, 1882 and 
1883. During those three years the hone\' crop was 
a complete failure, and fully one-half of the bees in 
the county died. This was a great blow to the 
business, from which it has never fully recovered, 
as many sold out what few bees they had left and 
drifted into other pursuits. Since 1884 the business 
has been fairly prosperous until last season, when 
the honey crop was a complete failure and fully one- 
half of the bees in the county died. The present 
season has been a very favorable one, both for honey 
and increase in bees. Owing to the numerous fail- 
ures we have had in the past, bee men as a rule have 
become rather careless and do not give the bees the 
care and attention they deserve. 

Prior to 1873 all the honey produced in this country 
was consumed by the San Francisco market at good 
fair prices. That fall Clark and Harbison shipped 
the first carload of honey ever shipped from this 
coast. It was purchased by a T'hicago dealer for 28 
cents a pound. In 1874 comb honey brought the 
producer from 15 to 20 cents a pound in San Diego. 
By the fall of 1878 the product had increased .so rap- 
idly that prices declined to six and eight cents per 
pound for comb honey and four to four and one-half 
cents per pound for extract. The product of the 
county was about 1,500,000 pounds. Harbison A 
Dowling shipped that fall twenty carloads of honey 
from San Diego. 

In 1880 the product of San Diego county amounted 
to about 2,500,000 pounds; still the condition of the 
market was much better than two years previous. 
Comb honey sold for 9 to 121 cents and extract 
5 to 02 cents a pound. The large crop and good 
prices made it a very prosperous year. In 1884 
Klauber & Levi shipped 1200 cases of extract honey 
to Havre, France — the largest single shipment of 
honey ever made from San Diego county. 

The wine grape crop will be short this year. At 
the outset of the season it seemed as though this 
would be a year of a very abundant yield, and it was 
estimated that probably 22,000,000 gallons of wine 
would be made. But lately the berries have not 
matured as well as was expected. In many vine- 
yards they have not filled out, and it is now thought 
that fully 25 per cent of the first estimate must be 
deducted. It is now believed that the vintage this 
year will not exceed 16,000,000 gallons. 



August 3, 1895. 



The Pacific Rural Press, 



71 



THE VINEYARD. 



The Raisin Industry. 



Kcad by Lewis E. Kent of Poway before the Fanners' Institute at 
Escondido. 

In the few thoughts here stated, we presuppose a 
class of vineyardists whose returns for the products 
of their vines are not comnaensurate with the labor 
put upon them, and endeavor to suggest some 
methods which may tend to make raisin growing a 
more remunerative industry. 

Let .us first consider the staple itself. The quality 
of the raisin may depend on or be influenced by sev- 
eral factors. Limited space precludes more than 
allusion to a few of these, often overlooked, namely: 
Location as to soil and climate; situation for con- 
venience to be irrigated, if necessary; pruning, 
suckering and cultivation. 

In pruning, care should be taken to have the short 
spurs equally distributed so as to have the vine well 
balanced, looking forward to the growth of wood for 
the succeeding year. 

Suckers and non-fruit producing growth should be 
removed — a " weeding out" operation, as it were — 
two or three times during the season. 

That often abused tool, but nevertheless the 
farmer's best friend — the cultivator — should be in 
continual demand until prevented by the growth of 
the vine. 

In all the varied operations, none seem to require 
more thought and judgment than to know when to 
pick the grape. A few days more on the vine would 
often make not only more weight to the raisin, but 
an immense difference in the quality. Our cupidity 
quite often overrides our otherwise better judgment, 
and our inordinate haste to be the first in the mar- 
ket ruins our prospects of future success. 

Whether the output of one's vineyard is to consist 
of layers or loose raisins, or partly of each, depends 
upon conditions that can only be decided by each in- 
dividual grower, and requires more thought than is 
usually conceded. The extra cost of picking, hand- 
ling and packing layers, additional time in curing, 
but more especially the call of his individual market, 
all have to be taken into account, and demand no 
little attention. 

A condition of things most earnestly desired is a 
uniformity of grades — at least, each brand should 
honestly represent the intention of the grower to 
continue to put up, year by year, the same quality 
of rai.sins. It goes without saying that many of our 
brother raisin producers have, in times past, been 
careless and negligent both as to the quality of the 
raisin and the manner of packing, and in some cases 
almost criminally negligent in the grading. The 
presumption of some in labeling a package " three 
crown," when three-fourths or two-thirds of the 
contents are "two crown," would put to blush even 
a Chinaman, and is bound to eventually ruin that 
one's prospects. In a word, we should use the same 
business sagacity as in any other occupation, where 
not only our fortune, but our good name, is at stake; 
and, by and by, speaking of a good name, do not be 
afraid of printing or stenciling your name conspicu- 
ously on each and every package. It is often better 
than a brand. 

The prices received by the raisin producer at the 
present time are out of all proportion to what the 
consumer has to pay in the Eastern States. Could 
there be found some way of equalizing, between pro- 
ducer and consumer, the profits and costs necessary 
in handling, and moreover if more business acumen 
were used in choosing the centers of distribution, we 
believe the average raisin man would hold his own 
until such time as the country shall be out of the 
cycle of financial depression. 

The placing of an entire year's output on the mar- 
ket in two months would of necessity tend to " bear" 
the market. Especially would this principle hold 
true where the quantity of the staple was liable to 
exceed the amount consumed in a year. Then, 
again, the consigning of so large a proportion of the 
total crop to a few large cities tends in the same di- 
rection. We were told by a merchant living near 
Mobile, Alabama, that that citv of 82,000 inhabitants 
received its raisins from New York City. 

It seems to the writer as though a partial remedy, 
at least, would be to make more direct consignments 
to small cities — say those of 20,000 or 30,000 popula- 
tion. There are many cities of this size scattered 
from Maine to Texas that have never as yet received 
a carload of raisins direct from the packer. 

To recapitulate: The present conditions of the 
raisin industry are to be partly ameliorated by at- 
tention to quality (obtained through proper pruning 
and thorough cultivation), standard grading, honest 
labeling, a more even geographical distribution, and 
then I would add co-operation first, last and all the 
time. 

Nevertheless it will require the keenest intelli- 
gence and best business enterprise, coupled with a 
thorough knowledge of all that is being done along 
this line in other localities, to bring to a satisfactory 
solution the many problems now before us. In the 
words of another: "Our literature, both periodical 
and in book form, compares most favorably with 



that of kindred pursuits. In short, modern horti- 
culture has attained to a dignity of a profession, in 
which ignorance and slipshod management have been 
supplanted by scientific knowledge and methods that 
bring certain and profitable results." 



AGRICULTURAL ENGINEER. 



Hints on Tile Drainage. 

As the post-harvest leisure time approaches, some 
of our readers may desire to undertake improve- 
ments in draining lands for removal of alkali or sur- 
plus water. Of course, it would be cheaper to do 
some draining when the soil is moistened somewhat 
by the early rains, so that digging is easier. On the 
other hand, there are some places which can be best 
handled in the dry season. In the former case the 
information we offer will be not much out of time, 
and in the latter it will be just to hand. We shall 
condense the matter from a treatise on the subject 
by William Wheeler, a Massachusetts engineer; 

Laying Out and Conxtriictinn of Drains. — The laying 
out of drains, especially at flat grades, can be prop- 
erly done only with the aid of accurate leveling in- 
struments, which work can be done by an engineer 
or surveyor of ordinary skill and capacity. The ex- 
pense of such services is trifling compared with the 
facility, convenience and certainty of successful re- 
sults thereby insured in the work. 

It goes without saying that the best time in which 
to construct a system of land drainage, other condi- 
tions being equal, is during seasons of long-continued 
drouth, such as have occurred during the open sea- 
son of 1894 and up to July of this year. Then the 
level of the ground water, or the water table, is re- 
duced to its lowest natural limits, and the work can 
be carried on at less cost and done in a more thor- 
ough manner by reason of the absence of water. 
Moreover, as a rule, the drains may be laid at a 
greater depth at such times than when the ground 
is full of water. 

J)e}>ih and Distance. — Under drains should be deep 
enough to encourage the fullest development of root 
growth, to avoid any disturbing and disintegrating 
effects from freezing and to escape the danger of be- 
ing obstructed by roots entering at the joints. 
Lowering the water table much below the greatest 
depth of root action diminishes the moisture raised 
by capilarity, and is, therefore, disadvantageous. 
Subject to these considerations and to such varia- 
tions as the necessities of the grade of the drain and 
the inequalities of the surface of the ground may in- 
volve, from three and one-half to four and one-half 
feet is a fair average depth to adopt. Less may be 
used where a low or deep outfall cannot be had, as 
in the case of flat lands situated at a slight elevation 
above an adjacent pond or stream which fixes the 
level at which the main drain may discharge. 

The distance between drains is governed chiefly by 
the greatest depth, within the limits already stated, 
at which they can be laid, and by the permeability of 
the soil and subsoil to be drained thereby. In clayey 
soils, through which water percolates but slowly and 
with the greatest difficulty, the drains should be 
placed at a distance of about six to seven feet for 
every foot of their depth; while for loamy soils, un- 
derlaid by sand, equally good drainage may be 
secured if the drains are laid at nearly double that 
distance apart, or ten to fifteen feet for each foot of 
depth, depending upon the porosity of the under- 
lying material. Thus in clay or hardpan drains 
three to four feet in depth should be laid from twenty 
to thirty feet apart, and for soils underlaid by sand 
the distance (for the same depth) may be forty or 
fifty or sometimes sixty feet, while in material of in- 
termediate character or porosity a distance of thirty 
to forty feet would be suitable. 

Size of Tile. — Without discussing the various con- 
siderations affecting the sizes of tile to be used, it 
may be said that one thousand feet laid forty-five 
feet apart will drain an acre of land underlaid by a 
permeable soil, and that the maximum amount of 
ground water collected and discharged thereby would 
rarely exceed the full capacity of a two-inch tile 
with round bore, laid at such a grade or fall that the 
water flowing through the same will carry along 
such fine silt as may unavoidabl.y enter at the joints, 
say not flatter than three to four inches in a hundred 
feet. With a fall of six inches in a hundred feet the 
same size of tile will carry the water collected by 
about fifteen hundred feet of drains, and will there- 
fore be sufficient for an acre and one-half of land; 
while with a fall of twelve inches in a hundred feet 
two-inch tile will serve about two thousand feet of 
drains, or two acres of porous land. 

.1 Perfect Scour. — The flattest grade at which tile 
drains should be laid should be sufficient to insure a 
perfect scour — that is, the carrying along by the 
water flowing therein of all silt which may enter at 
the joints. With care in laying at true grade, a fall 
of three inches in a hundred feet is as little as may 
be safely adopted for two-inch tile, and where the 
topography or surface contour allows, steeper 
grades should be used. Where the declivity is very 



great the lateral drains should, as a rule, run diag- 
onally with the slope instead of in the direction of 
most rapid descent, so as to more effectually cut off 
springs and underground water veins, which other- 
wise might appear at the surface between the 
laterals. 

The larger the volume of the flow, and conse- 
quently the greater the size of the drain to carry it, 
the flatter may be the grade at which it may safely 
be laid. Thus, while the fall of two-inch and three- 
inch drains should rarely be less than three inches 
per hundred feet, a four-inch drain may with equal 
safety have a fall of two and one-half inches only, 
and six-inch and eight-inch drains of two inches per 
hundred feet. It should be borne in mind, however, 
that an obstruction in a large or main drain is a 
more serious matter than in a lateral, and conse- 
quently such flat grades should be permitted only in 
cases of actual necessity. 

Iloto the Water Gets In. — There is a popular im- 
pression that ground water enters a tile drain 
through the porous bodies of the tiles themselves. 
This is essentially wrong. Indeed, the best tiles are 
those that are uniformly hard burned to such a de- 
gree (just short of vitrification) that nearly all 
physical porosity has disappeared. In point of fact, 
at all times, excepting when the amount of water 
seeking to enter a drain exceeds its maximum 
capacity when running full, the water enters at the 
bottoms of the joints and at the sides, as far up only 
as the surface of the stream flowing in and through 
the drain. One should not be tempted, therefore, to 
purchase tile for which is claimed the virtue of ad- 
mitting water through the porous material com- 
prising them, as such porosity serves no practical 
purpose, and can result only from insufficient burn- 
ing, with consequent want of durability. 

Make Close Joints. — The joints of any land tile 
(however accurately molded, however well their 
shape may be retained in the process of burning, 
and however closely fitted in laying) afford not only 
ample but practically the sole means for the ad- 
mission of water from the soil around them. Indeed, 
the key to success in tile drainage, after securing a 
suitable outfall and adequate grades leading down- 
ward thereto, lies in making such close-fitting and 
well-protected joints at the abutting ends of the 
tiles that clay and fine sand cannot be carried into 
the drain by the water as it enters through the 
joints. The subsoils of lands which best repay 
drainage are usually composed so largely of clay, or 
of very fine sand with or without a clay admixture, 
that not even the closest joints that can be made 
are thin or close enough, without special protection, 
to prevent some silt being carried into the drain, 
whence it becomes necessary to provide further 
means to prevent the entrance of such particles. 
This is usually done by laying a strip of tarred 
paper, oil cloth or heavy burlap (about an inch and a 
half wide for small tile and two inches or more for 
the larger sizes) over the top and sides of each joint, 
in close contact with the outer surface of the tiles. 
Strong, tough turf, with most of the soil shaken out, 
may be used for the same purpose. 



THE IRRIGATOR. 



Comments on the Ross Decision. 

Isaias W. Hellman, president of the Nevada Bank, 
said to a Chronicle reporter that the decision of 
Judge Ross would be a blow to legitimate enter- 
prises which the Wright law had caused to be under- 
taken. It would at the same time put an end to 
fraudulent irrigation districts, by which many men 
have been swindled out of their property. Owing 
to doubts about the validity of the bonds issued 
under the law, but a small amount of San Francisco 
capital has been invested in them. 

" I do not think," said Mr. Hellman, "that the 
decision will interfere with the investment of foreign 
capital. The lawyers of this city have invariably 
opposed loans on these bonds, and this has had a 
tendency to check trading in them. A way will 
doubtless ultimately be devised to arrange matters 
legally so that irrigation can be obtained for land 
where it is necessary." 

William H. Crocker held that the effect of the de- 
cision would be injurious to the standing of Ameri- 
can securities abroad, particularly in Europe, where 
many of the irrigation bonds are held. " Our own 
capitalists," he said, "have been timid about invest- 
ing in the securities." 

President J. K. Wilson of the Sather Banking 
Company said: " When foreign capitalists, after in- 
vestigating as thoroughly as possible and with the 
knowledge of legal decisions already given, and seem- 
ing to indicate that the security is first-class, invest 
their money in these bonds and then have a decision 
like this come along afterward — why, it cannot be 
otherwise than that this must more or less seriously 
decrease the confidence which moneyed men abroad 
have in the stability of our California securities." 

S. G. Murphy, president of the First National 
Bank, has always held that the Wright irrigation 
law was uacoQstitutional, but is of the oplQion that a 



72 



August 3, 1895. 



law permitting the safe investment of capital in irri- 
gation bonds would be a benefit to the State. 

All are agreed, says the Cull, that the whole irri- 
gation matter is now in a frightful muddle, and what 
the outcome will be no one can surmise. It is not 
only a question with the local capitalists as to what 
will become of their expensive plants, nor of how 
the foreign bondholders will come out in their 
financial difficulties, but it is the large agricultural 
population throughout the various districts in the 
lower San Joaquin valley and farther south, whose 
very existence depends upon the supply of water, 
that will feel the effects of the matter. It may even 
come to a desperate struggle between the land 
owners and the water users. As to the bonds which 
were issued, it may be stated on good authority that 
about $8,000,000 of the §1 '.1,000. 000 issu'ed have been 
disposed of. Although the majority of the pur- 
chasers are in Europe there is much local capital in- 
vested. Of the Central district bonds T. P. Drexel 
of this citv owns about S40,000 worth. W. F. Goad, 
the capitalist, purchased $00,000 worth and then in- 
vested another $100,000. He afterwards disposed of 
them all and is not now interested. The remainder 
of the $5(iO,000 worth which was issued is distributed 
around in small lots. R. W. Gorrill, of the Pacific 
Bridge Company, owns $250,000 worth of Modesto 
district bonds. 

In the other districts the greater part of the 
capital interested is foreign. It was drawn into in- 
vestment after considerable difficulty. Some of the 
local banks are interested also, but to what extent 
is not known, and the officials of the institutions de- 
cline to make any statements. 



What the Decision Cannot Do. 



The Escondido Times, published in a region which 
has proceeded under the Wright law, has secured 
from Frank P. Willard. a local attorney, some re- 
marks on the decision which are very interesting: 

In answer to another question, Mr. Willard said: 
"Most certainly it makes no difference whether the 
court has confirmed the proceedings for the forma- 
tion of the district and subsequent acts of the di- 
rectors or not, for, in confirming the proceedings, 
the judge has to assume that the act under which he 
is proceeding is valid, and that the proceeding's have 
been in accordance with it. The act being void (un- 
constitutional) the judgment of confirmation cannot 
put life into it." 

" As to the effect of the decision on this district," 
continued the attorney, "the decision can't sweep 
the dam away, nor wipe out the ditch line, nor burst 
all the pipes, nor dry up the water; neither can any 
person pick up those things and carry them away, 
neither has that decision given them to any partic- 
ular person. They were acquired for the use of the 
people owning lands within the boundaries of the 
district, and I guess those people still own them, 
subject, it may be, to some liability. Just what that 
liability is, is a question for the future. Of one 
thing the people may rest assured — that the tangible 
reality that we have some water, and that one year 
in advance of our expectations, is a thing of too sub- 
stantial proportions to be swept away with the act 
under which it was acquired. 

"As to the bondholders, I am sorry for them. 
The men who furnished the materials and did the 
work presumably are paid. Our law gives to no 
other class of persons a lien. There was no legally 
constituted authority to issue any bonds (promises 
to pay) binding upon the lands of the district. 

"As to the owner of the reservoir site, Von Seg- 
gern has received cash for it; he has no title. The 
irrigation district does not exist; but the deed from 
Von Seggern was made for the benefit of the people 
of the district. The fact that those who were act- 
ing for the district were not a legal body simply re- 
moves them as an agent for those for whom they 
acted." 

Concluding, Mr. Willard said: "Of course there 
is a muddle consequent upon the change from the 
usual run of things and pending the new adjustment, 
and the future calls for thought more than the 
present for hasty expressions of opinion. Judge 
Ross has single-handed knocked out our State Su- 
preme Court of seven judges, who have at five dif- 
ferent times held this act constitutional in the verj' 
liarticular in which Judge Ross says it is not." 



than ever before. The changing of wool-growing 
flocks to those that will produce mutton first and 
wool secondly presents a grand opportunity for 
Southdown breeders. There is no question as to the 
superiority of their mutton. Their claims for a fine- 
ness of wool next to the Merino, their prolificacy, 
their early maturity, their healthfulness, are well 
founded; and for hardiness, the Merino, heretofore 
claiming the first place, must give way to the South- 
down. Wherever they have been tried, either on 
the Merino, native or other sheep, the good qualities 
of the Southdowns make them favorites. 

In regard to them, Mr. R. E. Fitzgerald, Shiner, 
Texas, says: "I use all my thoroughbred lambs on 
my Merino flocks and the cross is perfectly splendid. 
In 1800 I saw that we could not longer raise sheep 
as wool for a profit only, so I concluded to try thor- 
oughbred Shropshires and Southdowns. I have 
nothing to say against the Shropshire, and, if I had 
not tried them alongside with the Southdown, I am 
sure I would have been satisfied with them and 
thought that they were good enough. The South- 
down is the hardiest sheep in the world. It was 
thought that no sheep could withstand our hot, dry 
climate like the Merino, but the Southdown will stay 
fat where the Merino will die of poverty. 1 saw that 
thoroughly tested the past winter." 

Mr. C." H. Nimson, in addressing the Sheep 
Breeders' and Wool Growers' Association of Mitchell 
county, North Carolina, speakingof the sheep owned 
by the Bellevue Farm Co., said: "At Bellevue we 
selected the Southdown, because we believed that 
these sheep were better adapted to the climate, soil 
and the surroundings we could afford them than any 
other. We commenced five years ago with poor, un- 
selected, native ewes of all ages, sizes and shapes — 
good, bad and indifferent— crossing them with pure- 
bred, registered Southdown rams. The first cross 
made a wonderful change in the general appearance 
of the lambs, and in course of time they developed 
the characteristics of the Southdowns in other re- 
spects to an extent we had not been looking for. 
The second and third crosses have developed a 
mutton sheep that handles with case and fattens 
readily. Our flock of grade and thoroughbred South- 
down lambs will turn out a large proportion of good, 
profitable feeders, weighing from 70 to 100 pounds 
by the 1st of December. We have at Bellevue now 
more demand for our Southdown ewes than we could 
begin tn supply, even if we had our breeding flock 
up to the fullest capacity we could carry on the 
farm." 

The experience of these two flockmasters is that 
of others who have introduced the Southdown for 
the betterment of their sheep. This cross has been 
so successful that, as Mr. Nimson says, " after five 
years experience with a flock numbering from 500 to 
700, graded up from the native sheep, we could not 
be induced to even experiment with other breeds." 



THE DAIRY. 



England Behind America in Applying a Use- 
ful Invention. 



SHEEP AND WOOL. 



Southdown-Merino Cross. 



We recently gave some accounts of crossing mut- 
ton sheep upon Merinos in which the Horned Dorsets 
and Shropshires had the preference. It is now the 
Southdown's turn at the public eye. In a report of 
the proceedings of the Southdown Breeders' Associa- 
tion, which we have just received, we find the follow- 
ing claims and instances: 

Reports from breeders are of an encouraging na- 
ture, and lead to the belief that during the coming 
season the demand for Southdowns will he greater 



The English agriculturist is slow to take advan- 
tage of modern scientific discoveries and inventions. 
Even the cream separator, the principal and utility 
of which are universally understood, has not yet 
come into general use in this country. As for the 
milk tester, is very name is unknown to thousands 
of English farmers. Yet the value of this simple and 
inexpensive appliance to every one- who owns milch 
cattle is incalculable, and its employment is doing 
more to advance the dairying industry in America and 
elsewhere than perhaps even the separator itself. 
Mere quantity of milk does not give any clew as to the 
butter-producing capacity of a cow. But by the 
tester the percentage of butttr fat in each cow's 
milk is ascertained, with hardly any labor and with 
absolute accuracy, before the milk is poured into 
the common receptacle for butter-making purposes. 

The dairyman who has no tester merely knows the 
quantity of butter his cows produce in the aggre- 
gate: he has no clew as to the value of each indi- 
vidual cow in the herd. With the tester, on 
the other hand, he knows exactly how much 
butter each individual cow produces from every 
gallon of its milk. By this means he is en- 
abled to cull his herd, replacing poor butter pro- 
ducers by good ones. The poor cow costs just as 
much for food and attention as the good one, but 
the annual monetary returns of the two animals 
show a wide margin of diflerence. Moreover, a good 
butter cow produces good butter stock, and .so, from 
his knowledge acquired from the use of the milk 
tester, the breeder of dairy stock is enabled to 
select the proper calves to rear and the proper ones 
to reject. 

In this way it becomes perfectly pos.sible, as has 
been actually done on farms in Vermont and else- 
where in the United States, to grade up a dairy 
herd from an actual production per cow of 150 
pounds of butter per annum to an average of 300 
pounds and over. With these figures before him 
even the layman will grasp the value of such an in- 



vention to each individual farmer who uses it. But 
let us reflect what are the money advantages of the 
system when spread over the 1000 farms that con- 
tribute to such a creamery as that at St. Albans, 
Vt. ; what the gain to the whole of that great dairy- 
ing State; what the enhanced profit to the vast 
dairying industry of America. Were the milk tester 
in universal use throughout Great Britain and Ire- 
land, the capitalized value of our dairy herds might 
be increased in a few years' time fully twenty- five 
per cent. If, then, the British farmer does not 
eagerly avail himself of such an invention, can he 
fairly grumble at being ousted from his own markets 
by his foreign competitor ? — Westminster Review. 

Granular Butter. 



There seems to be an impression here and there, 
says a writer in the Practknl Farmer, that what is 
known as granular butter can only be made by the 
few who possess the " know how," and have pur- 
posely constructed machinery. Such is not the case. 
There is no make of churn that granulates butter 
better than another, if we discard the dash churn. 
The only secret in the matter is to stop the churn at 
the right stage, and add the water, so to harden 
these little granules of fat and give the fluids free 
exit from the churn. In hot weather the granula- 
tion of butter is all the more important, as there is 
the greater need of getting the buttermilk out of 
the mass. Summer butter wants to be churned as 
cool as possible, and it is here that the owners of 
separators have the advantage, that they can cream 
the fresh-drawn milk down to .33"^ of actual fat, and 
churn this cream exhaustively at 52°, which is the 
actual crystalizing stage of butter, and get separa- 
tion with little or no washing. By the ordinary way 
of churning, at about (10°, the churn would be stopped 
as soon as the cream shows signs of breaking, and a 
half gallon or so of fair brine added to the cream, 
when the butter will come, and more water is again 
added before there is any attempt to remove the 
buttermilk. Then the butter granules float on the 
surface of the 54° cold water, and one has granular 
butter without an effort. Where the cream from any 
cause is very sour, it is a good practice to put a 
quantity of brine into the cream at the start, and 
have this act as a sort of a solvent of the casein, and 
will be a great help in preventing specks in the but- 
ter. One thing about granular butter is its varying 
content of water, and no maker can work it down to 
a uniformity every time; even experts will vary as 
much as five pounds in 100 pounds of butter. ' The 
larger the granules the less water will be held in the 
butter when it is packed. 



Harvesting Beans. 



A San Luis Obispo bean grower gives an exchange 
his idea of bean harvesting in this way: Pull the 
beans after they shed their leaves. Instead of leav- 
ing them six or eight days exposed to the weather, 
they should be threshed the second or third day. 
This is usually done by selecting a piece of smooth, 
sandy ground and wetting the surface, then putting 
on a light litter of straw and driving from three to 
ten horses abreast over the ground, describing a 
circle all the time. After the horses have thoroughly 
packed the ground the straw is raked off and the 
floor is leveled with a large mall, then swept with a 
broom and allowed to stand a couple of days, when it 
is ready for use, and is nearly as hard as a wood 
floor. This floor is usually about fifty feet in diam- 
eter, although many are much larger. The beans are 
then hauled to the floor to the depth of about three 
feet, and the horses put on the same as when build- 
ing the floor. The vines have to be turned a couple 
of times and shaken up, then tram.ped again, when 
they will be clean. The beans are screened by 
throwing them up against the wind. They are usu- 
ally put in sacks of eighty pounds each, and sell by 
the pound, the price ranging from one and one-half 
to four cents, according to kind and quality. The 
southwest portion of San Luis Obispo county is de- 
voted almost entirely to this crop, and the yield runs 
from ten to forty sacks per acre, and good bean land 
readily sells for $200 to $300 per acre. 



The report of wine exports and imports of San 
Francisco for the first six months of the current 
year makes a wonderful showing. Its leading feat- 
ures are these : Comparing this period of 1805 with 
that of 1894, our shipments to New York were 
nearly doubled; to Central America, increased by 
(50 per cent; to Germany, increased 6 per cent; to 
Mexico, Tahiti and Hawaii they have decreased 5 to 
7 per cent. Our total outgoing shipments of wine 
were 8,500,000 gallons for 1805, against 6,600,000 
gallons for 1894. Our outgoing brandy for 1895 was 
9,500,000 gallons, against 6,800,000 gallons for 1894, 
and our imports of brandy were 90,000 for 1895 
against 460,000 for 1894. A most astonishing dis- 
closure is that whereas in 1894 we imported 5,800,000 
gallons of wine, in 1895 the importations were 9,500,- 
000. All these figures refer to the first si^C month? 
respectively of 1894 and 1895. 



August 3, 1895. 



The Pacific Rural Press 



73 



THE 42n(l GREAT STATE FAIR OF CALIFORNIA 

Will be^ he^ld at SACRATWENXO, 

TWO WEEKS::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::-:::^ 2nd to I4th, 

18 9 5. 



IT WILL EMBRACE a most comprehensive exhibit of the soil products of 
the greatest agricultural State in the Union; a collection of mechanical prod- 
ucts; an aggregation of live stock that will challenge any State in comparison, 
and a racing programme of unusual excellence. 

A DISPLAY OF ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER, whereby machinery will 
run with power generated at Folsom, 22 miles distant, will be a leading feature 
of this year's exhibition. 

POWER AND SPACE WILL BE FURNISHED FREE to all factories, 
thereby enabling experiments to be made upon any class of machinery with but 
little cost. 

EDWIN F. SMITH, Secretary. 



THE NATIVE SONS WILL CELEBRATE ADMISSION DAY this year 
at the State Fair. 

ATHLETIC SPORTS, BARBECUES AND THE ELECTRIC CARNIVAL 
will be leading amusement features. 

THE MANUFACTURER CANNOT AFFORD to miss this opportunity, 
whereby thousands of visitors may view and inspect his goods. ' 

Roncovieri's great AMERICAN CONCERT BAND has been engaged. 

Free transportation for exhibits, and reduced rates of fare will be given on 
all railroads. Address the secretary for information of any character. Pre- 
mium lists now ready. 

C. M. CHASE, President. 




JOHNSON = LOCKE MERCANTILE CO., 

CORNER CALIFORNIA AND FRONT .STREETS 



Price's Traction 
Engine. 



SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 




We have one of these engines that was used 
about one month last season and was taken back 
by us by reason of illness of purchaser. Engine is 
in perfect order, and in better working order than 
when first sent from the factory. A BARGAIN. 
Indicated power, 80-horse; Cylinders, 8x8; Wheels, 
8 ft. high, 28 in. wide; weight, less than 10 tons. 
Price when new, 84500. 

HOOKER & CO., 

16 and 18 Drumm Street, San Francisco. 



♦♦♦♦ CUININirSGHAM'S ♦♦♦♦ 

Prune Dipping Machine. 




A Machine lor Scalding in Hot Lye Water and Rinsing in Cold Water, Plums, Prunes aud Grapes of 

all kinds. 

We also manufacture aud deal in 

CUNNINGHAM PRUNE SPREADERS, GALVANIZED IRON GRADER 
ELEVATORS AND FRUIT CONVEYORS 

For both Green and Dried Fruit. 

DIPPER CAULDRONS, GALVANIZED COLD WATER CAULDRONS, FURNACE IRONS, 
DIPPING BASKETS, FLOOR TRUCKS, FIELD CARS, TRANSFER CARS, 
TURN TABLES, and a General Line of 

F^RUIT DRYERS' SUPPLIES, ♦♦♦♦♦"f 

L. CUNNINGHAM, 

446 West Santa Clara St SAN JOSE, CAL. 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue of Fruit Dryers' Supplies. 



The 




Golden G&ti 

Gas or Gasoline 

Engine. 



The cheapest and simplest to operate of any. For irrigation pur- 
poses has no equal. 

Start it and oil it; then go about your other work and it will 
attend strictly to business without any other attention. 

Is adapted to any work where motive power from 1 to 50 H. P. is 
required. 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE. 

Adam Schilling & Sons, 

211-213 Main Street, San Francisco. 



DEWEY & CO., PATENT SOLICITORS. 



THE **A.C7VVE." 




A machine for perforating and grading prunes. It cuts the skins without the use of lye. grades 
accurately into two or three sizes, and spreads them onto the trays at one operation. The fruit is not 
mashed or bruised by too much handling, and there are no bloaters to waste time and money with, 

Tho tendency is toward xower prices, and growers must use economical methods if they would suc- 
ceed. The " Acme" increases profits by reducing e.xpen8e8. Excellent for silver prunes and plums. 

The FolloH-ing are a Few of the Testimonials from Parties Who Used the Maclilne Last Year: 

Mr. H. M. Baknguoveb. San Jose, Cal.— Dear Sir: I have used your perforator with the greatest 
success. I find it giving better satisfaction than the old way of dipping in lye. I most cheerfully recom- 
mend it to all parties who may need a machine of the kind. Very reapectftilly. 

E. S.Whitney, Los Gates. Cal. 
Mr. H. M, Barnouover— Dear Sir: Having used your machine all last season, I can cheerfull.v 
recommend it to prune growers. It pricks the fruit evenly and rapidly, and also grades very correctly. 
The fruit goes to the drying ground graded and In excellent shape, and cures quickly and evenly. There 
are no bloaters, consequently no sorting is needed. The machine is well constriicted and durable, and I 
am well pleased with it. Yours truly. 

J. L. MosHEB, Member State Board of Horticulture. 

Mr. H. M. Barngkover— Dear Sir: I have used your perforator and grader, and can cheerfully 
recommend it to prune growers. It pricks the fruit thoroughly, grades It very evenly, and does away 
with bloaters. Yours truly, 

H. A. Van Dorsten, San Jose, Cal. 

FACTORY AND SALESROOM: 
573 SOUTH FIRST STREET SAN JOSE, CAL. 

H. M, BARNGROVER, Proprietor. (Write tor Circulars,) 



the "swialley" 
«feed""§aVers" 




EnHilnse iV FodilrrCiilterH, for hand and power. 
Hool CiHKTsiVVeK'IblcSlicrrM, hand & power. 
Knrin Fcrd iUiIIn, for irnar or pulley drive. Ear 
Corn 4iriiMl<TN, JL- Slu-ller.s. , 

|i?""How to Beat a Drontli," our '95 hand book 
for fSIocU Feeilerw aud I'i iec Lint maiUd/ree. 
»MM,l,¥iY MFC. tl>., ^auitowoc, Wis, 



QGHTNINGHAY RRESS 



FULL 

two FEEDS 



CtRCLE. 

TO CIRCLE 




STEELvMOST RAPID AND POWERFUL. 
K G. HAY PRESS CO. 

% KANSAS CITV.^MP.. , 




74 



The Pacific Rural Press. 



August 3, 1895. 



THE HOME CIRCLE. 



Johnny on Easy Writing. 



I don't believe 'twas hard to do, 
When Homer wrote of Troy; 

There were no rules for him to watch. 
No grammars to annoy. 

He had no slang to guard against, 

He spelt the easiest way ; 
The subjects were not threadbare then 

Because he had lirst say. 

And Dante had it easy, too. 
In Florence when he wrote ; 

He made each phrase as he went on— 
There were no words to quote. 

The common talk of every day 

Was good enough to use ; 
'Too trite" was something never heard. 
There were no terms to choose. 

Old Chaucer had no task at all : 

He wrote what came along ; 
He put down just what people said 

And couldn't spell words wrong. 

You see no one had tried before 
To write this brand new speech. 

So Chaucer fixed it his own way 
For all the schools to teach. 

It wasn't bad when Shakespeare lived. 
The right no one could tell ; 

There were no dictionaries then- 
No wonder he wrote well. 

Now it gets harder all the time- 
Each word must mean just so; 

The very turn you'd like the best 
Is one 'that will not go. 

—Anna C. Murphy. 



Who's so Busy as 1 ? 



Down in the grassy meadow 

Where the men are raking hay, 
There you can hear me humming 

On many a summer's day. 
Or, sometimes along the roadside, 

Where red and white clover bloom. 
You'll find me often working 

Till twilight's fitful gloom 
Steals over field and meadow 

And sends each worker home. 

Then as I'm one of the workers. 

Though dearly I like to stray, 
Now with the birds in the orchard, 

Now with the butterflies gay. 
Swiftly I turn me homeward 

To mv six-sided chamber neat. 
Heavily laden with juices, 

Sipped from the flowers sweet. 

Perhaps bv and by, in the winter. 
When you taste my sweet store with your 
bread, 

You will think of me, wee little insect. 

And the busy life I have led ; 
While, perhaps, you may learn a lesson 

From some of the things that I've said. 

—Anna B. Badlam. 



Six Little Pansies. 



The first little pansy has a very black face ; 

(Some pansies have, you know.) 
The second little pansy has ragged lace. 

Brought home for its mother to sew. 
The third little pansy has two white cheeks ; 

(Bleached by the sun, I'm told.) 
The fourth little pansy shyly peeks 

Through a veil of mauve and gold. 
The fifth little pansy looks wilted and sad ; 

(The effects of a fearful fright.) 
For the sixth little pansy some one had 

Stolen in broad— day— light. 

— Indianapolis Journal. 



The Story of " Highflyer." 

"Highflyer" was not a race-horse 
or a steam-tug or a greyhound or a 
locomotive or a windmill or an Ameri- 
can flag. It was neither more nor 
less than a sled, and Roy Haynes was 
the happy owner of it. 

He had the name painted on it him- 
self, for it had no name when it came 
that bright Christmas morning. That 
suited him all the better. He lingered 
long in deciding between " Speedaway" 
and "Highflyer." None of your com- 
mon, clippy names, like " Eagle," 
"Dart," "Victor," "Prancer," or 
"Stag," would do for a sled like that. 
At last he made up his mind; and the 
wagon-maker painted " Highflyer" 
beautifully, with a flourish before and 
a flourish behind and two flourishes 
under. 

There was not a sled like it on the 
coasting hill. Even the boys who did 
not like Roy said that. Any boy who 
has had the finest sled in a crowd of 
one hundred boys, more or less, can 
tell how Roy felt as he started down 
hill with a long 

" Hi-i-i-i-i ! Track ! Track ! Track ! ' 

The hill was as good as the sled. It 
was in a suburb of the lively town — a 
long stretch down the bluff, with two 
or three zigzags to it. It required 



skill to round these zigzags successfully. 
At the last one there was a turn in two 
directions — one, which was usually 
taken, leading off into a large vacant 
space, the other into one of the busi- 
ness streets. 

" Say, let me have just one ride." 

A boy of his own size said it to Roy, 
a very pleading expression on his face, 
as he laid his hand on "Highflyer's" 
rope. 

"On my new sled ! " exclaimed Roy, 
in surprise and indignation, giving a 
jerk to the rope. " No, sir. This is 
for me to ride. Ride your own sled." 

" Mine's broke," said the boy, whose 
name was Tony Lee. 

" Mend it then." 

" I have, lots of times. But it always 
breaks again. It's no good." 

" Hi ! Isn't that a stunner '/ " 

Along the street which crossed the 
coasting hill at the top came a pair of 
horses on a swift gallop. A chorus of 
sleigh-bells kept time with the light 
feet, and the tails of the fur robes in 
the sleigh behind them flew out with 
the quick motion. 

" Hur— rah ! ' 

A shout of admiration arose as the 
coasters paused to watch the gray out- 
fit. 

All but one. Quick as a flash Tony 
Lee saw his chance. Roy had dropped 
his rope; and, with one swift, noiseless 
movement, Tony had slipped on the 
sled, and away under its owner's very 
nose. 

The coasters watched the sleigh 
around the corner, then turned to their 
sport. 

" Why "~ 

Roy stared in bewilderness at the 
empty spot which "Highflyer" had 
brightly filled but a moment before. 

" Why, where's my sled ? " 

Plenty of boys were starting down, 
plenty more coming up. Very little 
attention was paid to Roy. 

" I say," he called moi-c loudly, "who's 
seen my sled ? White and gold. " 

"Seen it a dozen times," came in 
careless reply. 

" Where ? Just now ? " 

"Oh, may be so. Or a while ago." 

It was plain that no boy had troubled 
himself much over even such a sled as 
"Highflyer," — white and gold and big 
name notwithstanding. 

"Thought I saw you on it near the 
foot of the hill just now." 

" It wasn't me. It must have been 
that Tony Lee. Wasn't it ? His ulster 
and his fur cap are 'most like mine." 

But no one waited to answer; and 
Roy, full of wrath, started down the 
hill at full speed, watching all the way 
for a cap and ulster like his own mount- 
ed on a white and gold sled. Of course, 
it must be somewhere on the hill. 

He was interrupted by boys going 
and coming, sometimes obliged to wait 
to let merry loads pass him, every 
moment expecting to see Tony coming 
up with "Highflyer. " 

" He's a mean fellow. How dare he 
take my sled ! " Roy's anger grew 
the longer he watched in vain for his 
sled, much helped on by the feeling 
away down in his heart that he him- 
self had been very mean and selfish in 
refusing a ride to the boy whose sled 
was no good. 

Up and down hill went " Highflyer's" 
owner, more and more dismayed and 
bewildered as the minutes went on. 
Again he asked, but asked in vain. No 
one could give any news of Tony Lee or 
of " Highflyer." The sun set. twilight 
was closing in. One party after another 
of jolly, shouting boys took their last 
slide and went home. Quiet had fallen 
on the coasting hill by the time that 
Roy, with tears nearer his eyes than 
he would be willing to confess, went 
home. 

" Where does the boy who took your 
sled live ? " asked his mother. 

"I don't know. I only see him at 
school." 

" Well," she said comfortingly, "you 
will be sure to find him on the hill with 
it in the morning. Forgive him, dear. 
Don't quarrel with him." 

Roy was there early, on the eager 
watch; but no Tony Lee waited to be 
forgiven. Hour after hour passed. 

"There would be no school for a week, 
and he could not find Tony. 



The next day Roy, meek and deject- 
ed, was on the hill with his old sled. 
" Who-o-o-o-o-p ! "' 

Tony did not dare to give his hilari- 
ous shout until he had turned the fir.st 
zigzag on " Highflyer, " Then he let it 
out with a will, as he scudded down the 
white surface. 

" Who-o-o-o-op ! " again. "I'm a 
steam-engine ! I'm lightning ! I'm 
the wind ! " 

What delight was in the crisp air 
cutting his cheek ! What enjoyment 
crowded into the few moments before 
reaching the zigzag from which the 
two ways turned ! 

There was something of a crowd of 
the larger boys there, and the track 
was impeded. The little fellows always 
had to look out about getting into the 
way of the big ones. It took Tony but a 
moment to decide upon the turn down to 
the busy street. 

It was a little risky; and, if a police- 
man clianced to be about, he always 
frowned at such a thing. But Tony 
was just in the mood for taking risks. 

Out into the middle of the street he 
flew. There was a prancing team of 
horses coming down the hill; but he 
knew he could get out of their way, 
and he did. 

.lust as he leaped oft' " Highflyer, " 
and stood to see them pass, a lady had 
crossed the street in front of them. 
Behind her walked a boy smaller than 
Tony, leading a pug dog. The lady 
was turning to hurry the boy, when 
the dog. appearing to take fright, set 
his pudgy feet firmly before him, pull- 
ing back on the string, refusing to go 
on. 

With a whimper the boy stopped and 
jerked. 

The lady gave a little exclamation, 
and started towards him; but Tony was 
before her. He dashed toward the 
dog, now exactly in front of the horses, 
and with a huge jerk fairly flung him 
out of the way. 

But, alas ! 

In his haste he had forgotten his 
sled. Without thinking, he had kept 
hold of the rope; and, just as the pug 
was landed beyond danger, the white 
and gold flashed directly at the horses' 
feet. They reared, shied then, at a 
sharp word from the driver, flew on; 
and " Highflyer " lay in their track — 
a heap of shining splinters. 

Tony gazed in blank despair. Roy's 
sled— the finest one on the hill — smash- 
ed beyond all hops of mending ! and he 
had done it ! 

The lady touched his arm, and he 
looked up. 

'You are a brave boy, " she said, 
" a real little hero. If it hadn't been 
for you, poor little Tip would have been 
killed. And your sled is spoiled. Come 
this way and I'll get you another." 

She led the way to a store near by, 
the small boy following them, hugging 
his pug all the way. 

" Take your choice," she said. " This 
is the nicest, I think." 

"The — nicest!" Tony caught his 
breath. He had believed that never 
before had been such a sled as " High- 
flyer;" but this was, if possible, even 
finer. Swans' necks arched up in front, 
and the gold was mixed with pale blue. 

A perfect buzz of thought filled Tony's 
brain, as, after many more thanks 
from the lady, he drew it away. What 
a sled for a boy to own ! 

But it was Roy's. No; was it, though? 
It had been given him for saving the 
dog's life. 

But it had been given to take the 
place of Roy's sled. 

" I should have done it just the same 
if 'Highflyer' hadn't there. It didn't 
have anything to do with it. 

"But if I hadn't taken Roy's sled, 
perhaps I shouldn't 'a' been there." 

"If I hadn't taken Roy's sled, this 
would 'a' been mine." 

It was a dreadful muddle, and grew 
more muddled with every thought, as 
in despair and misery Tony went slow- 
ly home. 

He could not go to the hill the next 
day. 

He went to one away off in another 
direction. There was little fun sliding 
among strange boys, although they 
admired his sled tUl is became more 
and more of a torment. 



The next day and the next he tried 

j it, and the burden became too heavy. 
Toward night ho turned his face toward 
, the street on which he knew Roy lived. 

'■P'r'aps he'll be so glad to get it 
back, he'll let me have some rides 
sometimes. Or — p'r'aps he'll be so 
mad with me he never will." 

He found Roy near his own gate. 
Roy looked sharply at him, then with 
surprise at the sled. 

" That's a dandy of a sled you've 
got," he remarked, caressing one of 
the swans' head. 

" It's yours,'" said Tony. 

" No, it ain't" said Roy. confidently. 
" That ain t the one I lost. ' 

"It's yours all the same, though, " 
persisted Tony. " I took 'Highflyer" 
that day, yes, I did. A I slid down on 
to Grand street; and there was a pug 
getting foul of some horses — just 
skitin", they were ! And I slung the 
dog out of the way, but ' Highflyer" 
got smashed into kindling wood. And 
the lady that the dog belonged to, she 
took me to the store and bought this 
sled; and — I've brought it back." 

" Phe-w-w-w ! " whistled Roy, seem- 
ing to think the story a most remark- 
able and interesting one. " You did 
that well, Tony. I'd like to been there 
to see. Right in front of the horses '' 

"Yes," said Tony. 

" Rearing and plunging and prancing 
—hey ? " 

" Yes. Here's your sled. I'm — real 
sorry — " 

W^ith a wistful look at the swans' 
heads and the blue and gold, he turned 
and walked quickly away. 

"Stop," said Roy, hurrying after 
him. " That's you sled." 

" No, tisn't. " Tony shook his head. 

" I say 'tis. Wait till I tell you. My 
Uncle George came yesterday, and he 
thought it was too bad I'd lost my new 
sled so soon after Christmas: and he 
thought it wasn"t my fault, so he 
bought me another. Come and see it." 

What a torrent of delight swelled in 
Tony's heart as he looked at the other 
sled ! It was not quite so handsome 
as the blue and gold, but Roy declared 
he would not change. 

"Won't we have rip-roaring jolly 
times on the hill ! " he exclaimed, as 
Tony at length said good-by. "Only 
— see here — your sled hasn't got any 
name yet. Would you just as lief name 
her ' Pleetaway ? ' " 

" Just exactly." 

"Don't you think it's a good name ? " 
" Tiptop," said Tony. 



What He Did. 



Professor Blank, although a very 
dignified and courtly gentleman, has 
fits of absentmindedness amounting al- 
most to mental aberration. This failing 
has placed him in many embarrassing 
positions. It seemed to the Professor 
and his family that the climax had been 
reached one evening when the Profess- 
or, after filling his bath-tub for a bath 
plunged in with all his clothes on ! But 
a deeper, because public, mortification, 
soon followed this alarming mental 
lapse. The Professor sometimes speaks 
in public, and a few days after the bath- 
room episode lie was asked to be one of 
three or four speakers at a public 
meeting. His brief address was re- 



Awarded 
Highest Honors— World's Fait 
Gold Medal, Midwinter Fair. 

•DR.- 
^ CREAM 

mm 

Most Perfect Made. 
40 Years the Standard. . 



75 



ceived with great applause, which, to 
the Professor's surprise and chagrin, 
was followed by broad grins, and even 
unrepressed tittering on the part of 
many in the audience. No sooner was 
the Professor out of the house after 
the meeting than he turned to his wife 
and asked, "My dear, what was the 
occasion of all that smiling and actual 
giggling after the generous applause 
that followed my address?" 

" Don't you know?" asked his wife, 
a little sharply. "I never felt so morti- 
fied in my life. Why don't you keep 
your wits about you when you are in 
public? It was dreadful!" 

" Why, Helen, what did I do?" 

" Do? You sat up thereon that 
platform before all that great audience 
and applauded your own speech! 
That's what you did." — Harper. 

New View of China. 



After reading all about China by 
twenty-five autiiors, 1 supposed that 
few travelers go there because of its 
filthy cities, terribly bad inns, and the 
hostility of the people toward foreign- 
ers. I supposed that if any one did go 
there he would certainly be hooted at 
and hustled, if not stoned, as so many 
of the heroic authors say they were; 
he would risk catching the chol- 
era, the small pox or the black 
death, and he would sustain himself 
upon a diet of rats and cats amid a 
dirty, poverty-stricken people swarm- 
ing upon a wretched country. Even 
after I reached China I found that 
there were plenty of Europeans in the 
treaty ports who knew no more of the 
land on whose edge they live than to 
repeat these calumnies. 

In spite of everything, I traveled 
about two of the eighteen provinces; 
and in choosing the best part of the 
empire, by carrying a large stock of 
that good-nature which works the 
greatest magic with the Chinese, and 
by being properly counselled, I enjoyed 
the most delightful of all my journeys — 
one so completely delightful that I do 
not hesitate to recommend it to the 
great army of globe-trotters, even to 
the most fastidious ladies and the ten- 
derest children among them. 

I saw filthy cities — though few more 
dirty than I have seen in other parts 
of the world — notably Cuba — therefore 
I avoided all of them except Ka-din, 
which proved that not all are especially 
dirty. I did not trouble the inns, and 
am not even certain that I saw a single 
one of them. I was terribly cursed by 
an old hag in Soo Chow, but that gave 
her pleasure and me no harm. I was 
otherwise charmingly entertained by a 
very good-natured, playful people, who 
never failed to grin at me, and who 
always got heartily laughed at in re- 
turn, because we were both so funny 
looking in each other's eyes. As for 
the small pox, cholera and black death, 
I have no doubt that, as Mr. England 
of Foo Chow told me, " these epidemics 
grow wearisome when the funerals 
become incessant," but I did not see 
one European who dreaded them, or 
more than one who had ever caught 
one of these every-day luxuries. I 
made my longest journey in the Swallow 
house-boat, with every European com- 
fort, eating as if I were a very rich 
man in London or in Paris, waited on 
by eleven servants, at an average 
daily cost of about five dollars each for 
two of us, enjoying as rich, as fertile 
and as beautiful a country as the sun 
is able to visit in his rounds, and 
being amused and informed by a con- 
stant succession of the liveliest, the 
funniest, the strangest and the most 
interesting experiences that I am able 
to imagine with my Occidental intel- 
lect.— Julian Ralph in Harper's Mag- 
azine. 



If by gaining knowledge we destroy 
our health, we labor for a thing that will 
be useless in our hands ; and if by 
harrassing our bodies (though with a 
design to render ourselves more useful) 
we deprive ourselves of the abilities and 
opportunities of doing that good we 
might have done with a meaner talent, 
which God thought sufficient for us by 
having denied us the strength to 
improve it to that pitch which men of 



stronger constitutions can attain to, we 
rob God of so much service, and our 
neighbor of allthat help which in a state 
of health, with moderate knowledge, we 
might have been able to perform. He 
that sinks his vessel by overloading it, 
though it be with gold and silver and 
precious stones, will give his owner 
but an ill account of his voyage. — 
Locke. 

Fashion Notes. 



A quaint gown of white crepe de 
chine, flowered in pink roses with green 
foliage, is cut with an almost straight 
skirt, which is finely shirred around the 
hips in the eighteenth century style, 
and trimmed at the hem with a wide 
flounce of fine yellow lace caught up at 
intervals with rosettes of white satin 
ribbon. The bodice of white silk is 
covered with yellow lace and finished 
at the neck and belt with white stain 
ribbon. 

French women make their most 
simple costumes very chic by wearing 
a hat in decided contrast of color, and 
all black hats trimmed with black 
feathers and loops of white tulle are 
worn with very light pink, blue, and 
white gowns. 

Black and white are certainly in 
fashion but in stripes and not in checks. 

The fullness in gigot sleeves is dis- 
posed in gathers or plaits at the shoul- 
ders, the distended effect being attained 
equally well by both modes of adjust- 
ment. 

In a charming blouse waist the pouch 
falls from pointed yoke, and the close 
back is relieved by a box plait. Box 
plaits are just now conspicuous attri- 
butes of blouses. 

The full sleeves should have the lining 
cut of the same size to insure them to 
lay in artistic folds. Inexperienced 
dressmakers do not realize what a 
dilTerence this will make to the fit and 
correct droop of the sleeves. 

The demand for shirt waists exceeds 
that of any other season on record, and 
they are made in a greater variety of 
materials than ever before, the latest 
of which is dimity, made up with white 
linen collars and cuffs. 



To be Read Aloud Quickly. 



As I was going down the street I saw 
two bootblacks. One was a black boot- 
black and the other a white bootblack, 
and both had black boots, as well as 
blacking and brushes. The black boot- 
black asked the white bootblack to 
black his, the black bootblack's black 
boots with blacking. The white boot- 
black consented to black the black 
boots of the black bootblack with black- 
ing, but when he, the white bootblack, 
had blacked one black boot of the black 
bootblack with blacking, he, the white 
bootblack, refused to black his, the 
black bootblack's, other black boot 
with blacking unless he, the black boot- 
black, paid him, the white bootblack, 
the same as what he, the white boot- 
black, got for blacking other people's 
black boots, whereupon the blaik boot- 
black grew still blacker in the face, call- 
ed the white bootblack a blackguard, 
at the same time hitting the white 
bootblack with the black boot that he, 
the white bootblack, had already black- 
ed with blacking. 

The poor drunkard lay in the gutter, 
while the thoughtless crowd jeered. 

Along came the good-hearted citizen 
and placed the unfortunate in a stand- 
ing position. 

" Ah," said the crowd, " he has been 
there himself." 

So shines a good deed in a naughty 
world. — Indianapolis Journal. 

Great Pugilist — If he means busi- 
ness, if there is any fight in him, if he 
wants to fight me here, he must be 
here on the 10th — 

President Athletic Club — Why on 
the 10th?" 

Great Pugilist — Because I leave here 
on the 8th ! — Cleveland Plain Dealer. 



DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 

Hints to Housekeepers. 



Domestic Hints. 



Vaseline makes the best dressing for 
russet shoes. 

Moderately strong salt and water 
taken by the teaspoonful at intervals 
is a cure for catarrhal cold. 

A level teaspoonful of boracic acid 
dissolved in a pint of freshly boiled 
water and applied cool is the best wash 
for inflamed sore eyes or granulated 
lids, and an excellent gargle for inflam- 
ed sore throat. 

Soft newspaper is excellent to cleanse 
windows or any glassware. 

Cold tea cleanses paint better than 
soap and water unless the paint is 
white, when milk is better. 

If meat is tough, or if you have any 
doubt of its tenderness, put a table- 
spoonful of vinegar over it when put 
on to cook ; you will find it very tender 
when done. 

Sweetmeats, such as jellies, jams, 
and pound for pound preserves, must 
be saved for luncheon or dinner, and 
spiced fruits, as a rule, do not belong 
on the breakfast table ; but a glass of 
cool fruit juice is refreshing in the 
morning, and decoys one through the 
doubtful pleasure of eating bread and 
steak. 

If the hair is thin and dry rub well 
two or three times a week with a 
mixture of sixty grains of quinine. For 
cleanliness wash it over twice a month 
with good tar soap, and wipe occasion- 
ally with a damp towel. 

It is advisable that one should have 
one petticoat to be used exclusively 
for walk!:ig, and this may be faced for 
some distance from the bottom with a 
waterproof cloth. There will then be 
almost perfect protection for the feet 
and ankles in wet weather. It is the 
swishing of damp clothes about the feet 
that constitutes most of the discomfort 
of a rainy-day expedition, and the water- 
proof lining does away with this. 

Fighting Flies. 



"Will you celebrate the Fourth of 
July ? " she asked of the young surgeon 
who has a future. 

" No," he replied; "I celebrate the 
5th." — Washington Star. 



Housekeepers are always glad of any 
information which will help them to con- 
quer those enemies of their summer's 
peace — flies. Here are two items 
which experience has proved of use in 
the battle. 

We all know how flies settle upon a 
screen door in rainy weather, or upon 
those of the kitchen in any weather, 
waiting for au apportunity to slip in as 
soon as it is opened. If a cloth dipped 
in kerosene is rubbed over the outer 
side of the wire and frame of the screen, 
the flies will not settle upon it. They 
do Tiot like kerosene. One application 
will usually prove effectual for several 
days. 

The other agent — oil of lavender — is 
for the purpose of disposing of such of 
the enemy as have already gained an 
entrance to the house. 

Darken all the windows but one. 
The flies will soon congregate upon 
that, for flies enjoy sunshine as 
thoroughly as moths detest it. Now 
with au atomizer spray the window 
casing with the oil of lavender, and 
either leave the open bottle upon the 
sill or saturate a small cloth with 
some of it. The flies will soon become 
stupified and then can be brushed down 
and disposed of. If an atomizer is not 
at hand, rub the casing with the sat- 
urated cloth. It is also a good plan to 
rub the oil over any place that the flies 
particularly like to light upon. The 
hanging lamp has often a great 
attraction for them, but if the shade 
and chains are rubbed over with the 
oil they will not light upon it. 



Almond Frosting.— Almond frosting 
makes a delicious addition to a loaf of 
white cake. Beat the whites of two 
eggs to a stiff froth, stir in a half pound 
of powdered sugar and a quarter of a 
pound of almonds, blanched and powder- 
ed to a paste. Flavor with orange 
flower water, and, if you choose, a few 
drops of almond extract. 

To Warm Over Mutton.— Cut some 
nice slices of cold roast mutton, season 
slightly with pepper and salt, and broil 
quickly. Put the slices on a hot platter 
while you make the following sauce or 
gravy: Put one tablespoonful each of 
butter, currant jelly and sherry into a 
saucepan, stir until the jelly is melted 
and the sauce is thoroughly hot, when 
pour over the slices of mutton and 
serve at once. 

How To Cook Peas.— Peas should be 
carefully picked over but not washed, 
as in washing them that Httle sweet 
stem that connects the pea to the pod 
is lost. Put them into fresh boiling 
water and boil them thirty minutes. 
Then drain them in a colander, put 
them into a hot dish and season with 
plenty of sweet, fresh butter, a little 
salt and if you choose, a little pepper, 
and put the dish of peas in the oven 
for not over two minutes. 

Chicken Curry.— One good-sized 
chicken, one tablespoonful of salt, two 
small onions, one heaping teaspoonful 
of curry powder, three eggs, half a cup 
of rice, one bay leaf, two sprigs of 
parsley, a sprig of thyme, two table- 
spoonfuls of butter and one of flour, the 
juice of half a lemon. Singe and draw 
the fowl, and cut it into pieces, the 
same as for a frica.ssee ; put the chicken 
in just boiling water enough to cover 
it, and add the salt, parsley, bay leaf 
and thyme. Fry the onions in one 
tablespoonful of butter, and when ten- 
der add them to the chicken. Let the 
chicken simmer slowly three-quarters 
of an hour, or until tender. Then take 
it up and set it in a warm place. There 
should be about a pint of broth rema n- 
ing in the saucepan, and this should be 
strained and returned to the pan. Put 
the remaining tablespooful of butter 
into a saucepan, and when it has melted 
stir in a generous tablespoonful of 
flour, making a smooth paste and being 
careful not to brown. Stir this into the 
strained broth and add the curry 
powder. Simmer for fifteen minutes. 
Draw the saucepan to the back of the 
stove and stir in slowly the eggs which 
have been mixed with the lemon juice. 
The broth must not boil after the eggs 
are added, but must be thoroughly 
stirred and poured at once over the 
pieces of chicken and the platter. The 
rice in the meantime should have been 
boiled and drained in a colander, and 
should now be heaped in a border 
around the chicken. The amount of 
curry used in this receipt gives a deli- 
cate flavor ; if a stronger flavor is 
preferred use a tablespoonful of curry. 
All delicate meats and fish are suitable 
for curry. Chicken, veal, lamb, sweet 
breads, lobsters and oysters are more 
often servedwith curry than anything 
J else. 

Sunday School Boy — Isn't there lots 
I of Ufe in ginger, teacher ? 
] Teacher — Yes. 

"And bread is supposed to be the 
I staff of life, teacher ? " 
j " Yes, my boy." 

I " Well, then, it has occurred to me 
j that perhaps Methuselah lived on 
I gingerbread." — Yonkers Statesman. 

j Spirits of turpentine is the thing 
I with which to cleanse and brighten 
I patent leather. 



Highest of all in Leavening Power. — Latest U. S. Gov't Report 




76 



The Pacific Rural Press 



August 3, 1895. 



The Wheel. 



A wheel is a contrivance to utilize 
some of the principles of motion of a 
ball or sphere. 

A ball or sphere moves upon a level 
surface easier than any other form of 
solid matter. This is because its center 
of gravity is not changed in its prog- 
ress. If a ball moves upon a level 
surface its center of gravity describes 
a line parallel to its surface. If a ball 
is balanced in every direction when it 
is at rest, the power required to set 
it in motion is just enough to un- 
balance it. Like a pair of scales 
balanced with a ton weight on each end 
of the beam, a few ounces added to 
either end will move them. 

A carriage wheel in principle is a 
slice from the center of a ball. So 
long as such a wheel moves uprightly 
upon its rim, it has the facility of a 
ball to move in two directions only. 
To keep it in this position an axle is 
put through its center. This adds 
friction to it and also shortens the 
leverage by which it is propelled, from 
its rim to its center. 

A carriage wheel has to do duty 
generally upon a common road. A 
wheel sinks some in the loose material 
upon the surface which it has to sur- 
mount in its progress. This is called 
traction or rolling friction. 

The rubbing of two substances to- 
gether causes friction. It is the re- 
sistance to the motion of one substance 
bearing upon another. It increases 
with the weight or presence of objects 
at their frictional contact, but not 
with the extension of the frictional sur- 
faces. 

If four blocks of wood or other ma- 
terial of one kind and of a similar 
weight be placed one upon the top of 
the other and dragged upon a board or 
other smooth surface, and the weight 
or force noted that is required to pull 
them, then if the same four blocks are 
spread side by side and dragged upon 
the same surface, it will be found that 
the same weight or force will pull them, 
showing that if the surface in frictional 
contact be extended, but the pressure 
upon them not increased, the resistance 
called friction is not increased. This 
law applies to axles. 

Friction does not increase with the 
size of an axle, but a wheel loses power 
or leverage with such increase, also by 
increased weight. 

The actual friction going on within 
an axle box is more than eight per 
cent, because we have not taken into 
consideration the rubbing of the wash- 
ers on the axle end and collar and the 
gather of the axle; but as these are so 
little in good running wagons, they 
may be neglected. 

Traction, or the resistance to the 
progress of a wheel upon a macad- 
amized road has been practically proved 
to be about one thirtieth of the load. 
The power required to move 500 
pounds would be seventeen pounds 
upon a good hard road; therefore a 
horse will be required to pull at the 
rate of 40 + 17 = 57 pounds to draw 
500 pounds on free running wheels. 

If an obstacle, say four inches high, 
be in the way of a " four-foot " wheel, 
the center of gravity will have to be 
raised four inches to overcome it. The 
lever to do this with is just half the 
height of the wheel, viz., two feet. 
This lever is of the third order of 
levers — that of having the power come 
between the load — which is lifted, not 
pried, and the fulcrum. Neglecting 
any momentum the wagon may have, 
and calling it a dead lift, by the law of 
virtual velocities, " the power multi- 
plied by the distance it moves virti- 
cally or in a right line equals the load 
or weight multiplied by the distance it 
moves virtically or in a right line. " 

Now, by adding the friction of the 
axles and traction — found to be 57 
pounds — to 158, we have 215 pounds, 
which is the force a horse will require 
to exert to haul 500 pounds up such a 
slope of a macadamized road. This 
500 pounds means all that bears upon 
the axle boxes; that is, the total 
weight of wagon and load minus the 
weight of the wheels. 

That the part of a carriage wheel 



above the axle moves faster or through 
more space than the part below it is 
because this kind of a wheel is a lever 
of the third order. Such a lever has 
the power applied between the weight, 
which is to be pushed, pulled or lifted, 
and the fulcrum, the same as in raising 
a ladder. Imagine two spokes in a 
line to be a ladder, the lower end on 
the ground, the force on hand being 
used at the hub, the front on the 
ground, which is the fulcrum, remains 
stationary, while the upper end moves 
through a space which will be double 
the distance that the middle or hub 
goes. The rim being endless, each 
point as it touches the ground becomes 
a new fulcrum. A carriage wheel is 
thus called a perpetual lever of the 
third order. 



Horse Owners! Try 

GOIVIBAULT'S 




Caustic 
Balsam 



A Suh Speedy and Positi?e f nra 
The Sufcut, Beat BLISTER ever used. Takes 
the place of all liniiiienis for mild or severe action. 
Itcmoves all Bunoho'* or Blemishes from Homes 
and ( little. SUPERSEDES ALL CAUTERY 
OR FIRING' liiipi'ssilile lo I'mduce si-arur blemish. 

Every bottle solil is w!irraiil<''l to civo satisfaction 
Price $1.50 per i)ottie. Koid bv dru^Kists, or 
oent by express, chamoi paid, with fulldirecttooa 
for its use. Send for descriptive circulars/ 
THE LAWIIENCE-WII.T-IAMS CO., Cleveland O. 



ONE MAN P P P 
30 TONS. 

In addition to the regular drying-ground force 
one man can, with the PaeiHo Prune Perforator, 
clean antl perforate the skins of thirty tons of 
fresh prunes or any other fruit In a day, the work 
all being done on the drying ground or in the 
orchard. No fuel; no tire; no lye; no hot water; 
but little cold water; no bloaters. It is by far the 
cheapest machine on the market and equal to the 
best. Four sizes. Send for circular to 

Sperry Wire Works, 



715 nission Street 



5an FrancLsco. 




There Must Be 
Something In It 

remarked a frisky yonne horse as he picked 
himself up after a brief arirument with our 
COILKU SPRING FENCif>;. Every liivcstl- 
pator I'omes to the same <:(>ni'ltisii)n and ad- 
mits the truth of our claim for Kla.sUt'it}'. 

PAGE WOVEN WIRE FENCE CO., Adrian, Mich, 




CABLED POULTRY and GARDEN FENCE. 

Also ( Vil.lecl Kielil Hor Ki ncing, .Slii'l Web Picket 
Lawn KriicG. steel Wire Fence Ituard, Steel (intes. Steel 
Posts, Sieel Rail, Tree, Flower and Tomato Guards. 
Catalogue Free. 

DeKalb Fence Co. ,73 High St., DeKalb, III, 

JOHN WOODLOCK, General Agent, 

26 Beale .Street San Kranrlsco, Cal. 



At 4- Price 



CoI.UmlBilf^rWftlrhfS Wlrrelea, 
'i rirvrl*-*. (.uiilsu'l PUml-., ( arrt. 




Ouh l)rawr>r% 

lawn Mowf r% 
Cora Hh^1|or4» 
Panntnc Mills 
Onin DomTt*. 

RiTiil for frfn 

Ul Bo. JeffersoD 



AfroM^ons, Orrftniy Pliinot, CIdfr nilliy 
(Wi] MUla, Sr^vM, Kctdct, Bone Hlllt, 
j!i<-fc «:rr^wl^ TnifV*, AnriU, Hnvrntten, 
( npj rtonks Vl*^«, Drills F<*ad I'lowt, 
<v.fT#* SlilU, l.n)h»»s Bcniler*. nampCurti, 
Ifnnil <'nrts F<ire^«. B4>riiprr«,WIr» Fpim, 
Urtnr^rs Fntinf*, Raws Pl^*lSlnk«, 
Trow tti\r*f Bnllcrf, TonU, BU Bn»*-*i, 
RAl'.-oaJ, I'rrt(r<>rmBn(l(-nnDl«-r HCAtESa 

Bt.. CHIOAQOBCALECO., Chicago, Xll* 



ALMOND HULLERS 




Results prove conclusively that by the use of fertilizers 
rich in potash the crops of ^ 

Wheat and Rye 

and all winter crops are largely increased and the soil is positively enriched. 
We will cheerfully mail our pamphlets on Potash, its Use and Abuse on the 
TiTm,/ree of Cosi, They will cost you nothing to read, and will save you dullar». 

GERMAN KALI WORKS, 93 Nassau Street, New York. 





MEYEK, WILSON & CO., 210 Battery St., San Francisco, Sole Agents for the Pacific Coast. 



ALEXANDER & HAMMON, 

RIO BONITO NURSERIES, Biggs, Butte Co., Cal. 



DECIDUOUS R R U I X TREES 

OUR SF»ECIrtl_TY. 

The most Complete Assortment of General Nursery Stock grown on tbe Pacific Coast. 



1,000,000 Trees for the Season of 1894-95 in Stock. 

W Acknowledged everywhere to be equal to the best. Guaranteed lo be healthy and free from 
cale or other pests. 

Send for Calalogue and Prices. Correspondence solicited. Address : 

Alexander & Hammon, 

BliZSCS« Butte County, Cal. 




WRIT E 
FOR 
CATALOGUE 
XO. 1.5. 



JacksorTs 

Cross -Compound Engines and'^^^^Whirlpool" Centrifu§:al Pumps 

FOR EVERY DUTY .VXD CAPACI TY 

BYROrsi JACK-SOIN mMCH IINE WORKS. 

625 Sixth Street 5an. Francisco. 




P. & B. FRUIT DRYING PAPER. 

★★★★FIFTH SEASON. ★★★★ 



UNEQUALED FOR DRYING RAISINS AND PRUNES! 

If you have not used it, TJRY IX I 



SAMPLES AND CIRCULARS FURNISHED ON APPLICATION. 

PARAFFINE PAINT CO. 

116 Battery Street .'^an Francisco 

STANDA^D^ GOODS 



.ZI/V\/VIER/V\«1N R U I T E\/rt F«0 R TO RS : 
Blymv^*' Churc-h, School and F^Ire Bells; L-eader \A/lnd- 
mllls; INon-ShrlnltIng lA/ater Tanks: 

.FOLDING SMW/IING /VI « C H I IN E S : 'v'x^^'^'n^^ 

Cider /V\llls: \A/lne Presses: Crape Crushers: 

Sorghum, Coffee, Rice and Butcher Wlachinery; 
Centrifugal Pumps, \/anduzene Steam Jet Pumps, 
S-yf3Y\onm, Etc 
Write for Descriptive Catalogue of the Goods you need to 

JAMES LINFOKTH, 37 Market Street, Sao Francisco, Gal., Importer and Manufacturer's Agent. 



A. O. RIX, 



For Sale by 

IrvinEton, Alameda County, Cal. 



Olive Trees. 

ALL KINDS OF NURSERY STOCK. Send fo 
our Book on Olive Culture. 

Hovi/land Bros., 

POMONA, CAL. 

iC^oEr;WELLMACHINERYwork,. 

' li kin.'« ..r t"ol.-. Kuri uiu- lor iJiL-driller >>y unlnff our 
.\ii!iinniilirit- proCfsK; can takf a core. Perfected Kc«»nf>»D- 
irni Art<^laa Piimpinsr RIsth to work be steam, Air, etc. 

uitbelpTou. THE AMEHICAN WELLWOBKB, 
Aarorft, t\\.\ Chlcsffo, Ill.i Dallai, Tex. 



TREE - \A//\SH. 

Olive. Dip. 

"Greenbank" Powdered Caustic 
Soda and Pure Potash. 

T. VA/. J/\CK.SOIN «fc CO. 
Hole AgentR. - - No. 226 Market Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO. CAL. 

WACON AND a I 

PLATFORM ^^Jll^l^^ 

HOOKER & CO. 



August 3, 1895. 



The Pacific 



Rural Press. 



77 



S. F. MARKET REPORT. 



Market Review. 

SAN Francisco, July 31, 1895. 

FLOUR We quote : Net casli prices for Family 

Extras, $3 35@3 45 1? bbl; Bakers' Extras, 25® 
J3 35; Superfine, $2 35@2 60 ^ bbl. 

WHEAT— No. 1 Shipping Wheat is quotable at 
93^c per ctl tor No. 1 and 95c for choice. Mill- 
ing Wheat, $1@$1 02V2 per ctl. 

BARLEY— Feed, fair to good, 61'4c; choice, 
62Hc ; Brewing, 70@75c. 

OATS — We quote: Milling, 95c ©$1 05; Sur- 
prise, JKffil 10; fancy teed, 97V4c(a)$l ; good to 
choice, 85@90c; poor to fair, 75@80c; Black, 
nominal; Gray, 80@.82i4c 9 ctl. 

CORN— We quote : Large Yellow, ¥1 12i4@l 15; 
small Yellow, $1 15@1 17'/j 1* ctl; White, SKgi 
$1 10. 

RYE— Quotable at 80c ctl for New, and 90c 
for Old. 

BUCKWHEAT— Quotable at 87^@90c * ctl. 

CRACKED CORN— Quotable at $25 f, ton. 

CORNMEAL— Millers quote fe-d at $24(325 per 
ton; fine kinds for the table in large or small 
packages, 3@3Hc per ft. 

OILCAKE MEAL— Quotable at $25 per ton from 
the mill. Jobbing lots, $27 50. 

COTTON SEED OILCAKE— Quotable at $24 
per ton. 

MIDDLINGS— Quotable at $16 50(».18 50 * ton. 

BRAN— Quotable at $12@13 |» ton. 

GROUND BA RLEY— Quotable at $14 TP ton. 

VARIOUS— We quote: Rye Flour, S^c; Rye 
Meal, 3c; Graham Flour, .3c; Oatmeal, 4Mc; Oat 
Groats. 5c; Cracked Wheat, 3!4c; Buckwheat 
Flour, 4V^c; Pearl Barley, 4ii(g:iUc. 

HAY— Wheat, $7@10; Wheat and Oat, $7@10; 
Oat, $5 50'»7 50; Alfalfa, $5 50@7 50; Barley, $5® 
$7; Clover," $6@7 50; Compressed, $7@9; Stock, 85® 
6 V ton. 

STRAW— Quotable at 25®40c bale. 

BEANS— We quote as follows : Bayos, II 35 
©1 50; Butter, $2@2 25 for small and $2 25® 
2 50 for large; Pink, $1 2.5® 1 40; Red, $1 
@1 25; Lima, $5 50@6; Pea, $2 60®2 80; Small 
White, «2 70@2 90; Large White, $2 60@$2 80; 
Blackeye, $2 25@3; Horse, $1 2,5@1 iO ^ ctl. 

SEEDS— We quote: Mustard seeds, nominal; 
Canary, 3i4@3'/jc; Hemp, 3'/2c; Rape, lM®2Mc; 
Alfalfa, 7c f« ft; Flax, $2 25@2 50® * ctl. 

POTATOES— Early Rose, 50®60c ^ ctl in sacks; 
Salinas Burbanks, 8O@-90c f> ctl and 40®65c f, ctl 
tor River Burbanks in sacks; Sweet Potatoes, $225 
@2 50 ctl. 

ONIONS— Quotable at 55®75c * ctl. 

GREEN CORN— Berkeley, small crates, 6.5®75c ; 
Alameda, large crates, $1 50®2; Sack corn, 50®75c. 

VARIOUS — We quote: Bay Squash, large 
box, 30@45c; Cucumbers, Bay, 10®25c Ift box; 
Pickles, 50@60c per box for No. 1 and 25®35c for 
No. 2; Tomatoes, —ft — ; Bay, large box. 40@75c; 
String Beans, 2@4c ^ ft; Green Peas, 2®2(4c "# 
ft for garden; Green Peppers, 20@40c for Chile, 
50(S'60c for Bell; Egg Plant, 50®75c IP box; Green 
Okra, 50c®$l ^ box; Turnips, .50c V ctl; Beets, 50c 
Vsack; Carrots, 50c; Cabbage, 7.5c 1* ctl; Garlic, 
3@3y2C'pft; Cauliflower, 50@75c dozen; Dried 
Peppers, 13®15c ft. 

FRESH FRUIT— Apples— No. 1 grades 35®50o fi 
box for Green and .'j0®75c box tor Red. No 2 
grades, 20®35c box. Crab Apples, aO@30c box. 

Apricots— Quotable at 25@50c per box, and $20® 
25 * ton. 

Berries — Strawberries, Sharpless, $2®3 per 
chest; Longworth, $3@5; Raspberries, $3@5 
chest; Blackberries, $1@2 f, chest; Huckleberries, 
3@5c IS^ ft. 

Canteloupes —Quotable at 75c@$l 75 crate. 
Nutmeg melons, 50@75c a box. 

Currants— Black Currants, 40@50c ^ drawer. 

Figs— Black, double layers, $1@1.25; single 
layers, 50®75c Tf< box. 

Grapes— Quotable at 40@50c f. box for black, 
30® 45c for soft white varieties, and 50@6.5c for 

Nectarines— Quotable at 30@50c box for white 
and 5f}®70c for red. 

Plums— Quotable at 30®40c. Prunes, 35®e0c; 
Japanese Plums, 50@75c crate. 

Pears— Bartlett, 50c®$l a box for No. 1 and 40® 
60c for No. 2 grades. 

Peaches— Quotable at 20@40c in boxes and 20®35e 
in baskets. 

Watermelons— Quotable at $8®12 ^ hundred. 

CITRUS FRUIT — We quote: California Navels, 
$1@2; Seedlings, .50@75c; Mexican Limes, $3@4 
^ box; California Lemons, $1 50@2 for com- 
mon and $2 50@3 per box for good to choice. 

HONEY— We quote : Comb, 10@,l2c; water-white, 
extracted, 5@5V4c; light amber, extracted, 5c; 
dark amber, 4@4!4c V 

BEESWAX— Quotable at 24®25c 1^ lb. 

BUTTER— Creamery— Fancy, 15® 16c; seconds, 
1314®14c 1* ft. Dairy— Fancy, 13@15o; fair to 
choice, 10@12!4c; store lots, nominal. 

CHEESE— We quote: Choice to fancy, 5H@6c; 
fair to good, 5e; Eastern. ll@12i/tc^ft. 

EGGS— Quotable at 12@14c dozen for store 
and 17® 19c for ranch; Eastern, 12@14c. 

POULTRY — We quote as follows : Live Turkeys 
— Gobblers, 14@15c; Hens, I4@15c ^ ft; Roosters, 
$4 50@5 for old, and $3 50@5 for young; Broilers, 
$1 50@2 50 for small and $2®3 for large; Hens, 
$4@5 .50; Ducks, $3@ 3 25 for old and $2 50@5 for 
young; Geese, $1@1 25 Impair; Goslings, $1@1 25; 
Pigeons, $1 12H®1 25 ^ dozen tor old and young. 

WOOL— We quote spring : 

Year's fleece, San Joaquin, ^ ft 6@6i4c 

6 to 8 months do 6@8c 

6 to 8 months Calaveras and foothill, free — 8@10c 

Do. defective • .6®8c 

Northern, good tochoice 12@13'/5c 

Do. defect! ve 8® 10c 

We quote Nevada spring: 

Light and choice 9@llc 

Heavy 6@8c 

HOPS— Quotable at 4@6c 1* ft. 

HIDES AND SKINS— Quotable as follows: 

Sound. Culls. 
Heavy Steers, 56 lbs up, * lb. . .10y2@llc 9y2®10 

Medium Steers. 48 to 56 lbs 9!4®10 — @9 

Light, 42 to 47 pounds 9 @— — @8 

Cows, over 50 lbs 9 @— — ®8 

Light Cows, 30 to 50 lbs ;..9 @— — @8 

Stags — ®7 — @5 

Kips, 17 to 30 lbs — @7 — @6 

Veal Skins, 10 to 17 lbs — ®8 — @7 

Calf skins, 5 to 10 lbs -@10 — @9 

Dry Hides, over 16 lbs 19 ®19H 14 @14^ 

Dry Kips and Veal, 11 to 16 lbs. .14 @15 10 ®— 

Dry Calf, under 4 lbs — ®20 14 @I5 

Pelts, Shearlings, 10®20c each; do, short, 25@35c 
each; do, medium, 30@45c each; do, long wool. 40® 
60c each; Deer Skins, summer, .30c; do, good medium, 
15@25c; do, winter. 10®I.5c 1* ft; Goat Skins, 20® 
35c a piece for prime to perfect, 10@80c tQV dam- 
pged, fmCl&cpachfprKids. . . 



Review of the Dried Fruit Marlcet 



San Francisco, July 31, 1895. 
Apricots. 

There is a slight lull in the movement of 
Apricots, but it is a quietness that sometimes 
prevails before a strong movement. It is yet 
too early to make any large shipments of Apri- 
cots into the Eastern States, as they would 
undoubtedly arrive there in the vyarm weather 
and be forced to go into cold storage. Lead- 
ing operators look for a large demand about 
the first of September, and some confidently 
predict that Apricots will touch from 10 to 12c. 
Peaches. 

Some sales of strictly choice unpeeled 
Peaches have been made all the way from :>y^ 
to 6c per pound, September shipment. 

Are being freely offered at 4/4 to 4!;^c for the 
four sizes. At the present moment the latter 
price prevails. Claims of a short prune crop 
are being stringently made by leading agents 
of California growers in the Eastern States, 
who fear another stock-jobbing operation on 
the part of holders of French prunes, holdeis 
minimizing the coming crop there, with a view 
of inducing California holders to raise their 
prices and thus make it possible to largely im- 
port foreign prunes this coming season. 

I'ears. 

There will be very few dried this year, and 
those dried will undoubtedly command good 
prices. 

Respecting other lines of goods, there is 
nothing to report, there being no changes 
since last week. 



THE WORLD'S WASHER. 

The regular weekly laundry work of the 
average housekeeper assumes great propor- 
tions when considered for a moment. It 
means fully one-fifth of all the housework in 
most families. Most people found it great 




drudgery until they procured the World's 
Washer, manufactured by Mr. C. E. Ross, 
Lincoln, 111. This is a genuine labor saver 
and preserves the clothes too. Many good 
men and women are doing well selling this 
washer, and Mr. R. offers liberal inducsments 
to many others. An illustration appears in 
our columns. 



List of U. S. Patents for Pacific 
Coast Inventors. 



Reported by Dewey & Co., Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific Coast. 



FOR WBEK ENDING JULY 16, 1895. 

542,920 —Rotary Engine— D. Berry, Fish Rock, 
Cal. 

542,701.— BITUMINOUS Rock Machine — E. F. 

Badgley, S. F. 
542,821.— Hop-trellis— Boughton & Briggs, Cly- 

mer. Or. 

542.796. — Coin Receptacle— A. W. Coffin, S. F. 

542.797. — Ash and Soot Pan— H. Colman, S. F. 

542.798. — Faucbt—W. Curlett. S. F. 

542.730. — Animal Trap— C. F